Restoration (Tremain novel)
Restoration is a novel by Rose Tremain, published in 1989. It was shortlisted for the Booker Prize in 1989 and was the Sunday Express Book of the Year and it was made into a film in 1995. The novel tells the story of Robert Merivel, a 17th-century English physician, after supervising the recovery of one of the dogs of King Charles II, he is appointed surgeon to all of the kings dogs. He joins in all of the debauchery of King Charles court, the king arranges a marriage of convenience between Merivel and one of his mistresses, Celia Clemence. This is done purely to fool the kings other mistress Barbara Castlemaine, Merivel is given an estate named Bidnold in Norfolk, and Celia is installed in a house in Kew, where the king can visit her secretly. In Norfolk, Merivel abandons the practice of medicine, and lives a life in which he tries to take up painting with the help of an ambitious painter named Elias Finn. Things start to change when Celia is sent to Bidnold by the king after displeasing him, one night Merivel drunkenly makes advances to her, and is promptly reported to the king by Elias Finn.
The result is that the king confiscates the Bidnold estate from Merivel, Merivel joins his old student friend John Pearce at the New Bedlam hospital, in Norfolk. This is a hospital for the ill, run by Quakers. However, things go wrong when he has an affair with a patient named Katharine and this coincides with the death of Pearce. He is expelled from the hospital, and travels with Katharine to be with her mother in London, in London, which is experiencing the Great Plague, Merivel continues practising medicine. Katharine has a girl, but dies in childbirth. During the Great Fire of London in 1666, Merivel rescues a woman from a burning house. It is this which regains him the favour, and at the end the king allows him to live at Bidnold with his daughter. The title of the novel refers both to the Restoration period during which it occurs, and to the ending when Merivel returns to Bidnold. Rose Tremain discusses Restoration on the BBC World Book Club
University of Paris
The University of Paris, metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was a university in Paris, France. Emerging around 1150 as an associated with the cathedral school of Notre Dame de Paris. Vast numbers of popes, royalties and intellectuals were educated at the University of Paris, following the turbulence of the French Revolution, education was suspended in 1793 whereafter its faculties were partly reorganised by Napoleon as the University of France. In 1896, it was renamed again to the University of Paris, in 1970, following the May 1968 events, the university was divided into 13 autonomous universities. Others, like Panthéon-Sorbonne University, chose to be multidisciplinary, in 1150, the future University of Paris was a student-teacher corporation operating as an annex of the Notre-Dame cathedral school. The university had four faculties, Medicine, the Faculty of Arts was the lowest in rank, but the largest, as students had to graduate there in order to be admitted to one of the higher faculties.
The students were divided into four nationes according to language or regional origin, Normandy, the last came to be known as the Alemannian nation. Recruitment to each nation was wider than the names might imply, the faculty and nation system of the University of Paris became the model for all medieval universities. Under the governance of the Church, students wore robes and shaved the tops of their heads in tonsure, students followed the rules and laws of the Church and were not subject to the kings laws or courts. This presented problems for the city of Paris, as students ran wild, students were often very young, entering the school at age 13 or 14 and staying for 6 to 12 years. Three schools were especially famous in Paris, the palatine or palace school, the school of Notre-Dame, the decline of royalty brought about the decline of the first. The other two were ancient but did not have much visibility in the early centuries, the glory of the palatine school doubtless eclipsed theirs, until it completely gave way to them.
These two centres were much frequented and many of their masters were esteemed for their learning, the first renowned professor at the school of Ste-Geneviève was Hubold, who lived in the tenth century. Not content with the courses at Liège, he continued his studies at Paris, entered or allied himself with the chapter of Ste-Geneviève, and attracted many pupils via his teaching. Distinguished professors from the school of Notre-Dame in the century include Lambert, disciple of Fulbert of Chartres, Drogo of Paris, Manegold of Germany. Three other men who added prestige to the schools of Notre-Dame and Ste-Geneviève were William of Champeaux, Abélard, humanistic instruction comprised grammar, dialectics, geometry and astronomy. To the higher instruction belonged dogmatic and moral theology, whose source was the Scriptures and it was completed by the study of Canon law. The School of Saint-Victor arose to rival those of Notre-Dame and Ste-Geneviève and it was founded by William of Champeaux when he withdrew to the Abbey of Saint-Victor
Archbishop of York
The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury. The archbishop is the bishop of the Diocese of York and the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York. The Archbishop of York is an ex member of the House of Lords and is styled Primate of England. The archbishops throne is in York Minster in central York and his residence is Bishopthorpe Palace in the village of Bishopthorpe outside of York. The incumbent, from 5 October 2005, is John Sentamu who signs as +Sentamu Ebor, there was a bishop in Eboracum from very early times, during the Middle Ages, it was thought to have been one of the dioceses established by the legendary King Lucius. Bishops of York are known to have been present at the Councils of Arles, this early Christian community was destroyed by the pagan Anglo-Saxons and there is no direct succession from these bishops to the post-Augustinian ones. The diocese was refounded by Paulinus in the 7th century, notable among these early bishops is Wilfrid.
Until the Danish invasion the archbishops of Canterbury occasionally exercised authority, at the time of the Norman invasion York had jurisdiction over Worcester and Lincoln, as well as the dioceses in the Northern Isles and Scotland. But the first three sees just mentioned were taken from York in 1072, of these, Durham was practically independent, for the palatine bishops of that see were little short of sovereigns in their own jurisdiction. Sodor and Man were returned to York during the fourteenth century, several of the archbishops of York held the ministerial office of Lord Chancellor of England and played some parts in affairs of state. The bishoprics role was complicated by continued conflict over primacy with the see of Canterbury. Until the mid 1530s the bishops and archbishops were in communion with the pope in Rome and this is no longer the case, as the Archbishop of York, together with the rest of the Church of England, is a member of the Anglican Communion. Walter de Grey purchased York Place as his London residence, which after the fall of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, was renamed the Palace of Whitehall.
The Archbishop of York is the bishop of the Province of York and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England after the Archbishop of Canterbury. Since 5 October 2005, the incumbent is the Most Reverend John Sentamu who is an ex member of the House of Lords. Bede and the Letters of Pope Honorius I on the Genesis of the Archbishopric of York
It is sometimes called fabulism, in reference to the conventions of fables and allegory. Magical realism, perhaps the most common term, often refers to fiction and literature in particular, the terms are broadly descriptive rather than critically rigorous. Matthew Strecher defines magic realism as what happens when a highly detailed, many writers are categorized as magical realists, which confuses the term and its wide definition. Magical realism is often associated with Latin American literature, particularly authors including Gabriel García Márquez, Jorge Luis Borges, Miguel Angel Asturias, in English literature, its chief exponents include Salman Rushdie and Alice Hoffman. Roh identified magic realisms accurate detail, smooth photographic clarity, and it reflects the uncanniness of people and our modern technological environment. In 1926 he founded the magic realist magazine 900. Novecento, Rohs magic realism influenced writers in Hispanic America, where it was translated as realismo mágico in 1927.
Venezuelan writer Arturo Uslar-Pietri, who had known Bontempelli, wrote influential magic realist short stories in the 1930s and 40s that focused on the mystery, Luis Leal attests that Pietri seemed to have been the first to adopt the term realismo mágico in Hispanic America in 1948. French-Russian Cuban writer Alejo Carpentier, who rejected Rohs magic realism as tiresome pretension, developed his related concept lo real maravilloso, or marvelous realism, in 1949. While Flores named Jorge Luis Borges as the first magical realist, Borges is often seen as a predecessor of magical realists, with only Flores considering him a true magical realist. The extent to which the characteristics below apply to a magic realist text varies. Every text is different and employs a smattering of the qualities listed here, they accurately portray what one might expect from a magic realist text. Magical realism portrays fantastical events in a realistic tone. It brings fables, folk tales, and myths into contemporary social relevance, fantasy traits given to characters, such as levitation and telekinesis, help to encompass modern political realities that can be phantasmagorical.
The existence of elements in the real world provides the basis for magical realism. Writers do not invent new worlds but reveal the magical in this world, as was done by Gabriel García Márquez who wrote the work of the style. In the binary world of realism, the supernatural realm blends with the natural. Authorial reticence is the withholding of information and explanations about the disconcerting fictitious world. The narrator is indifferent, a characteristic enhanced by this absence of explanation of fantastic events, Magical events are presented as ordinary occurrences, the reader accepts the marvelous as normal and common
William Thomson (bishop)
William Thomson FRS FRGS was an English church leader, Archbishop of York from 1862 until his death. He was born at Whitehaven and educated at Shrewsbury School and at The Queens College, Oxford and he took his B. A. degree in 1840, and was soon afterwards made fellow of his college. He was ordained in 1842, and worked as a curate at Cuddesdon, in 1847 he was made tutor of his college, and in 1853 he delivered the Bampton lectures, his subject being The Atoning Work of Christ viewed in Relation to some Ancient Theories. These thoughtful and learned lectures established his reputation and did much to clear the ground for subsequent discussions on the subject, Thomsons activity was not confined to theology. He was made fellow of the Royal Society and the Royal Geographical Society and he wrote a very popular Outline of the Laws of Thought. He sided with the party at Oxford which favoured university reform, in 1858 he was made preacher at Lincolns Inn and a volume of his sermons was published in 1861.
In the same year he edited Aids to Faith, a written in opposition to Essays and Reviews. In December 1861 he became Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, and his parents were John Thomson and Isabella Thompson On 24 July 1855 in Oxford, Thomson married Zoë Skene daughter of James Henry Skene, British Consul at Aleppo. They had the children, Ethel Zoë Thomson, who edited Thomsons Life. Wilfred Forbes Home Thomson Jocelyn Home Thomson Sir Basil Home Thomson, KCB, a British intelligence officer, police officer, prison governor, colonial administrator, matthew, H. C. G. Thomson, William. Media related to William Thomson at Wikimedia Commons
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Women's Prize for Fiction
The Baileys Womens Prize for Fiction is one of the United Kingdoms most prestigious literary prizes. It is awarded annually to an author of any nationality for the best original full-length novel written in English. The prize was established to recognise the achievement of female writers. The inspiration for the Baileys Prize was the Booker Prize of 1991, a group of women and men working in the industry – authors, agents, librarians, journalists – therefore met to discuss the issue. Research showed that women’s literary achievements were not acknowledged by the major literary prizes. The winner of the prize receives £30,000, along with a sculpture called the Bessie created by artist Grizel Niven. Typically, a longlist of nominees is announced around March each year, followed by a shortlist in June, the winner is selected by a board of five leading women each year. In support of the 2004 award, the Orange Prize for Fiction published a list of 50 contemporary essential reads, the books were chosen by a sample of 500 people attending the Guardian Hay Festival and represent the audiences must have books by living UK writers.
The list is called the Orange Prize for Fictions 50 Essential Reads by Contemporary Authors, the prize was originally sponsored by Orange, a telecommunications company. In May 2012, it was announced Orange would be ending its sponsorship of the prize. There was no sponsor for 2013, sponsorship was by private benefactors, led by Cherie Blair and writers Joanna Trollope. Beginning in 2014, the prize was sponsored by the liquor brand Baileys Irish Cream, in January 2017, Diageo announced that it had regretfully decided to make way for a new sponsor, the 2017 prize to be announced in June, will be the last it supports. In May 2014, Baileys Womens Prize for Fiction launched the campaign to find out which books. Nineteen inspirational women were chosen to launch the campaign and thousands of people from the public submitted their ideas via Twitter. The 20 winners were announced 29 July 2014, the organizers noted that over half the winning books were published before 1960. To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee The Handmaids Tale, Margaret Atwood Jane Eyre, Charlotte Bronte Harry Potter, after the prize was founded, Auberon Waugh nicknamed it the Lemon Prize, while Germaine Greer said there would soon be a prize for writers with red hair. A. S.
Byatt, who won the 1990 Man Booker Prize, said it was a sexist prize and she refused to have her work considered for this prize. In 2007, former editor of The Times Simon Jenkins called the prize sexist, in 2008, writer Tim Lott suggested the Orange Prize is sexist and discriminatory, and it should be shunned
The Road Home (novel)
The Road Home is a 2007 novel by Rose Tremain. The story concerns with Lev who is an immigrant and widowed. He leaves Auror, a village in an unspecified eastern European country, soon after, he travels to London to find work so he can make money that he can send to his mother, his 5-year-old daughter, and his best friend. He finds his first job at a Muslim kebab-shop, before washing dishes at a restaurant named GK Ashe. Lev meets a translator from his home country named Lydia, a divorced Irish plumber named Christy, a chef named Sophie. The author won an Orange Broadband Prize for this novel, liesl Schillinger, of The New York Times, reviewed the book saying, A less disciplined and agile author might have been tempted to ease Lev’s transition from daydreamer to doer. Or she might have jollied Lev into a toque at London’s River Café, but Rose Tremain is in the business of inventing not so much fantasies as alternate realities. In “The Road Home, ” she lets Lev in on her secret, the present is a work of imagination.
She recounts in succulent detail several of the meals Lev produces as he begins to hone his own culinary skills, strangely, it is not until near the end that we are given the dishes particular to Levs country. Telegraph Courant The Independent The Sydney Morning Herald
Music and Silence
Music and Silence is a novel written by the English author Rose Tremain. It is set in and around the court of Christian IV of Denmark in the years 1629 and 1630, the book won Best Novel at the 1999 Whitbread Awards. The main historical event depicted is the end of Christians second marriage, to Kirsten Munk, in addition there are several references to Danish history and flashbacks to Christians childhood and subsequent development
The Colour is a 2003 novel by Rose Tremain, which was nominated for the Orange Broadband Prize for Fiction. It is set in New Zealand and Harriet Blackstone, and Josephs mother Lilian, are immigrants from England on the SS Albert into the South Island of New Zealand in 1860s. After settling the two women into accommodation in Christchurch, Joseph travels to the foothills near the Okuku river to build their Cob House, Joseph returns to Christchurch once the house has been built and the three of them set off to start their new lives on their farm. The harsh first winter brings with it problems which threaten the viability of their farm, not telling Harriet about the find, Joseph abandons the farm and travels by boat to Hokitika on the West Coast of the South Island where major gold strikes have occurred. After Lilians death, Harriet travels to Hokitika and delivers news to Joseph. The search for gold, the colour, goes on in difficult conditions, Josephs guilt surrounding events in England prior to their emigration impact on this separation