California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
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San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs
Mission Bay (San Diego)
Mission Bay is a saltwater bay or lagoon located south of the Pacific Beach community of San Diego, California. The bay is part of the recreational Mission Bay Park, the largest man-made aquatic park in the country, consisting of 4,235 acres 46% land and 54% water; the combined area makes Mission Bay Park the ninth largest municipally-owned park in the United States. Wakeboarding, jet skiing and camping are popular on the bay. With miles of light color sandy beaches and an long pedestrian path, it is suitable for cycling, roller skating and skateboarding, or sunbathing. Mission Bay Yacht Club, on the west side of the bay, conducts sailing races year-round in the bay and the nearby Pacific Ocean and has produced national sailing champions in many classes. Fiesta Island, a large peninsular park located within Mission Bay, is a popular location for charity walks and runs, bicycle races, time trials and other special events, it is the home of the annual Over-the-line tournament. Mission Bay is host to the annual Bayfair Cup, a hydroplane boat race that takes place on the H1 Unlimited circuit.
Mission Bay Park was a tidal marsh, named "False Bay" by Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo in 1542. It was developed into a recreational water park during the 1940s, 1950s, 1960s; the San Diego River had shifted its terminus back and forth between San Diego Bay to the south and "False Bay" to the north. During the 1820s the river began to empty into San Diego Bay, causing worries that the harbor might silt up. In 1852 the United States Army Corps of Engineers constructed a dike along the south side of the river to prevent water from flowing into San Diego Bay; this made "False Bay". The dike failed within two years. In 1877 the city erected a permanent dam and straightened the river channel to the sea, giving the river its present configuration. Today the San Diego River is constrained on both the north and the south by levees, it no longer drains to the ocean through Mission Bay, other than through a weir located at the entrance to Mission Bay. During the late 1800s some recreational development began in "False Bay" including the building of hunting and fishing facilities.
These facilities were destroyed by flooding. In 1944, a Chamber of Commerce committee recommended development of Mission Bay into a tourism and recreational center, in order to help diversify the city’s economy, military. In the late 1940s, dredging and filling operations began converting the marsh into what today is Mission Bay Park. Twenty-five million cubic yards of sand and silt were dredged to create the varied land forms of the park, which now is entirely man-made; the first modern swim/bike/run event to be called a "triathlon" was held at Mission Bay, San Diego, California on September 25, 1974. The race was conceived and directed by Jack Johnstone and Don Shanahan, members of the San Diego Track Club, was sponsored by the track club. 46 participants entered this event. It was not inspired by the French events, although a race held the following year at Fiesta Island, San Diego, is sometimes called "the first triathlon in America."Approximately half of the park was once state tidelands.
Mission Bay Park was transferred to the City of San Diego with several restrictions, some of which were adopted into San Diego City Charter by public vote, with others implemented as part of the California Coastal Commission's oversight of local planning and land use decisions. One of the restrictions sets a limit on commercial development of leaseholds, so that no more than 25% of the land area and 6.5% of the water area can be used for private purposes. This assures that most of the acres making up Mission Bay Park are available for public recreational use. From 1957 to 1962 large amounts of industrial waste, including millions of gallons of hydrofluoric, nitric and hydrochloric acids, dichromate and carbon tetrachloride, were deposited into an unlined landfill located in the south shores section of Mission Bay Park east of SeaWorld. No remediation efforts have occurred. Mission Bay has 27 miles of shoreline, 19 of which are sandy beaches with eight locations designated as official swimming areas.
Mission Bay is recognized for protection by the California Bays and Estuaries Policy. Swimmers and sunbathers take advantage of the warm water, calm surf conditions and the sands of Mission Bay’s beaches. Mission Bay offers boat docks and launching facilities and motor rentals, bike/walk paths and basketball courts. There are playgrounds for children. Public restrooms and showers are available, lifeguard stations are located in designated areas. On the east side of the bay is a network of channels and islands which are used by wind surfers and water skiers. Several water areas are dedicated or restricted to particular forms of water recreation, with specific separate areas for sailing, water skiing and personal watercraft use. Mission Bay is one of the premier locations in Southern California for the sport of rowing, or "crew." One of the largest rowing regattas in the country is held on Mission Bay each year: The San Diego Crew Classic is held in Mission Bay every spring, featuring two days of competition in eight-oared shells rowed by more than 100 college and senior crews.
Rose Creek flows into Mission Bay from the north, creating a rich wetland area called the Kendall Frost Marsh. Attractions at Mission Bay include SeaWorld San Diego, Aqua Adventures for kayaking and paddleboarding, the Mission Bay Cross Country Course, the Mission Bay Golf Course, Belmont Park, which features the Giant
Louis Rose was a pioneer developer of San Diego, California. The neighborhood of Roseville in Point Loma is named for him, as are Rose Canyon. Rose was San Diego's first identifiable Jewish resident, he came to San Diego in 1850, via New Orleans and Texas. He traveled to California with Judge James W. Robinson's wagon train party. Arriving just as California became a state in 1850, he was a member of the first grand jury and first County Board of Supervisors, he was President of the Board of Trustees for San Diego during 1853–1855, served on the San Diego School Board. Rose was a volunteer in the Garra Indian uprising. Rose was central in the development of San Diego's Jewish community. High Holy Day services were held in his house; the Hebrew Benevolent Society was formed at his house. He donated the land for the first Jewish cemetery. Though a layman, he officiated for the community at a Jewish wedding. Rose was a founding member of Congregation Beth Israel. Congregation Beth Israel became San Diego's largest synagogue.
Rose married twice. His first marriage was to Carolyn Marx in New Orleans; the marriage ended in divorce. In his life, in San Diego, Rose was introduced to and married a local Jewish widow, Matilda Newman, they had two children. One child died in infancy, their second child, Henrietta Rose became a school teacher in San Diego. She never married, she was buried in an unmarked grave until the Louis Rose Society for the Preservation of Jewish History purchased a headstone, dedicated in partnership with the school district, the teachers union, the Eastern Star Masonic Organization of which she was president of a lodge. Louis Rose was buried in the Jewish cemetery; as San Diego developed, the old Jewish cemetery was sold and the bodies buried there were moved to a newer Jewish cemetery, the Home of Peace. In the process, Rose's original headstone was lost; the exact location of his interment is uncertain. Rose realized. With his associate James W. Robinson, Rose founded the San Diego and Gila Railroad in 1855 and served as its treasurer.
The railroad was never built. In 1866 Rose bought land and laid out a town he called "Roseville" adjacent to San Diego Bay on the Point Loma peninsula, he built a wharf. He thought it would be a future city, for a time it was a separate city competing with San Diego's New Town across the bay, he hoped to link Roseville to a railroad. Many were skeptical about the prospects for Roseville or San Diego, but he would always say "Just wait a while and you will see." Roseville became part of the city of San Diego. A plaque at the corner of Rosecrans Street and Avenida de Portugal recognizes the establishment of Roseville in 1869. Rose was postmaster at Old Town, San Diego during 1873–1883; this was an honor considering that he was appointed by Republican presidents though Rose himself was a lifelong Democrat. Rose Creek and Rose Canyon in San Diego are named for him, he had a ranch there, with a tannery. He prospected for gold and copper without too much success; the tannery provided capital to lay out Roseville.
Rose died in 1888. He had a school teacher who never married, he is buried in Home of Peace Cemetery on Imperial Avenue. In 1934, a monument plaque was placed on U. S. Highway 101 commemorating Rose. Although the highway is now gone, the plaque remains in its original location, now on the campus of the University of California, San Diego; the plaque was placed by the San Diego Historical Society, Congregations Beth Israel and Tifereth Israel, San Diego Lodge 35 of the Free and Accepted Masons, which Rose helped to found. In 2004, Louis Rose Point was dedicated in honor of Rose, it is located on the grounds of the old Naval Training Center. In 2011, a plaque honoring Rose was dedicated at Louis Rose Point, two rose bushes were planted in his name; the "Louis Rose Society for the Preservation of Jewish History" is named for him. A Point Loma elementary school, Cabrillo Elementary, established a sister-school relationship with an elementary school in Neuhaus-an-der-Oste, where Rose was born. Louis Rose: San Diego's First Jewish Settler and Entrepreneur by Donald H. Harrison.
ISBN 0-932653-68-5 Biography from Smythe's History of San Diego, pp. 285–286 Heilbron, Carl. History of San Diego County. San Diego Press Club. Biography, p. 210 Louis Rose Society for the Preservation of Jewish History
University of California, San Diego
The University of California, San Diego is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, in the United States. The university occupies 2,141 acres near the coast of the Pacific Ocean, with the main campus resting on 1,152 acres. Established in 1960 near the pre-existing Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego is the seventh-oldest of the 10 University of California campuses and offers over 200 undergraduate and graduate degree programs, enrolling 30,000 undergraduate and 8,500 graduate students. UC San Diego is organized into six undergraduate residential colleges, five academic divisions, five graduate and professional schools. A proposed School of Public Health is in the planning stages. UC San Diego Health, the region's only academic health system, provides patient care, conducts medical research and educates future health care professionals at the UC San Diego Medical Center and Jacobs Medical Center; the university operates 19 organized research units, including the Center for Energy Research, Qualcomm Institute, San Diego Supercomputer Center and the Kavli Institute for Brain and Mind, as well as eight School of Medicine research units, six research centers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography and two multi-campus initiatives, including the Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation.
UC San Diego is closely affiliated with several regional research centers, such as the Salk Institute, the Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, the Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine and the Scripps Research Institute. According to the National Science Foundation, UC San Diego spent $1.133 billion on research and development in fiscal year 2017, ranking it 7th in the nation. As of August 2018, UC San Diego faculty and alumni have won 27 Nobel Prizes and 3 Fields Medals, eight National Medals of Science, eight MacArthur Fellowships, two Pulitzer Prizes. Additionally, of the current faculty, 29 have been elected to the National Academy of Engineering, 70 to the National Academy of Sciences, 45 to the Institute of Medicine and 110 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; when the Regents of the University of California authorized the San Diego campus in 1956, it was planned to be a graduate and research institution, providing instruction in the sciences and engineering.
Local citizens supported the idea, voting the same year to transfer to the university 59 acres of mesa land on the coast near the preexisting Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The Regents requested an additional gift of 550 acres of undeveloped mesa land northeast of Scripps, as well as 500 acres on the former site of Camp Matthews from the federal government, but Roger Revelle director of Scripps Institution and main advocate for establishing the new campus, jeopardized the site selection by exposing the La Jolla community's exclusive real estate business practices, which were antagonistic to minority racial and religious groups; this outraged local conservatives, as well as Regent Edwin W. Pauley. UC President Clark Kerr satisfied San Diego city donors by changing the proposed name from University of California, La Jolla, to University of California, San Diego; the city voted in agreement to its part in 1958, the UC approved construction of the new campus in 1960. Because of the clash with Pauley, Revelle was not made chancellor.
Herbert York, first director of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, was designated instead. York planned the main campus according to the "Oxbridge" model. UC San Diego was the first general campus of the University of California to be designed "from the top down" in terms of research emphasis. Local leaders disagreed on whether the new school should be a technical research institute or a more broadly based school that included undergraduates as well. John Jay Hopkins of General Dynamics Corporation pledged one million dollars for the former while the City Council offered free land for the latter; the original authorization for the San Diego campus given by the UC Regents in 1956 approved a "graduate program in science and technology" that included undergraduate programs, a compromise that won both the support of General Dynamics and the city voters' approval. Nobel laureate Harold Urey, a physicist from the University of Chicago, Hans Suess, who had published the first paper on the greenhouse effect with Revelle in the previous year, were early recruits to the faculty in 1958.
Maria Goeppert-Mayer the second female Nobel laureate in physics, was appointed professor of physics in 1960. The graduate division of the school opened in 1960 with 20 faculty in residence, with instruction offered in the fields of physics, biology and earth science. Before the main campus completed construction, classes were held in the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. By 1963, new facilities on the mesa had been finished for the School of Science and Engineering, new buildings were under construction for Social Sciences and Humanities. Ten additional faculty in those disciplines were hired, the whole site was designated the First College renamed after Roger Revelle, of the new campus. York resigned as chancellor that year a