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Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology is a private college specializing in teaching engineering and science and located in Terre Haute, Indiana. Founder Chauncey Rose, along with nine friends, created the Terre Haute School of Industrial Science in 1874 to provide technical training after encountering difficulties in local engineer availability during construction of his railroads. Mr. Rose donated the land on 13th and Locust St. and the majority of the funds needed to start the new school. A year the cornerstone of the new institution was laid and the name was changed to Rose Polytechnic Institute despite the objections of the president of the board of managers and chief benefactor, Mr. Rose; the original campus was a single building, with recreational facilities. The first class of 48 students entered in 1883, chosen from 58 applicants. Of the 48 students, all were male, 37 came from Indiana. All but four students chose to major in Mechanical Engineering with Civil Engineering and Chemistry the only other majors.

Nearly half of the original students would quit their studies before graduation for several reasons, including poor grades or conduct. The first president was Charles O. Thompson, who modeled the education of Rose Poly after eastern institutions. Rose Poly was thus founded as the first private engineering college west of the Alleghenies. During the beginning years of the school, money was a major concern. Many faculty and staff accepted pay cuts to stay at the institution. In 1889 the school awarded what it considers to be the first Chemical Engineering degree in the country. In 1917, the school, having grown to more than 300 students, moved from 13th and Locust St. to a new site consisting of 123 acres of farmland on U. S. 40 donated by the Hulman family of Terre Haute. The cornerstone of the new campus was laid in 1922; the new campus consisted of an academic building and the institute's first dorm, Deming Hall, still used by freshmen today. Early life at Rose consisted of social fraternities and the occasional "high jinks."

A popular "high jinks" involved the sophomore class inviting the freshmen class to a baseball game but were told to "leave their pipes with the nurse." The freshmen would produce the pipes at a specific time and a brawl would ensue. During World War I, Rose Poly trained students in technical subjects like vehicle maintenance and created an ROTC Engineer unit which became the Wabash Battalion Army ROTC program. During World War II the ROTC unit was replaced with an Army Specialized Training Unit and students could enter and graduate after every quarter to support the war effort; this enrollment schedule continued through the post-war years until 1951. A tank was located behind the north sides of Moench Hall and Myers Hall as a reminder of Rose Poly's war contributions, but has been moved from the campus for reasons unknown. In recognition of the Hulman family's significant contributions and continued financial support, Rose Polytechnic was renamed Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology in 1971. During the 1960s and 70s, growth accelerated under president John A. Logan.

Five new residence halls, a new student union, a student recreation center were all constructed between 1963 and 1976. Permission was sought and received to increase the student population to 1000; the quarterly cryptology journal Cryptologia was founded and published at RHIT from 1977 to 1995, at which time it was moved to the United States Military Academy. For most of its history, Rose-Hulman was a men's only institution, it voted to become coeducational in 1991, with the first full-time women students starting in 1995. In 1995, the college required all incoming freshmen to purchase laptop computers, becoming one of the first schools to do so. In the decade following 1995, Rose-Hulman's growth was aided by a major fundraising campaign called "Vision to be the Best." A $100 million campaign over ten years, it met its goal in half the time. The goal was extended to $200 million, by the end of the campaign in June 2004, over $250 million had been raised. In 2002, Hatfield Hall, a state-of-the-art theater and alumni center was opened.

Five years earlier Shook Field House was replaced with the $20 million Sports and Recreation Center, a major reason that the National Football League's Indianapolis Colts used the campus for their summer training camp from 1999–2010. After the 2004 retirement of institute president Samuel Hulbert, who had led the school since 1976, the college faced a leadership crisis. Soon after John J. Midgley arrived as the new president, rumors of conflict between Midgley and the administration started to circulate. Students, some wearing T-shirts proclaiming "Hit the Road Jack," held a rally calling for Midgley's resignation. Midgley resigned as president of the institute on June 11, 2005, less than a year into his presidency, after the faculty and Student Government Association approved votes of no confidence. During the succeeding academic year, Robert Bright, the Chairman of the Board of Trustees, served as interim chief executive officer. At a press conference on March 17, 2006, Bright named Gerald Jakubowski, Vice President and Professor of Engineering at Arizona State University, as the thirteenth president of the Institute.

Jakubowski took over effective July 1, 2006. On February 23, 2009, Jakubowski announced that he would be resigning from the position of president, effective June 30. On June 11, 2009, the college announced that the Board of Trustees had elected Matt Branam to serve as interim president. On December 4, 2009, the Board elected Branam as permanent president. In April 2012, Branam suffered a heart attack and was rushed to a hospital where he died shortly aft

Kirkland railway station

Kirkland railway station was one of the minor stations on the Cairn Valley Light Railway branch, from Dumfries. It served the rural area around Kirkland as a request stop, close to the terminus at Moniaive in Dumfries and Galloway The line was closed to passengers during WW2; the CVR was nominally independent, but was in reality controlled by the Glasgow and South Western Railway. The line was closed to passengers on 3 May 1943, during WW2 and to freight on 4 July 1949, the track lifted in 1953; the station had a short siding with a loading bank. A station master's house was provided, designed by the company with a pyramid roof truncated by a central chimney stack; the shelter had been demolished by 1949. The stationmaster's house survives as a private dwelling; the siding was worked by down trains only, goods for Dumfries being taken to the nearest station along. The points were unlocked with an Annett's key, kept in a locked box on a post adjacent to the point. Trains were controlled by a'lock and block' system whereby the trains operated treadles on the single line to interact with the block instruments.

List of closed railway stations in Christopher. Encyclopaedia of British Railway Companies. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 1-8526-0049-7. OCLC 19514063. CN 8983. Kirkpatrick, Ian; the Cairn Valley Light Railway. Usk: The Oakwood Press. ISBN 0-85361-567-5. Sanders and Hodgins, Douglas. British Railways. Past and Present South West Scotland. No. 19. ISBN 1-85895-074-0. Thomas, David St John & Whitehouse, Patrick; the Romance of Scotlands Railways. Newton Abbot: David St John Thomas. ISBN 0-946537-89-5

Moss–Burstein effect

The Moss–Burstein effect known as the Burstein–Moss shift, is the phenomenon of which the apparent band gap of a semiconductor is increased as the absorption edge is pushed to higher energies as a result of some states close to the conduction band being populated. This is observed for a degenerate electron distribution such as that found in some Degenerate semiconductors and is known as a Moss–Burstein shift; the effect occurs when the electron carrier concentration exceeds the conduction band edge density of states, which corresponds to degenerate doping in semiconductors. In nominally doped semiconductors, the Fermi level lies between the valence bands. For example, in n-doped semiconductor, as the doping concentration is increased, electrons populate states within the conduction band which pushes the Fermi level to higher energy. In the case of degenerate level of doping, the Fermi level lies inside the conduction band; the "apparent" band gap of a semiconductor can be measured using transmission/reflection spectroscopy.

In the case of a degenerate semiconductor, an electron from the top of the valence band can only be excited into conduction band above the Fermi level since all the states below the Fermi level are occupied states. Pauli's exclusion principle forbids excitation into these occupied states, thus we observe an increase in the apparent band gap. Apparent band gap = Actual band gap + Moss-Burstein shift. Negative Burstein shifts can occur; these are due to band structure changes due to doping. Marius Grundmann; the Physics of Semiconductors. Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-25370-9