William Harrison Frist is an American physician and politician. He began his career as a lung transplant surgeon, he served two terms as a Republican United States Senator representing Tennessee. He was the Senate Majority Leader from 2003 to 2007. Born in Nashville, Frist studied health care policy at Princeton University and interned for Congressman Joe L. Evins. Rather than going directly into politics, Frist earned a Doctor of Medicine degree from Harvard Medical School, becoming a surgeon at Massachusetts General Hospital and several other hospitals. In 1994, he defeated incumbent Democratic Senator Jim Sasser, pledged to only serve two terms. After serving as Chairman of the National Republican Senatorial Committee, Frist succeeded Tom Daschle as the Senate Majority Leader. Frist helped pass several parts of President George W. Bush's domestic agenda, including the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003 and PEPFAR, he was a strong proponent of the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act and a prominent advocate of tort reform.
Frist left the Senate in 2007. Since leaving Congress, he has remained active in public life and has taught at several universities. Frist was born in Nashville, the son of Dorothy Frist and Thomas Fearn Frist, Sr, he is a fourth-generation Tennessean. His great-great-grandfather was one of the founders of Chattanooga and his father was a doctor and founded the health care business organization which became Hospital Corporation of America. Frist's brother, Thomas F. Frist, Jr. became chairman and chief executive of Hospital Corporation of America in 1997. Frist graduated from Montgomery Bell Academy in Nashville, from Princeton University in 1974, where he specialized in health care policy at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. In 1972, he held a summer internship with Tennessee Congressman Joe L. Evins, who advised Frist that if he wanted to pursue a political career, he should first have a career outside politics. Frist proceeded to Harvard Medical School, where he received the degree of Doctor of Medicine with honours in 1978.
While at Harvard, he shared an apartment with David Wu. Frist joined the lab of W. John Powell Jr. at Massachusetts General Hospital in 1977, where he continued his training in cardiovascular physiology. He left the lab in 1978 to become a resident in surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital. In 1983, he spent time at Southampton General Hospital, England as a senior registrar in cardiothoracic surgery, he returned to Massachusetts General in 1984 as chief fellow in cardiothoracic surgery. From 1985 until 1986, Frist was a senior fellow and chief resident in cardiac transplant service and cardiothoracic surgery at the Stanford University School of Medicine. After completing his fellowship, he became a faculty member at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, where he began a heart and lung transplantation program, he became a staff surgeon at the Nashville Veterans Administration Hospital. In 1989, he founded the Vanderbilt Transplant Center. In 1991, Frist operated on then–Lieutenant Colonel David Petraeus after he had been shot in a training accident at Fort Campbell.
He is licensed as a physician, is board certified in both general surgery and thoracic surgery. He has performed over 150 heart transplants and lung transplants, including pediatric heart transplants and combined heart and lung transplants. In 1990, Frist met with former Senate Majority Leader Howard Baker about the possibilities of public office. Baker advised him to pursue the Senate, in 1992 suggested that Frist begin preparations to run in 1994. Frist began to build support, he served on Tennessee's Governor's Medicaid Task Force from 1992 to 1993, joined the National Steering Committee of the Republican National Committee's Health Care Coalition, was deputy director of the Tennessee Bush-Quayle 1992 campaign. During the 1994 election, Frist promised not to serve for more than two terms, he accused his opponent, incumbent Senator Jim Sasser, of "sending Tennessee money to Washington, DC", said, "While I've been transplanting lungs and hearts to heal Tennesseans, Jim Sasser has been transplanting Tennesseans' wallets to Washington, home of Marion Barry."
During the campaign he criticized Sasser for trying to become Senate Majority Leader, claiming that his opponent would be spending more time taking care of Senate business than Tennessee business. Frist won the election, defeating Sasser by 13 points in the 1994 Republican sweep of both Houses of Congress, thus becoming the first physician in the Senate since June 17, 1938, when Royal S. Copeland died. In his 2000 reelection campaign, Frist won with 66 percent of the vote, he received the largest vote total by a statewide candidate. Frist's 2000 campaign organization was fined by the Federal Election Commission for failing to disclose a $1.44 million loan taken out jointly with the 1994 campaign organization. Frist first entered the national spotlight when two Capitol police officers were shot inside the United States Capitol by Russell Eugene Weston Jr. in 1998. Frist, the closest doctor, provided immediate medical attention, he was the Congressional spokesman during the 2001 anthrax attacks.
As the chairman of the National Republican Senatorial Committee, he helped Republicans win back the Senate in the 2002 midterm election. His committee collected $66.4 million for 2001–2002, 50% more than the previous year. Shortly afterwards, Senator Trent Lott made comments at a Strom Thurmond birthday celebration in which he
Midland is a city in and the county seat of Midland County, United States, on the Southern Plains of the state's western area. A small portion of the city extends into Martin County. At the 2010 census, the population of Midland was 111,147, a 2015 estimate gave a total of 132,950, making it the twenty-fourth most populous city in the state of Texas. Due to the oil boom in Midland, certain officials have given population estimates above 155,000, it is the principal city of the Midland, Texas Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Midland County, the population of which grew 4.6 percent, between July 1, 2011 and July 1, 2012, to 151,662 according to the U. S. Census Bureau; the metropolitan area is a component of the larger Midland−Odessa, Texas Combined Statistical Area, which had an estimated population of 295,987 on July 1, 2012. People in Midland are called Midlanders. Midland was founded as the midway point between Fort Worth and El Paso on the Texas and Pacific Railroad in 1881.
It is the hometown of former First Lady Laura Bush, the onetime home of former Presidents George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush, former First Lady Barbara Bush. Midland was established in June 1881 on the Texas and Pacific Railway, it earned its name because of its central location between Fort Worth and El Paso, but because there were other towns in Texas by the name of Midway, the city changed its name to Midland in January 1884 when it was granted its first Post Office. Midland became the county seat of Midland County in March 1885, when that county was first organized and separated from Tom Green County. By 1890, it had become one of the most important cattle shipping centers in the state; the city was incorporated in 1906, by 1910 the city established its first fire department, along with a new water system. Midland was changed by the discovery of oil in the Permian Basin in 1923 when the Santa Rita No. 1 well began producing in Reagan County, followed shortly by the Yates Oil Field in Iraan.
Soon, Midland was transformed into the administrative center of the West Texas oil fields. During the Second World War, Midland was the largest bombardier training base in the country. A second boom period began after the war, with the discovery and development of the Spraberry Trend, still ranked as the third-largest oil field in the United States by total reserves, yet another boom period took place during the 1970s, with the high oil prices associated with the oil and energy crises of that decade. Today, the Permian Basin produces one fifth of natural gas output. Midland's economy still relies on petroleum. By August 2006, a busy period of crude oil production had caused a significant workforce deficit. According to the Midland Chamber of Commerce, at that time there were 2,000 more jobs available in the Permian Basin than there were workers to fill them. John Howard Griffin wrote a history of Midland in 1959, Land of the High Sky. In 1967, the U. S. Supreme Court heard the case of Midland County.
Midland mayor Hank Avery had sued Midland County, challenging the electoral-districting scheme in effect for elections to the County Commissioner's Court. The county districts geographically quartered the county, but the city of Midland, in the northwestern quarter, accounted for 97% of the county's population. A judge, elected on an at-large basis, provided a fifth vote, but the result was that the three rural commissioners, representing only three percent of the county's population, held a majority of the votes; the majority of the U. S. Supreme Court held that the districting inequality violated the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection clause; the dissenting minority held that this example of the Warren Court's policy of incorporation at the local-government level exceeded the Court's constitutional authority. Midland is located in the Permian Basin in the plains of West Texas. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 71.5 square miles, of which 71.3 square miles is land and 0.2 square mile is water.
Midland cool to mild winters. The city is subject to cold waves during the winter, but it sees extended periods of below-freezing cold. Midland receives 14.6 inches of precipitation per year, much of which falls in the summer. Highs exceed 90 °F on 101 days per year, 100 °F on 16 days. Nicknamed "The Tall City", Midland has long been known for its downtown skyline. Most of downtown Midland's major office buildings were built during a time of major Permian Basin oil and gas discoveries; the surge in energy prices in the mid-1980s sparked a building boom for downtown Midland. For many years, the 22-story Wilco Building in downtown Midland was the tallest building between Fort Worth and Phoenix. Today, the tallest is the 24-story Bank of America Building. Four buildings over 500 feet tall were planned in the 1980s, including one designed by architect I. M. Pei; the great oil bust of the mid-1980s killed any plans for future skyscrapers. A private development group was planning to build Energy Tower at City Center, proposed to stand at 870 feet tall with 59 floors.
If it had been built, it would have been Texas' sixth tallest building. At the 2010 census, 111,149 people, 41,268 households, 32,607 families resided in Midland; the population density was 1,558.9 people per square mile. There were 47,562 housing units at an average density of 667.1 per sq
University of Arkansas
The University of Arkansas is a public land-grant, research university in Fayetteville, Arkansas. It is the flagship campus of the University of Arkansas System and the largest, best-known university in the state. Founded as Arkansas Industrial University in 1871, its present name was adopted in 1899 and classes were first held on January 22, 1872, it is noted for its strong architecture, business, communication disorders, creative writing, history and Middle Eastern studies programs. Enrollment for the fall semester of 2017 was 27,558; the university campus consists of 378 buildings spread across 512 acres of land in Fayetteville, Arkansas. Some well known architecture on campus includes Old Main, the first permanent academic building erected. Academic programs are in excess of 200; the ratio of students to faculty is 19:1. The university received a combined total of $103.2 million in research awards for the 2017 fiscal year. UA's athletic teams, the Arkansas Razorbacks, compete in NCAA Division I as members of the Southeastern Conference with eight men's teams and eleven women's teams in thirteen sports.
The University is known for its traditions, including Calling the Hogs at sports events, Senior Walk, 3.5 miles of campus sidewalk etched with the names of all UA graduates since 1871. The University of Arkansas has a strong Greek life tradition, including the founding chapter of the Chi Omega sorority, the largest fraternity chapter in North America, Kappa Sigma; the University of Arkansas was founded in 1871 on the site of a hilltop farm that overlooked the Ozark Mountains, giving it the nickname "The Hill". The university was established under the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act of 1862; the university's founding satisfied the provision in the Arkansas Constitution of 1868 that the General Assembly was to "establish and maintain a State University."Bids from state towns and counties determined the university's location. The citizens of Fayetteville and Washington County. Pledged $130,000 toward securing the university, a sum that proved to be more than other offers; this was in response to the competition created by the Arkansas General Assembly's Organic Act of 1871, providing for the "location and maintenance of the Arkansas Industrial University with a normal department therein."
Classes started on January 22, 1872. Completed in 1875, Old Main, a two-towered brick building designed in the Second Empire style, was the primary instructional and administrative building, it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Its design was based on the plans for the main academic building at the University of Illinois, which has since been demolished. However, the clock and bell towers were switched at Arkansas; the northern taller tower is the bell tower, the southern shorter tower is the clock tower. One legend for the tower switch is that the taller tower was put to the north as a reminder of the Union victory during the Civil War. A second legend is that the contractor accidentally swapped the tower drawings after having had too much to drink. Although the southern tower was designed with clock faces, it did not hold a working clock until October 2005; the bell tower has always had some type of chime a bell, rung on the hour by student volunteers. Electronic chimes were installed in 1959.
In addition to the regular chimes of the clock, the university's Alma Mater plays at 5 pm every day. Old Main housed many of the earliest classes at the university, has served as the offices of every college within the university during its history. Today, in addition to hosting classes, it contains the restored Giffels Auditorium and historic displays, as well as the administrative offices of the J. William Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences; the lawn at Old Main serves as an arboretum, with many of the trees native to the state of Arkansas found on the lawn. Sitting at the edge of the lawn is Spoofer's Stone, a place for couples to meet and pass notes. Students play soccer and touch football on the lawn's open green. Beginning with the class of 1876, the names of students at University of Arkansas are inscribed in "Senior Walk" and wind across campus for more than five miles; the sidewalk is one of a kind nationally. More the names of all the recipients of honorary degrees were added, including such notables as J. Edgar Hoover, Queen Noor, President Bill Clinton, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.
One of the more unusual structures at Arkansas is the Chi Omega Greek Theatre, a gift to the school by the sorority's national headquarters. It marked the first time in the history of Greek letter social organizations that a national sorority had presented a memorial of its foundation to the institution where it was founded. Chi Omega was organized on April 5, 1895, at the University of Arkansas and is the mother chapter of the national organization; the theater has been used for commencements, concerts and pep rallies. The largest crowd assembled there – upwards of 6,000, according to professor Walter J. Lemke – was for a concert by the Army Air Corps Band during World War II. From 1934 to 1991, the space under the stage was used for a rifle range by the Army ROTC; the University of Arkansas became the first major Southern public university to admit an African-American student without litigation when Silas Herbert Hunt of Texarkana, an African American veteran of World War II, was admitted to the university's School of Law in 1948.
Roy Wilkins, administrator of the NAACP, wrote in 1950 that Arkansas was the "very first of the Southern states to accept the new trend without fighting a delaying act
Lieutenant Governor of Tennessee
The Lieutenant Governor and Speaker of the Senate of Tennessee is the presiding officer of the Tennessee Senate and first in line in the succession to the office of Governor of Tennessee in the event of the death, resignation, or removal from office through impeachment and conviction of the Governor of the State of Tennessee. Under the Tennessee State Constitution of 1870, the Speaker of the Senate is elected by the Tennessee State Senate from among its members; the full title of the office is Lieutenant Speaker of the Senate. The job is in theory a part-time one, paying $48,500 per year; the Lieutenant Governor as a member of the Tennessee Senate has a four-year term as a Senator but is subject to reelection by his peers with each new legislature. The current Lieutenant Governor is Randy McNally, elected to the post on January 10, 2017 and is the second Republican to hold the post since Reconstruction, he succeeded Ron Ramsey, who held the post continuously from 2007 to 2017. Since Tennessee became a state in 1796, four Speakers of the Senate have succeeded to the governorship: William Hall, who succeeded upon the resignation of Sam Houston.
S. Senate. Cox, who succeeded James B. Frazier, who resigned as governor after arranging his own appointment to the unexpired term of U. S. Senator William B. Bate, who had died in office. Under the Tennessee Constitution, in the event of succession the Speaker does not become "Acting Governor" or "Interim Governor," but assumes the title and full powers of the governorship, much as the Vice President of the United States becomes President upon the death, resignation or removal from office of the President. An important distinction is that if the Speaker becomes Governor during the first 18 months of the governor's four-year term, a special election for the balance of the term will be held at the next U. S. general election. If the Speaker becomes governor after the first 18 months of the term, the Speaker will serve the entire remainder of the term. In either case, any partial term counts toward the limit of two consecutive terms. For example, if the current Speaker, Randy McNally, had ascended to the governorship during the second term of Bill Haslam, he would have been eligible to run for a full term in 2018, but would have had to leave office in 2023.
However, this provision has not been put into practice since the gubernatorial term was extended to four years in 1953. List of lieutenant governors of Tennessee
Andrew Lamar Alexander Jr. is an American politician, serving as the senior United States Senator from Tennessee, a seat he has held since 2003. A member of the Republican Party, he was the 45th governor of Tennessee from 1979 to 1987 and the 5th United States Secretary of Education from 1991 to 1993. Born in Maryville, Alexander graduated from Vanderbilt University and the New York University School of Law. After establishing a legal career in Nashville, Alexander ran for Governor of Tennessee in 1974, but was defeated by Democrat Ray Blanton. Alexander ran for governor again in 1978, this time defeated his Democratic opponent, he won re-election in 1982 and served as chairman of the National Governors Association from 1985 to 1986. Alexander served as the president of the University of Tennessee from 1988 until 1991, when he accepted appointment as Secretary of Education under President George H. W. Bush. Alexander sought the presidential nomination in the 1996 Republican primaries, but withdrew before the Super Tuesday primaries.
He sought the nomination again in the 2000 Republican primaries, but dropped out after a poor showing in the Iowa Straw Poll. In 2002, Alexander won election to succeed retiring Senator Fred Thompson. Alexander defeated Congressman Ed Bryant in the Republican primary and Congressman Bob Clement in the general election, he served as Chairman of the Senate Republican Conference from 2007 to 2012. Alexander has served as chairman of the Senate Health, Education and Pensions Committee since 2015, he introduced the Every Student Succeeds Act, which supplanted the No Child Left Behind Act in 2015. On December 17, 2018, Alexander announced that he would not run for a fourth term in the Senate in 2020. Alexander was born and raised in Maryville, the son of Genevra Floreine, a preschool teacher, Andrew Lamar Alexander Sr. a high school principal. His family is of Scotch-Irish descent, he attended Maryville High School, where he was class president, was elected Governor of Tennessee Boys State U. S. Senator In 1962, Alexander graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Vanderbilt University with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Latin American studies.
He was a member of Sigma Chi. Alexander was the editor of The Vanderbilt Hustler, the primary student newspaper on campus, he advocated for the open admission of African Americans. At Vanderbilt, he was a member of the field team. In 1965, he obtained his Juris Doctor from the New York University School of Law. After graduating from law school, Alexander clerked for United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit Judge John Minor Wisdom in New Orleans, from 1965 to 1966. In 1967, Alexander worked as a Legislative Assistant for Senator Howard Baker. While a staffer, he was roommates with future U. S. Senator Trent Lott, met his future wife at a staffer softball game. In 1969, he worked for President Richard Nixon's executive assistant. In 1970, he moved back to Tennessee, serving as campaign manager for Memphis dentist Winfield Dunn's successful gubernatorial bid. Dunn was the first Republican in 50 years to win the governorship. After this campaign, Alexander co-founded and worked as a partner in the Nashville law firm of Dearborn and Ewing.
Meanwhile, Alexander rented a garage apartment to Thomas W. Beasley, a student at the Vanderbilt Law School who co-founded Corrections Corporation of America; the Tennessee State Constitution at the time prevented governors from serving consecutive terms, so with Dunn unable to run, Alexander sought the party's nomination for governor in 1974. He defeated his two chief opponents, Commissioner of Mental Health Nat T. Winston, Jr. and Southwestern Company president Dortch Oldham, 120,773 votes to 90,980 and 35,683, respectively. He faced the Democratic nominee, Ray Blanton, a former Congressman and unsuccessful 1972 senate candidate, in the general election. Blanton attacked Alexander for his service under Nixon, who had resigned in disgrace several months earlier as a result of the Watergate scandal, defeated Alexander on election day, 576,833 votes to 455,467. After the 1974 campaign, Alexander returned to the practice of law. In 1974, TIME Magazine named Alexander one of the 200 Faces of the Future.
In 1977, Alexander once again worked in Baker's Washington office following Baker's election as Senate Minority Leader. Although the Tennessee State Constitution had been amended in early 1978 to allow a governor to succeed himself, Blanton chose not to seek re-election, due to a number of scandals. Alexander once again ran for governor, made a name for himself by walking from Mountain City in the far northeast of the state to Memphis in the far southwest, a distance of 1,022 miles, wearing a red and black flannel shirt that would become something of a trademark for him. Investigative news reports disclosed late during the 1978 Tennessee gubernatorial campaign revealed that Alexander once transferred the non-profit charter of a Christian church to his Ruby Tuesday restaurant in order to sell liquor-by-the-drink in the once "dry town" of Gatlinburg, Tennessee. After winning the Republican nomination with nearly 86% of the vote, he defeated Knoxville banker Jake Butcher in the November 1978 election, 665,847 votes to 523,013.
In early 1979, a furor ensued over pardons made by Governor Blanton, whose administration was under investigation in a cash-for-clemency scandal. Since the state constitution is somewhat vague on when a governor must be sworn in, several political leaders from both parties, including Lieutenant Governor John S. Wilder and State House Speaker Ned McWherter, arranged for Alexander to be sworn in on January 17, 1979, three days earlier than the traditional inauguration day, to prevent Blanton from s
Houston County, Tennessee
Houston County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 8,426, its county seat is Erin. The county was founded in 1871, it was named for Sam Houston. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 207 square miles, of which 200 square miles is land and 6.7 square miles is water. Stewart County - north Montgomery County - northeast Dickson County - east Humphreys County - south Benton County - west State Route 13 State Route 46 State Route 49 State Route 147 State Route 149 State Route 231 State Route 232 As of the census of 2000, there were 8,088 people, 3,216 households, 2,299 families residing in the county; the population density was 40.4 people per square mile. There were 3,901 housing units at an average density of 19.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94.58% White, 3.31% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.78% from other races, 0.95% from two or more races.
1.25% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,216 households out of which 31.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.00% were married couples living together, 10.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.50% were non-families. 25.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.92. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.40% under the age of 18, 7.30% from 18 to 24, 26.10% from 25 to 44, 25.60% from 45 to 64, 16.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 97.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,968, the median income for a family was $35,395. Males had a median income of $29,528 versus $19,983 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,614.
About 14.30% of families and 18.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.20% of those under age 18 and 20.80% of those age 65 or over. The Board of Commissioners meets at the Houston County Courthouse the third Monday of odd months. County Mayor: James Bridges County Clerk: Robert Brown Administrator of Elections: Annette Pulley Property Assessor: Joy Hooper Register of Deeds: Sherrill Potts Moore County Trustee: Jimmy Lowery County Highway Department Superintendent: George Dew County Circuit Court Clerk: Donna Potts Vincent General Sessions & Juvenile Judge: W. Sidney Vinson Sheriff: Kevin L. Sugg District 1: William C. Agy and Ann Fielder District 2: Randall French and J. Steve Hall District 3: Glenn Baggett and Danny Warren District 4: Charles Darrell Kingsmill and Howard Spurgeon District 5: Lance Uffelman and Vickie Reedy District 6: Joey Brake and Chris Pitts District 7: Brant Lamastus and Tony Hayes Houston County had traditionally been one of the state's most Democratic counties.
Although traditionally Democratic, the county is somewhat conservative on social issues and has been trending Republican. It was part of Tennessee's 8th congressional district, represented by Blue Dog Democrat John S. Tanner, it is now part of Tennessee's 7th congressional district and is represented by Republican Mark E. Green; the county had been among the most Democratic in the state on presidential elections. Prior to 2012, only twice have Democratic candidates failed to carry Houston County at the presidential level. In 1928, Herbert Hoover became the first Republican presidential candidate to carry Houston County, due to anti-Catholic voting against Al Smith in this "Bible Belt" region; the second non-Democrat who carried Houston County was George Wallace of the American Independent Party during the 1968 presidential election, following which Houston County became one of only six Wallace counties to vote for George McGovern against Richard Nixon's 3,000-plus-county landslide of 1972. In the 2008 presidential election, when most other traditionally Democratic counties in the state voted for John McCain, Houston County supported Barack Obama.
That said, the county's vote has been shifting Republican as reflected by Barack Obama's win by more than 2%, the lowest margin among all Democratic presidential candidates who have carried Houston County since its creation. In the 2012 presidential election Mitt Romney became the first Republican in 80 years to win the county. Republican Senator Bob Corker and Republican Representative Marsha Blackburn won the county. Although in all cases it was by a narrower margin than statewide or district wide. Houston County High School - Houston County Adult High School - Erin Elementary School - Tennessee Ridge Elementary School - Houston County Middle School - FM radio: WTPR-FM 101.7 "The Greatest Hits of All Time" Weekly newspaper: Stewart-Houston Times ""Tv Station""Wells Creek Basin Network Erin Tennessee Ridge McKinnon Stewart National Register of Historic Places listings in Houston County, Tennessee History of Houston County, Tennessee 1871 - 1996 - History and Families. Nashville: Turner Publishing Company.
ISBN 1-56311-194-2 Houston County Chamber of Commerce Houston County, TNGenWeb - free genealogy resources for the county "Houston. III. A N. W. county of Tennessee". The A
A caucus is a meeting of supporters or members of a specific political party or movement. The term originated in the United States, but has spread to Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Nepal; as the use of the term has been expanded, the exact definition has come to vary among political cultures. The origin of the word caucus is debated, but it is agreed that it first came into use in the British colonies of North America. A February 1763 entry in the diary of John Adams of Braintree, Massachusetts, is one of the earliest appearances of Caucas with its modern connotations of a "smoke-filled room" where candidates for public election are pre-selected in private: This day learned that the Caucas Clubb meets at certain Times in the Garret of Tom Daws, the Adjutant of the Boston Regiment, he has a large House, he has a moveable Partition in his Garrett, which he takes down and the whole Clubb meets in one Room. There they smoke tobacco. There they drink Phlip I suppose, there they choose a Moderator, who puts Questions to the Vote and Selectman, Collectors, Fire Wards, Representatives are Regularly chosen before they are chosen in the Town...
An article in Great Leaders and National Issues of 1896, surveying famous presidential campaigns of the past, begins with an unsourced popular etymology of the origin of the caucus: The Origin of the "Caucus" The presidential nominating convention is a modern institution. In the early days of the Republic a different method was pursued in order to place the candidates for the highest office in the land before the people. In the first place, as to the origin of the "caucus." In the early part of the eighteenth century a number of caulkers connected with the shipping business in the North End of Boston held a meeting for consultation. That meeting was the germ of the political caucuses which have formed so prominent a feature of our government since its organization. No wholly satisfactory etymology has been documented. James Hammond Trumbull suggested to the American Philological Association that it comes from an Algonquian word for "counsel",'cau´-cau-as´u'; the word might derive from the Algonquian cawaassough, meaning an advisor, talker, or orator.
This explanation was favoured by Charles Dudley Warner. The American Heritage Dictionary suggests that it derived from medieval Latin caucus, meaning "drinking vessel", such as might have been used for the flip drunk at Caucus Club of colonial Boston. An analogical Latin-type plural "cauci" is used; the term caucus is used in mediation and other forms of alternate dispute resolution to describe circumstances wherein, rather than meeting at a common table, the disputants retreat to a more private setting to process information, agree on negotiation strategy, confer with counsel and/or with the mediator, or gain "breathing room" after the emotionally difficult interactions that can occur in the common area where all parties are present. The degree to which caucuses are used can be a key defining element, an identifier, of the mediation model being used. For example, "facilitative mediation" tends to discourage the use of caucuses and tries to keep the parties talking at a single table, while "evaluative mediation" may allow parties to separate more and rely on the mediator to shuttle information and offers back and forth.
In United States politics and government, caucus has several related meanings. Members of a political party or subgroup may meet to coordinate members' actions, choose group policy, or nominate candidates for various offices. There is no provision for the role of political parties in the United States Constitution. In the first two presidential elections, the Electoral College handled nominations and elections in 1789 and 1792 which selected George Washington. After that, Congressional party or a state legislature party caucus selected the party's presidential candidates. Nationally, these caucuses were replaced by the party convention starting in 1832 following the lead of the Anti-Masonic Party 1831 convention; the term caucus is used to discuss the procedures used by some states to select presidential nominees such as the Iowa caucuses, the first of the modern presidential election cycle, the Texas caucuses. Since 1980 such caucuses have become, in the aggregate, an important component of the nomination process.
Another meaning is a sub grouping of officials with shared affinities or ethnicities who convene but not always to advocate, lobby or to vote collectively, on policy. At the highest level, in Congress and many state legislatures and Republican members organize themselves into a caucus. There can be smaller caucuses in a legislative body, including those that are multi-partisan or bicameral. Of the many Congressional caucuses, one of the best-known is the Congressional Black Caucus, a group of African-American members of Congress. Another prominent example is the Congressional Hispanic Caucus, whose members voice and advance issues affecting Hispanics in the United States, including Puerto Rico. In a different vein, the Congressional Internet Caucus is a bipartisan group of Members who wish to promote the growth and advancement of the Internet. Other congressional caucuses such as the Out of Iraq Caucus, are organized tendencies or political factions, strive to achieve political goals, similar to a European "platform", but organized around a single issue.
The term is used in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. However, when used in these countries, "caucus" is more a