A gallows is a frame wooden, from which objects can be hung or “weighed.” Gallows were thus used for public weighing scales for large objects such as sacks of grain or minerals positioned in markets or toll gates. The term was used for a framework from which an ship’s anchor might be raised so that it no longer sat on the bottom, i.e. “weighing anchor.” In modern usage it has come to mean exclusively a scaffold or gibbet used for execution by hanging. Public weighing gallows were large permanent tripods in market squares and cross beams, or a cantilevered beam projecting from the side of a building adjoining a market or toll gate or point with a fixed hook for supporting the weighing scales. For anchors and other hanging points gallows could have many designs, but crucially project the hanging point perpendicularly away from a wall, object or ship’s hull so that objects hanging or weighing from the gallows are unlikely to come into contact and damage the perpendicular surface; the term "gallows" was derived from a Proto-Germanic word galgô which refers to a "pole", "rod" or "tree branch".
This points to the earlier execution style in which a person sentenced to death had been tied to a bent-down tree and released. With the beginning of Christianization, Ulfilas used the term galga in his Gothic Testament to refer to the cross of Christ, until the using of the Latin term prevailed. Gallows can take several forms: The simplest form resembles an inverted "L", with a single upright and a horizontal beam to which the rope noose would be attached; the horizontal crossbeam is supported at both ends. There were temporary gallows, which were portable, but weaker; the infamous Tyburn gallows was triangular in plan, with three uprights and three crossbeams, allowing up to 24 men and women to be executed when all three sides were used. Improvised gallows were used by hanging the condemned from a tree or street light. Hangings from such improvised gallows are lynchings rather than judicial executions. In Afghanistan, Taliban used football goals as gallows. Gallows may be permanent to act as a grim symbol of the power of high justice.
Many old prints of European cities show such a permanent gallows erected on a prominent hill outside the walls, or more near the castle or other seat of justice. In the modern era the gallows were installed inside a prison. Gallows can be temporary. In some of the cases, they were moved to the location of the crime. In England, pirates were executed using a temporary gallows, at low tide in the intertidal zone left for the sea to wash over them during the following high tides. John the Painter was hanged in 1777 from the mizzenmast of HMS Arethusa for arson in royal dockyards, the highest temporary gallows erected in British history; the only surviving New Drop gallows in the UK are in Rutland County Museum. The gallows were set up at the gaol when needed; these gallows were first used in 1813 to hang two burglars. The New Drop design was not effective as the drop was too short to break the neck cleanly. If a crime took place inside, gallows were sometimes erected—and the criminal hanged—at the front door.
In some cases of multiple offenders it was not uncommon to erect multiple temporary gallows, with one noose per condemned criminal. In one case a condemned strangled to death in agony for forty minutes until he died from asphyxiation. Hanging people from early gallows sometimes involved fitting the noose around the person's neck while he or she was on a ladder or in a horse-drawn cart underneath. Removing the ladder or driving the cart away left the person dangling by the neck to strangle. A noted example of this type of execution in the USA was the hanging of British spy John André in 1780. A "scaffold" with a trapdoor tended to be used, so victims dropped down and died from a broken neck rather than through strangulation if extra weights were fixed to their ankles. During the era of public execution in London, England, a prominent gallows stood at Tyburn, on what is now Marble Arch. Executions occurred outside Newgate Prison, where the Old Bailey now stands. Hangman's Elm Triberg Gallows Capital punishment Dule Tree Gibbet Jail tree Moot hill BBC Article about British manufacturer.
Wikibooks:A Researcher's Guide to Local History Terminology: Local History terminology
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
A Queen's Counsel, or King's Counsel during the reign of a king, is an eminent lawyer, appointed by the monarch to be one of "Her Majesty's Counsel learned in the law." The term is recognised as an honorific. The position exists in some Commonwealth jurisdictions around the world, but other Commonwealth countries have either abolished the position, or re-named it to eliminate monarchical connotations, such as "Senior Counsel" or "Senior Advocate". Queen's Counsel is an office, conferred by the Crown, recognised by courts. Members have the privilege of sitting within the bar of court; as members wear silk gowns of a particular design, appointment as Queen's Counsel is known informally as taking silk, hence QCs are colloquially called silks. Appointments are made from within the legal profession on the basis of merit rather than a particular level of experience. However, successful applicants tend to be barristers, or advocates with 15 years of experience or more; the Attorney General, Solicitor-General and King's Serjeants were King's Counsel in Ordinary in the Kingdom of England.
The first Queen's Counsel Extraordinary was Sir Francis Bacon, given a patent giving him precedence at the Bar in 1597, formally styled King's Counsel in 1603. The new rank of King's Counsel contributed to the gradual obsolescence of the more senior serjeant-at-law by superseding it; the Attorney-General and Solicitor-General had succeeded the King's Serjeants as leaders of the Bar in Tudor times, though not technically senior until 1623 and 1813, respectively. But the King's Counsel emerged into eminence only in the early 1830s, prior to when they were few in number, it became the standard means to recognise a barrister as a senior member of the profession, the numbers multiplied accordingly. It became of greater professional importance to become a KC, the serjeants declined; the KCs inherited the prestige of their priority before the courts. The earliest English law list, published in 1775, lists 165 members of the Bar, of whom 14 were King's Counsel, a proportion of about 8.5%. As of 2010 the same proportion existed, though the number of barristers had increased to about 12,250 in independent practice.
In 1839 the number of Queen's Counsel was seventy. In 1882, the number of Queen's Counsel was 187; the list of Queen's Counsel in the Law List of 1897 gave the names of 238, of whom hardly one third appeared to be in actual practice. In 1959, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 181. In each of the five years up to 1970, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 208, 209, 221, 236 and 262, respectively. In each of the years 1973 to 1978, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 329, 345, 370, 372, 384 and 404, respectively. In 1989, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 601. In each of the years 1991 to 2000, the number of practising Queen's Counsel was 736, 760, 797, 845, 891, 925, 974, 1006, 1043, 1072, respectively; the title traditionally depends on the sex of the sovereign. The current Queen, Elizabeth II has had a long reign, few if any people appointed as King's Counsel survive, it can be assumed that, should the Queen die and the reign pass to a descendant, holders of the title will again become KC, as the next three in line to the throne are male heirs.
Queen's Counsel and serjeants were prohibited, at least from the mid-nineteenth century onward, from drafting pleadings alone. They were not permitted to appear in court without a junior barrister, they had to have chambers in London. From the beginning, they were not allowed to appear against the Crown without a special licence, but this was given as a formality; this stipulation was important in criminal cases, which are brought in the name of the Crown. The result was that, until 1920 in England and Wales, King's and Queen's Counsel had to have a licence to appear in criminal cases for the defence; these restrictions had a number of consequences: they made the taking of "silk" something of a professional risk, because the appointment abolished at a stroke some of the staple work of the junior barrister. By the end of the twentieth century, all of these rules had been abolished one by one. Appointment as QC is now a matter of prestige only, with no formal disadvantages. Queen's Counsel were traditionally selected from barristers, rather than from lawyers in general, because they were counsel appointed to conduct court work on behalf of the Crown.
Although the limitations on private instruction were relaxed, QCs continued to be selected from barristers, who had the sole right of audience in the higher courts. The first woman appointed King's Counsel was Helen Kinnear in Canada in 1934; the first women to be appointed as King's Counsel in the United Kingdom were Helena Normanton and Rose Heilbron in 1949. In 1994 solicitors of England and Wales became entitled to gain rights of audience in the higher courts, some 275 were so entitled in 1995. In 1995, these solicitors alone became entitled to apply for appointment as Queen's Counsel, the first two solicitors were appointed on 27 March 1997, out of 68 new QCs; these were Arthur Marriott, partner of the London office of the American law firm of Wilmer Cutler and Pickering based in Washington, D. C. and Law
Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford
Lady Margaret Hall is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England, located on the banks of the River Cherwell at Norham Gardens in north Oxford and adjacent to the University Parks. The college is more formally known under its current royal charter as "The Principal and Fellows of the College of the Lady Margaret in the University of Oxford"; the college was founded in 1878 collaborating with Somerville College. Both colleges opened their doors in 1879 as the first two women's colleges of Oxford; the college began admitting men in 1979. The college has just under 400 undergraduate students, around 200 postgraduate students and 24 visiting students. In 2016, the college became the only college in Oxford or Cambridge to offer a Foundation Year for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. In 2018, Lady Margaret Hall ranked 21st out of 30 in Oxford's Norrington Table, a measurement of the performance of students in finals; the college's colours are blue and white. The college uses a coat of arms which accompanies the college's motto "Souvent me Souviens", an Old French phrase meaning "I remember" or "Think of me often", the motto of Lady Margaret Beaufort, for whom the college is named.
The current principal of the college is Alan Rusbridger. Notable students of Lady Margaret Hall include Benazir Bhutto, Michael Gove, Nigella Lawson, Josie Long, Ann Widdecombe and Malala Yousafzai. In June 1878, the Association for the Higher Education of Women was formed, aiming for the eventual creation of a college for women in Oxford; some of the more prominent members of the association were George Granville Bradley, Master of University College, T. H. Green, a prominent liberal philosopher and Fellow of Balliol College, Edward Stuart Talbot, Warden of Keble College. Talbot insisted on a Anglican institution, unacceptable to most of the other members; the two parties split, Talbot's group founded Lady Margaret Hall, while T. H. Green founded Somerville College. Lady Margaret Hall opened its doors to its first nine students in 1879; the first 21 students from Somerville and Lady Margaret Hall attended lectures in rooms above a baker's shop on Little Clarendon Street. The college was named after Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of King Henry VII, patron of scholarship and learning.
The first principal was Elizabeth Wordsworth, the great-niece of the poet William Wordsworth and daughter of Christopher Wordsworth, Bishop of Lincoln. The religious attitudes of the founders and principal were a deliberate contrast with the non-denominational Somerville College, founded shortly afterwards but despite the college's High Anglican origins, not all students were devout Christians. With a new building opening in 1894 the college expanded to 25 students; the land on which the college is built was part of the manor of Norham which belonged to St John's College. The college bought the land from St John's in 1894, the other institution driving a hard bargain and requiring a development price not only on the practical building land but on the undevelopable water meadows. However, this land purchase marked a change in ambition from occupying residential buildings for teaching purposes to erecting buildings befitting an educational institution. In 1897, members of Lady Margaret Hall founded the Lady Margaret Hall Settlement, a charitable initiative a place for graduates from the college to live in North Lambeth where they would work with and help develop opportunities for the poor.
It continues to operate to this day. Before 1920, the university refused to give degrees to women and would not acknowledge them as full members of the university. In 1920 the first women graduated from the college at the Sheldonian Theatre and the principal at the time, Henrietta Jex-Blake, was given an honorary degree. During the Second World War women were not permitted to fight on the front line and thus many of the students and fellows took up other roles to aid in the war effort, becoming nurses and ambulance drivers; the Fellows' Lawn was dug up and the students grew vegetables as part of the Dig for Victory campaign. In 1979, one hundred years after its foundation, the college began admitting men as well as women. In 1919 J. R. R. Tolkien started to give private tuition to students at Oxford, including members of students from LMH where his tuition was much needed given the limited resources and tutors the college had in its early years, his daughter, Priscilla Tolkien, attended the college, graduating in 1951.
In 2017 Malala Yousafzai, the youngest-ever Nobel Prize Peace laureate and Pakistani campaigner for girls' education, became a student of the college. In the same year, prospective Chemistry student Brian White faced deportation at the hands of the Home Office, but was able to take up his place at the college. In 2017, alumnus Paul McClean, a 24-year-old Financial Times journalist who had reported on the scale of treaty renegotiation necessitated by Brexit, was killed by a crocodile while on holiday in Sri Lanka. Lady Margaret Hall is the only Oxford college to offer a foundation year. Students choose a subject to specialise in, take courses in study skills and other general subject areas, with the aim that they progress to an undergraduate degree at the college after a year of study. Pupils live in the college and have access to the same university facilities, both academic and social, as other students. Modelled after a programme at Trinity College
A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it. Such a device is detonated automatically by way of pressure when a target steps on it or drives over it, although other detonation mechanisms are sometimes used. A land mine may cause damage by direct blast effect, by fragments that are thrown by the blast, or by both; the name originates from the ancient practice of military mining, where tunnels were dug under enemy fortifications or troop formations. These killing tunnels were at first collapsed to destroy targets located above, but they were filled with explosives and detonated in order to cause greater devastation. Nowadays, in common parlance, "land mine" refers to devices manufactured as anti-personnel or anti-vehicle weapons. Though some types of improvised explosive devices are mistakenly classified as land mines, the term land mine is reserved for manufactured devices designed to be used by recognized military services, whereas IED is used for makeshift "devices placed or fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating explosive material, lethal, incendiary, pyrotechnic materials or chemicals designed to destroy, distract or harass.
They may incorporate military stores, but are devised from non-military components". The use of land mines is controversial because of their potential as indiscriminate weapons, they can remain dangerous many years after a conflict has ended, harming the economy. 78 countries are contaminated with land mines and 15,000–20,000 people are killed every year while countless more are maimed. 80% of land mine casualties are civilian, with children as the most affected age group. Most killings occur in times of peace. With pressure from a number of campaign groups organised through the International Campaign to Ban Landmines, a global movement to prohibit their use led to the 1997 Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction known as the Ottawa Treaty. To date, 164 nations have signed the treaty. Land mines were designed for two main uses: To create defensive tactical barriers, channelling attacking forces into predetermined fire zones or slowing an invading force's progress to allow reinforcements to arrive.
To act as passive area-denial weapons. Land mines are used in large quantities for this first purpose, thus their widespread use in the demilitarized zones of flashpoints such as Cyprus and Korea; as of 2013, the only governments that still laid land mines were Myanmar in its internal conflict, Syria in its civil war. Land mines continue to kill or injure at least 4,300 people every year decades after the ends of the conflicts for which they were placed. Jiao Yu in the preface to his Huolongjing Quanzhi, written in 1412 AD, claimed that in the third century, the chancellor Zhuge Liang of the Shu Han state had used not only "fire weapons" but land mines in the Battle of Hulugu Valley against the forces of Sima Yi and his son Sima Zhao of the rival Cao Wei state; this claim is dubious, as gunpowder warfare did not develop in China until the advent of the flamethrower in the 10th century, while the land mine was not seen in China until the late 13th century. Explosive land mines were used in 1277 by the Chinese during the Song dynasty against an assault of the Mongols, who were besieging a city in southern China.
The invention of this detonated "enormous bomb" was credited to one Lou Qianxia of the 13th century. The famous 14th-century Chinese text of the Huolongjing, the first to describe hollow cast iron cannonball shells filled with gunpowder, was the first to describe the invention of the land mine in greater detail than references found in texts written beforehand; this mid 14th century work compiled during the late Yuan dynasty and early Ming dynasty stated that mines were made of cast iron and were spherical in shape, filled with either "magic gunpowder", "poison gunpowder", or "blinding and burning gunpowder", any one of these compositions being suitable for use. The wad of the mine was made of hard wood, carrying three different fuses in case of defective connection to the touch hole. In those days, the Chinese relied upon command signals and timed calculation of enemy movements into the minefield, since a long fuse had to be ignited by hand from the ambushers in a somewhat far-off location lying in wait.
The Huolongjing describes land mines that were set off by enemy movement, called the'ground-thunder explosive camp', one of the'self-trespassing' types, as the text says: These mines are installed at frontier gates and passes. Pieces of bamboo are sawn into sections nine feet in length, all septa in the bamboo being removed, save only the last. Boiling oil is next left there for some time before being removed; the fuse starts from the bottom, is compressed into it to form an explosive mine. The gunpowder fills up eight-tenths of the tube, while lead or iron pellets take up the rest of the space. A trench five feet in depth is dug; the fuse is connected to a firing device. The Huolongjing describes the trigger device used for this as a "steel wheel", which directed sparks
A Recorder is a judicial officer in England and Wales and some other common law jurisdictions. In the courts of England and Wales the term Recorder has two distinct meanings; the senior circuit judge of a borough or city is awarded the title of "Honorary Recorder". However, "Recorder" is used to denote a barrister who sits as a part-time circuit judge. In England and Wales a recorder was a certain magistrate or judge having criminal and civil jurisdiction within the corporation of a city or borough; such incorporated bodies were given the right by the Crown to appoint a recorder. He was a person with legal knowledge appointed by the mayor and aldermen of the corporation to'record' the proceedings of their courts and the customs of the borough or city; such recordings were regarded as the highest evidence of fact. The appointment would be given to a senior and distinguished practitioner at the Bar, it was, therefore executed part-time only, by a person whose usual practice was as a barrister, it carried a great deal of power of patronage.
The recorder of a borough was entrusted by the mayor and corporation to nominate its Members of Parliament, as was the case with the Recorder of Barnstaple, who in 1545 nominated the two MPs to represent the Borough of Barnstaple. The only survival today of the historic office is the Recorder of London, still appointed by the Court of Aldermen of the Corporation of the City of London and thereby becomes a member of that court, he is a senior Circuit Judge sitting at the Central Criminal Court. The ancient recorderships of England and Wales now form part of a system of honorary recorderships which are filled by the most senior full-time circuit judges. At each Crown Court centre, a particular judge is appointed "resident judge", leads the team of judges who sit there and provides the essential link between the judiciary and the administration. In the larger city court centres, the resident judge is a senior circuit judge, recruited and appointed to that post. An exception is the Corporation of the City of London which still follows ancient custom as stated above.
In the many smaller towns and cities where the resident judge is not a senior circuit judge, the position is different. The resident judge is deployed to that post by the Lord Chief Justice from the ranks of the circuit bench, they hold office as resident judge for a set period four years, although such appointments are renewable. Whilst the appointment of an honorary recorder has lain with the borough council since the Courts Act 1971, in practice the resident judge is appointed as the honorary recorder. In a borough, coincident with an ancient assize the position is titular. In the case where the resident judge is a fixed-term appointment, it is expected that the city or borough council will appoint them as honorary recorder for the duration of their tenure as resident judge. Boroughs which had a power by charter to appoint a recorder before 1971, but which had no quarter sessions, have a preserved right to appoint anyone, including non-lawyers, as honorary recorder, but an honorary recorder, not a judge cannot sit as a judge in court or exercise any judicial functions.
The procedure to be followed is that laid down by the Lord Chief Justice in his "Guidelines for the Appointment of Honorary Recorders", which states that it has been the practice of most large city councils to appoint the resident judge to be honorary recorder of the city during his tenure of the office. Some new positions have been created for example for the Borough of Redbridge; the appointment of an honorary recorder is made by the borough council concerned, although it does not require the approval of a higher authority, the Lord Chief Justice has let it be known that he would be pleased if boroughs considering making such an appointment would first consult the Senior Presiding Judge for England and Wales. Due to the reorganisation of courts where local government reorganisation has occurred at the same time, some titles bestowed by one council may be held by the senior resident judge sitting in another borough; the protocol of the use of the title is that it is customary for an honorary recorder, when sitting in the Crown Court in the city or town where he holds that office, to be described as such in the published court lists.
This should not be done, when the judge is sitting in the Crown Court in another city or town, whether or not that city or town has an honorary recorder of its own. Honorary recorders who are senior circuit judges are authorised by the Lord Chief Justice to wear red robes when sitting in court; these robes are based on the design of the robes worn by judges of the county courts, but in red and black. They were designed for the recorders of Manchester and Liverpool in 1956; the right to wear them in court was extended in the 1980s to the other senior circuit judges appointed as honorary recorders, but has not been extended to those who are not senior circuit judges. Accordingly, when sitting in court, honorary recorders who are not senior circuit judges continue to wear the normal robes of a circuit judge sitting in the Crown Court. In addition, honorary recorders who are senior circuit judges are addressed in court as "My Lord/Lady" instead of "Your Honour" (as for other circuit judges, including senior circuit judges who are not honorary
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012