Calabasas is a city in Los Angeles County, United States, located in the hills west of the San Fernando Valley and in the northwest Santa Monica Mountains between Woodland Hills, Agoura Hills, West Hills, Hidden Hills, Malibu, California. As of the 2010 census, the city's population was 23,058, up from 20,033 at the 2000 census; the city was formally incorporated in 1991. The Leonis Adobe, an adobe structure in Old Town Calabasas, dates from 1844 and is one of the oldest surviving buildings in greater Los Angeles, it is accepted that the name of Calabasas is derived from the Spanish calabaza meaning "pumpkin", "squash", or "gourd". Some historians hold the theory that Calabasas is derived from the Chumash word calahoosa, said to mean "where the wild geese fly." Owing to vast presence of wild squash plants in the area, the squash theory is more prevalent among local residents. At the top of the Calabasas grade, east of Las Virgenes Road on the original El Camino Real, legend has it that in 1824, a Basque rancher from Oxnard spilled a wagonload of pumpkins on the road en route to Los Angeles.
The following spring, hundreds of pumpkin seeds sprouted alongside the road. The area was named Las Calabasas -- the place. In honor of its namesake, the City of Calabasas and the Calabasas Chamber of Commerce hold an annual Pumpkin Festival in October, including carnival games, exhibits and live entertainment; the festival has evolved from a small-town fair to a significant annual event. Though the current Pumpkin Festival is held at Juan Bautista de Anza Park in Calabasas, the original festival was believed to have taken place where the traveling wagon carrying pumpkins overturned and started the area's first pumpkin patch; the city's official logo, depicting a red-tailed hawk flying over the Santa Monica Mountains, symbolizes a commitment to preserving the community's natural beauty and semirural quality of life. This logo is featured on the Calabasas city flag, flown in front of City Hall and hangs in the City Council Chambers; the city is located in the southwest corner of the San Fernando Valley and comprises a portion of the Santa Monica Mountains.
It is 22 miles away from downtown Los Angeles. It is bordered by the Woodland Hills area of Los Angeles to the northeast, Topanga to the east, Malibu to the south, Agoura Hills to the west, Hidden Hills to the north; the historic El Camino Real runs east–west through Calabasas as the Ventura Freeway. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.0 square miles —12.9 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is covered by water. One of the oldest neighborhoods in Calabasas is the Bird Streets. A former artists' colony, remnants remain of the club house and cabins scattered across streets with bird names, such as Meadow Lark, Blackbird and Hummingbird located right behind Calabasas High School. From Parkway Calabasas: Hidden Hills West, Calabasas Hills, Calabasas Park Estates, The Oaks. From Park Granada or Mulholland Drive: Mulholland Heights, Las Villas, The Ridge, Clairidge, Calabasas Country Estates, Calabasas Highlands, Mountain Park, Abercrombie Ranch Estates, Cold Creek, Park Moderne.
From Las Virgenes: Mountain View Estates, Monte Nido, Deer Springs, Stone Creek, El Encanto, Mont Calabasas, Malibu Canyon Park, The Colony at Calabasas, Avalon Calabasas. Mont Calabasas, a community on Las Virgenes Road, was annexed into the city of Calabasas in 2011. Prior to annexation, the neighborhood was located in an unincorporated area of Los Angeles County. From Lost Hills Road: Calabasas View, Saratoga Hills, Saratoga Ranch, Deer Springs, Steeplechase; the 2010 United States Census reported Calabasas to have a population of 23,058. The population density was 1,780.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Calabasas was 19,341 White, 375 African American, 48 Native American, 1,993 Asian, 8 Pacific Islander, 368 from other races, 925 from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 1,481 persons; the Census reported that 23,049 people lived in households, 9 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, none were institutionalized. Of 8,543 households, 3,320 had children under the age of 18 living at home, 5,124 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 942 had a female householder with no husband present, 315 had a male householder with no wife present, 310 were unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 31 were same-sex married couples or partnerships.
About 1,624 households were made up of individuals and 525 consisted of someone living alone, age 65 or older. The average household size was 2.70. There were 6,381 families; the population consisted of 5,841 people under age 18, 1,875 people age 18 to 24, 5,025 people age 25 to 44, 7,414 people age 45 to 64, 2,903 people age 65 or older. The median age was 41.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.8 males age 18 and over. The 8,878 housing units averaged 685.5 per square mile, of which 6,287 were owner-occupied, 2,256 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.2%. Around 17,769 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 5,280 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Bradbury is a city in the San Gabriel Valley region of Los Angeles County, United States. It is located in the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains below Angeles National Forest. Bradbury is bordered by the city of Monrovia to the west and south, Duarte to the south and east; the population was 1,048 at the 2010 census, up from 855 at the 2000 census. The city has three distinct areas—the Bradbury Estates, a gated community consisting of 5-acre minimum estates. A significant portion of the properties in Bradbury Estates and Woodlyn Lane are zoned for horses, several horse ranches still exist within these communities today. Bradbury was founded by Lewis Leonard Bradbury on the homestead of Rancho Azusa de Duarte in 1881. In 1912 the Bradburys' daughter, married Isaac Polk and built a grand mansion on the property which they named Chateau Bradbury. After years of annexation attempts by the city of Monrovia, Bradbury incorporated in 1957. In September 2010, Forbes magazine placed the ZIP code of 91008 at #1 on its annual list of America's most expensive ZIP codes.
Since 2010, Bradbury has fallen from the list but continues to be one of the most expensive ZIP codes in America with home sales decreasing and market listing prices increasing. Bradbury is located at 34°8′58″N 117°58′28″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.0 square miles, over 99% of it land. The 2010 United States Census reported that Bradbury had a population of 1,048; the population density was 535.0 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Bradbury was 652 White, 22 African American, 4 Native American, 276 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 59 from other races, 35 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 218 persons; the Census reported that 1,048 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 354 households, out of which 92 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 231 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 27 had a female householder with no husband present, 15 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 18 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 2 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 61 households were made up of individuals and 24 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.96. There were 273 families; the population was spread out with 173 people under the age of 18, 84 people aged 18 to 24, 196 people aged 25 to 44, 386 people aged 45 to 64, 209 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 49.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.0 males. There were 400 housing units at an average density of 204.2 per square mile, of which 307 were owner-occupied, 47 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.0%. 934 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 114 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 855 people, 284 households, 239 families residing in the city; the population density was 447.3 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 311 housing units at an average density of 162.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 70.53% White, 1.75% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 19.53% Asian, 5.61% from other races, 2.34% from two or more races. 13.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 284 households out of which 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.4% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 15.5% were non-families. 12.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.01 and the average family size was 3.21. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 28.8% from 45 to 64, 15.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $100,454, the median income for a family was $106,736. Males had a median income of $56,250 versus $40,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $57,717. None of the families and 2.0% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64. Bradbury and Duarte are both served by the Duarte Unified School District. In the California State Legislature, Bradbury is in the 25th Senate District, represented by Democrat Anthony Portantino, in the 48th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Blanca Rubio. In the United States House of Representatives, Bradbury is in California's 27th congressional district, represented by Democrat Judy Chu; the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department serves Bradbury through the operation of the Duarte satellite substation as well as the Temple Station in Temple City. The Los Angeles County Fire Department provides
Carson is a city in Los Angeles County, located 13 miles south of downtown Los Angeles and 14 miles away from the Los Angeles International Airport. Incorporated on February 20, 1968, Carson is the newest municipality in the South Bay region of Metropolitan Los Angeles; as of the 2010 census, it had a population of 91,714. 1921 marked the first drilling for oil at Dominguez Hill, on the northwest side of the Dominguez Rancho, site of the famous battle during the Mexican–American War called the Battle of Dominguez Rancho in 1846. The mineral rights to this property were owned by Carson Estate Company, the Hellman Family, the Dominguez Estate Company, the Burnham Exploration Company of Frederick Russell Burnham. On September 7, 1923, Burnham Exploration partnering with Union Oil brought in the first producer on the site: Callender No. 1-A well at a depth of 4,068 feet and 1,193 barrels per day. Before long a number of refineries were up and running, with over 350 oil derricks, tank farms, sprawling industrial complexes becoming a familiar part of the scenery.
The principal leases were with Shell Oil Company and Union Oil of California and the first two wells were located west of Central Avenue and north of Victoria Street. Oil led to an increase in jobs in a subsequent post-war population surge. An average of 300 barrels per day was produced from each of these wells through 1960. In 2011, Shell was ordered by the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board to clean up the Carousel neighborhood after benzene and methane gas contamination was discovered, as well as soil and groundwater contamination. According to the United States Census Bureau, Carson has an area of 19.0 square miles. 18.7 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. Carson is bordered by West Rancho Dominguez on the north, Compton on the northeast, Rancho Dominguez and Long Beach on the east, Wilmington on the south, West Carson and Harbor Gateway on the west. Carson experiences a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, similar to that of the Los Angeles Basin with noticeably cooler temperatures during the summer due to the nearby Pacific Ocean.
Rainfall is scarce during the summer in Carson but receives enough rainfall throughout the year to avoid Köppen's BSh. Carson, like many of the Southern California coastal areas, is subject to a late spring/early summer weather phenomenon called "June Gloom." This involves foggy skies in the morning which yield to sun by early afternoon. The 2010 United States Census reported that Carson had a population of 91,714; the population density was 4,835.2 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Carson was 21,864 White, 21,856 African American, 518 Native American, 23,522 Asian, 2,386 Pacific Islander, 17,151 from other races, 4,417 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 35,417 persons; the Census reported that 90,411 people lived in households, 1,170 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 133 were institutionalized. There were 25,432 households, out of which 10,980 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 14,178 were married couples living together, 4,787 had a female householder with no husband present, 1,761 had a male householder with no wife present.
3,776 households were made up of individuals and 1,790 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.56. There were 20,726 families; the population was spread out with 21,992 people under the age of 18, 9,964 people aged 18 to 24, 23,105 people aged 25 to 44, 24,013 people aged 45 to 64, 12,640 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.5 males. There were 26,226 housing units at an average density of 1,382.6 per square mile, of which 19,529 were owner-occupied, 5,903 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.3%. 68,924 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 21,487 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 89,730 people, 24,648 households, 20,236 families residing in the city; the population density was 4,762.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 25,337 housing units at an average density of 1,344.7 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 25.69% White, 25.41% Black or African American, 0.56% Native American, 22.27% Asian, 2.99% Pacific Islander, 17.98% from other races, 5.09% from two or more races. 34.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 24,648 households out of which 39.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.7% were married couples living together, 17.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 17.9% were non-families. 14.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.59 and the average family size was 3.92. Age
Arcadia is a city in Los Angeles County, United States located about 13 miles northeast of downtown Los Angeles in the San Gabriel Valley and at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains. It is the site of the Santa Anita Park racetrack and home to the Los Angeles County Arboretum and Botanic Garden; the city had a population of 56,364 at the 2010 census, up from 53,248 at the 2000 census. The city is named after Greece. In 2016, Arcadia was ranked the 5th most expensive housing market in the United States by Business Insider, with an average list of $1,748,680 for a four-bedroom home. In 2012, Arcadia was ranked 7th in the nation on CNN Money magazine's list of towns with highest median home costs. Arcadia's Upper Rancho neighborhood was ranked the 23rd richest neighborhood in Southern California by Business Insider in 2014, with a mean household income of $310,779. In 2010, Bloomberg Businessweek named Arcadia as one of the "Best Places to Raise Your Kids" for the second year in a row. Located northeast of downtown Los Angeles, Arcadia is bordered by six other communities: Pasadena, Sierra Madre, El Monte, San Marino and Temple City.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.1 square miles. 10.9 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. The 2010 United States Census reported that Arcadia had a population of 56,364; the population density was 5,062.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Arcadia was 33,353 Asian, 18,191 White, 681 African American, 186 Native American, 16 Pacific Islander, 2,352 from other races, 1,585 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6,799 persons; the Census reported that 55,502 people lived in households, 639 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 223 were institutionalized. There were 19,592 households, out of which 7,336 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 11,703 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,437 had a female householder with no husband present, 865 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 469 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 92 same-sex married couples or partnerships.
3,855 households were made up of individuals and 1,926 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83. There were 15,005 families; the population was spread out with 12,290 people under the age of 18, 4,102 people aged 18 to 24, 13,409 people aged 25 to 44, 17,349 people aged 45 to 64, 9,214 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males. There were 20,686 housing units at an average density of 1,858.0 per square mile, of which 12,371 were owner-occupied, 7,221 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.1%. 37,000 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 18,502 people lived in rental housing units. These were the ten neighborhoods in Los Angeles County with the largest percentage of Asian residents, according to the 2000 census: For over 8,000 years the site of Arcadia was part of the homeland of the Tongva people, a Californian Native American tribe whose territory spanned the greater Los Angeles Basin, the San Gabriel and San Fernando Valleys.
Their fluid borders stretched between: the Santa Susana Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, San Gabriel Mountains in the north. A Tongva settlement site within present-day Arcadia was known as Alyeupkigna; the town's site became part of the Spanish Mission San Gabriel Arcángel lands in 1771. After Indian Reductions to become Mission Indians, the Tongva were known as the Gabrieliños after the Mission's name, and under whose control these people worked during the mission period in California. There are 1,700 people self-identifying as members of the Tongva or Gabrieliño tribe; the Mexican land grant for Rancho Santa Anita was issued to Perfecto Hugo Reid and his Tongva wife, Victoria Bartolomea Comicrabit, in 1845. It was named after Anita Cota, on his wife's side. Reid documented the Gabrieliño Native Americans in a series of letters written in 1852, served as a delegate to the 1849 California Constitutional Convention. In 1847, Reid sold Rancho Santa Anita to Henry Dalton; the rancho changed owners several times before being acquired by Gold Rush immigrant and major regional land owner Elias Jackson "Lucky" Baldwin in 1875.
Baldwin purchased 8,000 acres of Rancho Santa Anita for $200,000. Upon seeing the area, he gasped “By Gads! This is paradise!” Upon buying the land, Baldwin chose to make the area his home and started erecting buildings and cultivating the land for farming and ranches. Baldwin built the Queen Anne Cottage for his fourth wife and himself in 1885-1886, now preserved within the Arboretum. In 1885, the main line of the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley Railroad, in which Baldwin was a stockholder, was opened through the ranch, making subdivision of part of the land into a town site practical; this rail line became a Santa Fe Railroad line. In 1889, on a site just north of
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Beverly Hills, California
Beverly Hills is a city located in Los Angeles County, United States. Beverly Hills is surrounded by the cities of West Hollywood. Sometimes referred to as "90210," one of its primary ZIP codes, it is home to many celebrities, several hotels, the Rodeo Drive shopping district. A Spanish ranch where lima beans were grown, Beverly Hills was incorporated in 1914 by a group of investors who had failed to find oil, but found water instead and decided to develop it into a town. By 2013, its population had grown to 34,658. Gaspar de Portolá arrived in the area that would become Beverly Hills on August 3, 1769, travelling along native trails which followed the present-day route of Wilshire Boulevard; the area was settled by Maria Rita Quinteros de Valdez and her husband in 1828. They called their 4,500 acres of property the Rancho Rodeo de las Aguas. In 1854, she sold the ranch to Benjamin Davis Henry Hancock. By the 1880s, the ranch had been subdivided into parcels of 75 acres and was being bought up by anglos from Los Angeles and the East coast.
Henry Hammel and Andrew H. Denker used it for farming lima beans. At this point, the area was known as the Denker Ranch. By 1888, Denker and Hammel were planning to build a town called Morocco on their holdings. In 1900, Burton E. Green, Charles A. Canfield, Max Whittier, Frank H. Buck, Henry E. Huntington, William G. Kerckhoff, William F. Herrin, W. S. Porter, Frank H. Balch, formed the Amalgamated Oil Company, bought the Hammel and Denker ranch, began looking for oil, they did not find enough to exploit commercially by the standards of the time, though. In 1906, they reorganized as the Rodeo Land and Water Company, renamed the property "Beverly Hills," subdivided it, began selling lots; the development was named "Beverly Hills" after Beverly Farms in Beverly and because of the hills in the area. The first house in the subdivision was built in 1907. Beverly Hills was one of many all-white planned communities started in the Los Angeles area around this time. Restrictive covenants prohibited non-whites from owning or renting property unless they were employed as servants by white residents.
It was forbidden to sell or rent property to Jews in Beverly Hills. Burton Green began construction on The Beverly Hills Hotel in 1911; the hotel was finished in 1912. The visitors drawn by the hotel were inclined to purchase land in Beverly Hills, by 1914 the subdivision had a high enough population to incorporate as an independent city; that same year, the Rodeo Land and Water Company decided to separate its water business from its real estate business. The Beverly Hills Utility Commission was split off from the land company and incorporated in September 1914, buying all of the utilities-related assets from the Rodeo Land and Water Company. In 1919, Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford bought land on Summit Drive and built a mansion, finished in 1921 and nicknamed "Pickfair" by the press; the glamour associated with Fairbanks and Pickford as well as other movie stars who built mansions in the city contributed to its growing appeal. By the early 1920s the population of Beverly Hills had grown enough to make the water supply a political issue.
In 1923 the usual solution, annexation to the city of Los Angeles, was proposed. There was considerable opposition to annexation among such famous residents as Pickford, Will Rogers and Rudolph Valentino; the Beverly Hills Utility Commission, opposed to annexation as well, managed to force the city into a special election and the plan was defeated 337 to 507. In 1925, Beverly Hills approved a bond issue to buy 385 acres for a new campus for UCLA; the cities of Los Angeles, Santa Monica and Venice issued bonds to help pay for the new campus. In 1928, the Beverly Wilshire Apartment Hotel opened on Wilshire Boulevard between El Camino and Rodeo drives, part of the old Beverly Hills Speedway; that same year oilman Edward L. Doheny finished construction of Greystone Mansion, a 55-room mansion meant as a wedding present for his son Edward L. Doheny, Jr; the house is now owned by the city of Beverly Hills. In the early 1930s, Santa Monica Park was renamed Beverly Gardens and was extended to span the entire two-mile length of Santa Monica Boulevard through the city.
The Electric Fountain marks the corner of Santa Monica Blvd. and Wilshire Blvd. with a small sculpture at the top of a Tongva kneeling in prayer. In April 1931, the new Italian Renaissance-style Beverly Hills City Hall was opened. In the early 1940s, black actors and businessmen had begun to move into Beverly Hills, despite the covenants allowing only whites to live in the city. A neighborhood improvement association attempted to enforce the covenant in court; the defendants included such luminaries as Hattie McDaniel, Louise Beavers, Ethel Waters. Among the white residents supporting the lawsuit against blacks was silent film star Harold Lloyd; the NAACP participated in the defense, successful. In his decision, federal judge Thurmond Clarke said that it was time that "members of the Negro race are accorded, without reservations or evasions, the full rights guaranteed to them under the 14th amendment." The United States Supreme Court declared restrictive covenants unenforceable in 1948 in Shelley v. Kraemer.
A group of Jewish residents of Beverly Hills filed an amicus brief in this case. In 1956, Paul Trousdale purchased the grounds of the Doheny Ranch and developed it into the Trousdale Estates, convincing the city of Beverly Hills to annex it; the neighborhood has been home to Elvis Presley, Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Tony Curtis, Ray Charles