Polytheism is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals. In most religions which accept polytheism, the different gods and goddesses are representations of forces of nature or ancestral principles, can be viewed either as autonomous or as aspects or emanations of a creator deity or transcendental absolute principle, which manifests immanently in nature. Most of the polytheistic deities of ancient religions, with the notable exceptions of the Ancient Egyptian and Hindu deities, were conceived as having physical bodies. Polytheism is a type of theism. Within theism, it contrasts with monotheism, the belief in a singular God, in most cases transcendent. Polytheists do not always worship all the gods but they can be henotheists, specializing in the worship of one particular deity. Other polytheists can be kathenotheists. Polytheism was the typical form of religion during the Bronze Age and Iron Age up to the Axial Age and the development of Abrahamic religions, the latter of which enforced strict monotheism.
It is well documented in historical religions of Classical antiquity ancient Greek religion and ancient Roman religion, after the decline of Greco-Roman polytheism in tribal religions such as Germanic and Baltic paganism. Important polytheistic religions practiced today include Chinese traditional religion, Japanese Shinto and various neopagan faiths; the term comes from the Greek πολύ poly and θεός theos and was first invented by the Jewish writer Philo of Alexandria to argue with the Greeks. When Christianity spread throughout Europe and the Mediterranean, non-Christians were just called Gentiles or pagans or by the pejorative term idolaters; the modern usage of the term is first revived in French through Jean Bodin in 1580, followed by Samuel Purchas's usage in English in 1614. A central, main division in polytheism is between soft polytheism and hard polytheism."Hard" polytheism is the belief that gods are distinct, real divine beings, rather than psychological archetypes or personifications of natural forces.
Hard polytheists reject the idea that "all gods are one god." "Hard" polytheists do not consider the gods of all cultures as being real, a theological position formally known as integrational polytheism or omnism. This is contrasted with "soft" polytheism, which holds that gods may be aspects of only one god, that the pantheons of other cultures are representative of one single pantheon, psychological archetypes or personifications of natural forces; the deities of polytheism are portrayed as complex personages of greater or lesser status, with individual skills, needs and histories. Polytheism cannot be cleanly separated from the animist beliefs prevalent in most folk religions; the gods of polytheism are in many cases the highest order of a continuum of supernatural beings or spirits, which may include ancestors, demons and others. In some cases these spirits are divided into celestial or chthonic classes, belief in the existence of all these beings does not imply that all are worshipped. Types of deities found in polytheism may include Creator deity Culture hero Death deity Life-death-rebirth deity Love goddess Mother goddess Political deity Sky deity Solar deity Trickster deity Water deity Gods of music, science, farming or other endeavors.
In the Classical era, Sallustius categorised mythology into five types: Theological Physical Psychological Material MixedThe theological are those myths which use no bodily form but contemplate the essence of the gods: e.g. Cronus swallowing his children. Since divinity is intellectual, all intellect returns into itself, this myth expresses in allegory the essence of divinity. Myths may be regarded physically; the psychological way is to regard the activities of the soul itself and or the soul's acts of thought. The material is to regard material objects to be gods, for example: to call the earth Gaia, ocean Okeanos, or heat Typhon; some well-known historical polytheistic pantheons include the Sumerian gods and the Egyptian gods, the classical-attested pantheon which includes the ancient Greek religion and Roman religion. Post-classical polytheistic religions include Norse Æsir and Vanir, the Yoruba Orisha, the Aztec gods, many others. Today, most historical polytheistic religions are referred to as "mythology", though the stories cultures tell about their gods should be distinguished from their worship or religious practice.
For instance deities portrayed in conflict in mythology would still be worshipped sometimes in the same temple side by side, illustrating the distinction in the devotees mind between the myth and the reality. Scholars such as Jaan Puhvel, J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams have reconstructed aspects of the ancient Proto-Indo-European religion, from which the religions of the various Indo-European peoples derive, that this religion was an naturalist numenistic religion. An example of a religious notion from this shared past is the concept of *dyēus, attested in several distinct religious systems. In many civilizations, pantheons tended to grow over time. Deities first
In the medieval chanson de geste cycle of the Matter of France, the paladins or Twelve Peers are the twelve foremost knights of Charlemagne's court, comparable to the Knights of the Round Table in Arthurian romance. They represent the valour of Christian chivalry against the Saracen invasion of Europe, their most notable appearance is in The Song of Roland, narrating the heroic death of Roland at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass. The historical nucleus of the legendary material of the "Matter of France" cycle is the Umayyad invasion of Gaul and the subsequent conflict between the Frankish Empire and the Emirate of Córdoba in the Marca Hispanica; the term paladin is from Old French from Latin palātīnus, the title given to the closest retainers of the Roman emperors. The earliest recorded instance of the word paladin in the English language dates to 1592, in Delia by Samuel Daniel, it entered English through the Middle French word paladin, which itself derived from the Latin palatinus. A presumtive Old French form *palaisin was loaned into late Middle English as palasin in c.
1400. The word is derived from the Latin palatinus, most through the Old French palatin from the name of Palatine Hill is translated "of the palace" in the Frankish title of Mayor of the Palace. Over time this word came to refer to other high-level officials in the imperial and royal courts; the word palatine, used in various European countries in the medieval and modern eras, has the same derivation. By the 13th century words referring to Charlemagne's peers began appearing in European languages. Modern French has paladin, Spanish has paladino, while German has Paladin. By extension, paladin has come to refer to any chivalrous hero such as King Arthur's Knights of the Round Table. In the Roman imperial period, a palatinus was one of the closest retainers of the emperor, who lived in the imperial residence as part of the emperor's household; the title survived into the medieval period. However, the modern spelling paladin is now reserved for the fictional characters of the chanson de geste, while the conventional English translation of comes palatinus is count palatine.
After the fall of Rome, a new feudal type of title known as palatinus, started developing. The Frankish kings of the Merovingian dynasty employed a high official, the comes palatinus, who at first assisted the king in his judicial duties and at a date discharged many of these himself. Other counts palatine were employed on administrative work. In the Visigothic Kingdom, the Officium Palatinum consisted of a number of men with the title of count that managed the various departments of the royal household; the Comes Cubiculariorum oversaw the chamberlains, the Comes Scanciorun directed the cup-bearers, the Comes Stabulorum directed the equerries in charge of the stables, etc. The Ostrogothic Kingdom maintained palatine counts with titles such as Comes Patrimonium, in charge of the patrimonial or private real estate of the king, others; the system was maintained by the Carolingian sovereigns. A Frankish capitulary of 882 and Hincmar, archbishop of Reims, writing about the same time, testify to the extent to which the judicial work of the Frankish Empire had passed into their hands.
Instead of remaining near the person of the king, some of the counts palatine were sent to various parts of his empire to act as judges and governors, the districts ruled by them being called palatinates. By the High Middle Ages, the title "count" had become common, to the point that both great magnates who ruled regions that were the size of duchies, local castle-lords, might style themselves "count"; as the great magnates began to centralize their power over their local castle-lords, they felt the need to assert the difference between themselves and these minor "counts". Therefore, several of these great magnates began styling themselves "Count Palatine", signifying great counts ruling regions equivalent to duchies, such as the Counts Palatine of Champagne in the 13th century; the Count Palatine of the Rhine served as prince-elector from "time immemorial", noted as such in a papal letter of 1261, confirmed as elector in the Golden Bull of 1356. Palatin was used as a title in the Kingdom of Hungary.
In the French courtly literature of the 12th century, the paladins are the twelve closest companions of Charlemagne, comparable to the role of the Knights of the Round Table in Arthurian romance. The names of the twelve paladins vary from romance to romance, more than twelve are named; the number is popular. Always named among the paladins are Oliver, their greatest moments come in The Song of Roland, which depicts their defense of Charlemagne's army against the Saracens of Al-Andalus, their deaths at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass due to the treachery of Ganelon. The Song of Roland lists the twelve paladins as Roland, Charlemagne's nephew and the chief hero among the paladins. Other characters elsewhere considered part of the twelve appear in the song, such as Archbishop Turpin and Ogier the Dane; the paladins figure into many chansons de geste and
Marriage of state
A marriage of state is a diplomatic marriage or union between two members of different nation-states or internally, between two power blocs in authoritarian societies and is a practice which dates back into pre-history, as far back as early Grecian cultures in western society, of similar antiquity in other civilizations. The fable of Helen of Troy may be the best known pre-historic tale reporting an incidence of surrendering a female member of a ruling line to gain peace or shore up alliances of state between nation-states headed by small oligarchies or acknowledged royalty. While the contemporary Western ideal sees marriage as a unique bond between two people who are in love, families in which heredity is central to power or inheritance see marriage in a different light. There are political or other non-romantic functions that must be served, the relative wealth and power of the potential spouses are considered. Marriage for political, economic, or diplomatic reasons was the pattern for centuries among European rulers.
Careful selection of a spouse was important to maintain the royal status of a family: depending on the law of the land in question, if a prince or king was to marry a commoner who had no royal blood if the first-born was acknowledged as a son of a sovereign, he might not be able to claim any of the royal status of his father. Traditionally, many factors were important in the arranging of royal marriages. One such factor was the size of the tracts of land that the other royal family governed or controlled. Another, related factor was the stability of the control exerted over that territory: when there is territorial instability in a royal family, other royals will be less inclined to marry into that family. Another factor was political alliance: marriage was an important way to bind together royal families and "their countries during peace and war" and could justify many important political decisions. Religion has always been tied to political affairs and continues to be today in many countries.
Religious considerations were important in marriages among royal families in lands where there was an established or official religion. When a royal family was prepared to negotiate or arrange the marriage of one of its children, it was important to have a prospective spouse who followed the same religion or, at the least, that the spouse be willing to convert before the wedding. In non-Catholic royal families, there were few things worse than marrying a person, a Catholic; some countries barred from accession to the throne any person who married a Catholic, as in the British Act of Settlement 1701. When a Protestant prince converted to Catholicism, he risked being disowned by his family, being barred from the throne himself; some of these laws are still in force, centuries after the conclusion of Europe's Wars of Religion. Roman Catholic countries had similar strictures. France, for example barred non-Catholics from the throne. If the law did not prohibit marrying non-Catholic royalty, political situations and popular sentiment were sufficient to dissuade princes from so doing.
Contrary to what some historians have said about her elusiveness when in marriage negotiations with suitors or their representatives, Queen Elizabeth I was known to be straightforward in her various courtships. In 1565, when in the midst of the Habsburg matrimonial project, Elizabeth promptly dismissed the rival French suit of their fourteen-year-old king, stating she would have to be ten years younger to consider it. Furthermore, in addition to concerns about religion, financial arrangements, security, Elizabeth maintained that she could not marry anyone whom she had not seen in person as a result of her father's own displeasure and divorce of Anne of Cleves; the emphasis on religion, national security, securing the line of succession in all of Elizabeth's marriage negotiations demonstrate the emphasis placed on the political importance of marriages of state during this period. Although some of her contemporaries hoped she would find solace in marriage, procreation was still considered the primary purpose of royal marriage.
In March 1565, Elizabeth told her Spanish ambassador, Diego Guzmán de Silva: If I could appoint such a successor to the Crown as would please me and the country, I would not marry, as it is a thing for which I have never had any inclination. My subjects, however press me so that I cannot help myself or take the other course, a difficult one. There is a strong idea in the world that a woman cannot live unless she is married, or at all events, she refrains from marriage she does so for some bad reason.... But what can we do? Thus, Elizabeth appeared to believe that a woman should reasonably be able to remain single. However, she continued to engage in marriage negotiations for decades because of the expectations of her role as monarch. Although she herself had little inclination to marry, she understood the limitations of her power and therefore considered marriage on numerous occasion at the behest of councillors; the Habsburg marriage negotiations revolving around the marriage of Queen Elizabeth I to Archduke Charles show the way marriage was negotiated in royal families.
The first phase began in 1559, with the initiative for a matrimonial alliance between England and Austria. However, the first phase was a failure and, the people of England were relieved to the extent that they feared a foreign ruler coming into their country. Negotiations were re-opened with some difficulty in 1563 by the English; this was in part due to Charles' search for a wife elsewhere, the lack of permanent diplomatic links between Austria and England, because of Emperor Ferdin
Mujahideen is the plural form of mujahid, the term for one engaged in Jihad. Its widespread use in English began with reference to the guerrilla-type military groups led by the Islamist Afghan fighters in the Soviet–Afghan War, now extends to other jihadist groups in various countries. In its roots, Mujahideen refers to any person performing Jihad. In its post-classical meaning, Jihad refers to an act, spiritually comparable in reward to promoting Islam during the early 600s CE; these acts could be as simple as sharing a considerable amount of your income with the poor, provided that the poor in question are Muslim. The modern term of mujahideen referring to spiritual Muslim warriors, originates in the 19th century when some tribal leaders in Afghanistan fought against the British attempts to stop raids on India, it began in 1829 when a religious man, Sayyid Ahmed Shah Brelwi, came back to the village of Sitana from a pilgrimage to Mecca and began preaching war against the ‘infidels’ in the area defining the Northwest border of British India.
Although he died in battle, the sect he had created survived and the Mujahideen gained more power and prominence. During the Indian Mutiny of 1857, the Mujahideen were said to accept any fleeing Sepoys and recruit them into their ranks; as time went by the sect grew larger until it was not only conducting bandit raids, but controlling larger areas in Afghanistan. Usman dan Fodio Jahangir Khoja Ma al-'Aynayn Muhammad Ibn'Abd al-Karim al-Khattabi Muhammad Ahmed Al Mahdi Mehmed V Omar Mukhtar Imam Shamil Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosoewirjo Basmachi opponents of Tsarism and Bolshevism in Central Asia called themselves mojahed; the modern phenomenon of jihadism that presents jihad as the casus belli for insurgencies, guerrilla warfare and international terrorism, dates back to the 20th century and draws on early-to-mid-20th century Islamist doctrines such as Qutbism. Arguably the best-known mujahideen outside the Islamic world, various loosely aligned Afghan opposition groups rebelled against the government of the pro-Soviet Democratic Republic of Afghanistan during the late 1970s.
At the DRA's request, the Soviet Union brought forces into the country to aid the government from 1979. The mujahideen fought against DRA troops during the Soviet -- Afghan War. Afghanistan's resistance movement originated in chaos and, at first, regional warlords waged all of its fighting locally; as warfare became more sophisticated, outside support and regional coordination grew. The basic units of mujahideen organization and action continued to reflect the decentralized nature of Afghan society and strong loci of competing mujahideen and tribal groups in isolated areas among the mountains; the seven main mujahideen parties allied as the political bloc called Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen. Many Muslims from other countries assisted the various mujahideen groups in Afghanistan; some groups of these veterans became significant players in conflicts in and around the Muslim world. Osama bin Laden from a wealthy family in Saudi Arabia, was a prominent organizer and financier of an all-Arab Islamist group of foreign volunteers.
These foreign fighters became known as "Afghan Arabs" and their efforts were coordinated by Abdullah Yusuf Azzam. Although the mujahideen were aided by the Pakistani, U. S. and Saudi governments, the mujahideen's primary source of funding was private donors and religious charities throughout the Muslim world—particularly in the Persian Gulf. Jason Burke recounts that "as little as 25 per cent of the money for the Afghan jihad was supplied directly by states." Mujahideen forces caused serious casualties to the Soviet forces, made the war costly for the Soviet Union. In 1989 the Soviet Union withdrew its forces from Afghanistan. Many districts and cities fell to the mujahideen. However, the mujahideen did not establish a united government, many of the larger mujahideen groups began to fight each other over power in Kabul. After several years of devastating fighting, a village mullah named Mohammed Omar organized a new armed movement with the backing of Pakistan; this movement became known as the Taliban, referring to how most Taliban had grown up in refugee camps in Pakistan during the 1980s and were taught in the Saudi-backed Wahhabi madrassas, religious schools known for teaching a fundamentalist interpretation of Islam.
Veteran mujahideen confronted this radical splinter group in 1996. While more than one group in Iran have called themselves mujahideen, the most famous is the People's Mujahedin of Iran, as of 2014 an Iraq-based Islamic Socialist militant organization that advocates the overthrow of Iran's current government; the group took part in the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Iran–Iraq War, in the Iraqi internal conflicts. Another mujahideen was an Islamic party led by Ayatollah Abol-Ghasem Kashani, it formed part of the National Front during the time of Mohammed Mosaddeq's oil nationalization, but broke away from Mosaddeq over his un-Islamic policies. From 1947 to 1961, local mujahideen fought against Burmese government soldiers in an attempt to have the Mayu peninsula in northern Arakan, Burma secede
Tracy Raye Hickman is an American fantasy author. He is best known for his work on the Dragonlance novels co-written with Margaret Weis, he is known for authoring role playing games while working for TSR and has cowritten novels with his wife Laura Hickman. Tracy Hickman was raised in Salt Lake City, Utah, he graduated from Provo High School in 1974. His major interests were drama and Air Force JROTC. In 1975, Hickman began two years of service as a missionary for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, he was posted to Hawaii for six months while awaiting visa approval, he went to Indonesia, where he served in Surabaya and the mountain city of Bandung until 1977. Within four months of his return to the United States he married his high school sweetheart, Laura Curtis. Laura was the inspiration for Lauralanthalasa Kanan. Hickman attended Brigham Young University. Hickman had many jobs before joining TSR in 1982, including working as a supermarket stockboy, a movie projectionist, a theater manager, a glass worker, a television assistant director and a drill press operator in a genealogy center.
Together and Laura wrote the original versions of the modules Rahasia and Pharaoh, publishing them privately. Pharaoh was published by DayStar West Media in 1980. In 1981, Tracy entered into a business arrangement to produce an arcade immersion game, but his associate disappeared, leaving the Hickmans with $30,000 in debts. Destitute and desperate, Tracy approached TSR with the modules Rahasia and Pharaoh, "literally so that I could buy shoes for my children". TSR wanted to hire Tracy as well. Tracy recalls, "They said. So, we made the move from Utah to Wisconsin, it was a terrifying experience. We had no money. My parents begged us not to venture into such foreign territory to pursue such a bizarre career. My father wrote that there was a secure job as a fry cook in Flagstaff, he pleaded with me to come take it."When Tracy and Laura Hickman came to TSR, they brought Pharaoh with them. It was published as the first part of TSR's Desert of Desolation series. I6 Ravenloft was written by Tracy and Laura Hickman.
Tracy Hickman wrote two supplements for TSR's Gangbusters role-playing game. Tracy and Laura Hickman's contributions to the D&D module portfolio are credited with initiating a fundamental shift in the RPG module design sensibilities, away from pure dungeon crawl and towards more "cerebral" adventures centered on intriguing plots; as he was traveling from Utah to Wisconsin to join TSR, Hickman conceived the idea for a setting to make dragons fearsome once more. At TSR he found other creators who were interested in his project, called "Project Overlord". Harold Johnson became the project's biggest promoter to upper management and convinced Hickman to expand his initial idea of a three-adventure trilogy. Soon after, TSR management announced its intention to develop his series of dragon-based role-playing adventures. Hickman's proposal resulted in the Dragonlance Chronicles, which led to his association with Margaret Weis. Jean Black, the managing editor of TSR's book department, picked Hickman and Weis to write Dragons of Autumn Twilight and the rest of the Dragonlance Chronicles series.
This was the first project TSR had undertaken that would include adult novels as well as games and other spin-off products. The original Dragonlance team was formed under Hickman's leadership. "Project Overlord" began as a novel and three modules, beginning in 1984 grew into the first Dragonlance trilogy and 15 companion modules. After Dragonlance Chronicles and Weis wrote the Dragonlance Legends trilogy, published in 1986. By 1987, the Dragonlance project had sold a half million adventure modules. Hickman left TSR in 1987. Together they wrote the Darksword trilogy and The Death Gate Cycle, collaborated on the Rose of the Prophet series. Weis and Hickman returned to TSR to write new fiction, although TSR turned their intended trilogy into a single book, Dragons of Summer Flame published in 1995. In spring 1996, Hickman's first two solo novels, Requiem of Stars and The Immortals, were published. Of The Immortals, a near-future cautionary tale about AIDS concentration camps in Utah, Hickman said: "I was driven to write that book.
I was able to say many things that I felt about and still do. It is my finest work."For the Starshield Project and Weis produced the Del Rey Books-published novels Sentinels and Nightsword, Hickman wrote a story for Dragon #250 called "Dedrak's Quest". Of this setting he said, "Starshield is a universe where a society of dragons can confront blaster-armed spacemen or wizards wielding magic staves with computer targeting", that the Starshield Project "grew out of my desire to share the creation process with all our fans. Many of the ideas and creations submitted by our citizens find their way into our novels. Everyone whose material is used gets credit and a chance to participate in profits from online sales of their adventures." According to Hickman, Starshield's ultimate purpose, his biggest dream, was to finance a permanent colony on Mars by the year 2010: "Whether we make it to Mars may not be as important as that we courageously tried." Readers were able to download both the first novel in the series, the Starshield roleplaying game from Hickman's website.
The Hickmans have been publishing game designs together for over twenty-five years including
Buzkashi is a Central Asian sport in which horse-mounted players attempt to place a goat or calf carcass in a goal. Similar games are known as kokpar and ulak tartysh, in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan and as kökbörü and gökbörü in Turkey, where it is played by communities from Central Asia. Buzkashi began among the nomadic Turkic peoples who came from farther north and east spreading westward from China and Mongolia between the 10th and 15th centuries in a centuries-long series of migrations that ended only in the 1930s. From Scythian times until recent decades, buzkashi has remained a legacy of that bygone era. During the rule of the Taliban regime, buzkashi was banned in Afghanistan, as the Taliban considered the game immoral. After the Taliban regime was ousted, the game resumed being played. Today games similar to buzkashi are played by several Central Asian ethnic groups such as the Kyrgyz, Kazakhs, Uyghurs, Hazaras and Pashtuns. In the West, the game is played by Afghan Turks who migrated to Ulupamir village in the Van district of Turkey from the Pamir region.
In western China, there is not only horse-back buzkashi, but yak buzkashi among Tajiks of Xinjiang. Buzkashi is the national sport and a "passion" in Afghanistan where it is played on Fridays and matches draw thousands of fans. Whitney Azoy notes in his book Buzkashi: Game and Power in Afghanistan that "leaders are men who can seize control by means foul and fair and fight off their rivals; the Buzkashi rider does the same". Traditionally, games could last for several days, but in its more regulated tournament version, it has a limited match time. Kazakhstan's first National Kokpar Association was registered in 2000; the association has been holding annual kokpar championships among adults since 2001 and youth kokpar championships since 2005. All 14 regions of Kazakhstan have professional kokpar teams; the regions with the biggest number of professional kokpar teams are Southern Kazakhstan with 32 professional teams, Jambyl region with 27 teams and Akmola region with 18 teams. Kazakhstan's national kokpar team holds a title of Eurasian kokpar champions.
A photograph documents kokboru players in Kyrgyzstan around 1870. Starting from 1958 kokboru began being held in hippodromes; the size of a kokboru field depends on the number of participants. The buzkashi season in Tajikistan runs from November through April. High temperatures prevent matches from taking place outside of this period, though isolated games might be found in some cooler mountain areas. In Tajikistan and among the Tajik people of Tashkorgan in China's Xinjiang region, buzkashi games are popular in relation to weddings as the games are sponsored by the father of the bride as part of the festivities. Buzkashi was brought to the U. S. by a descendant from the Afghan Royal Family, the family of King Amanullah and King Zahir Shah. A mounted version of the game has been played in the United States in the 1940s. Young men in Cleveland, Ohio played a game; the men – five to a team – played on horseback with a sheepskin-covered ball. The Greater Cleveland area had seven teams; the game was divided into three "chukkers", somewhat like polo.
The field was about the size of a football field and had goals at each end: large wooden frameworks standing on tripods, with holes about two feet square. The players carried the ball in their hands. A team had to pass the ball three times before throwing it into the goal. If the ball fell to the ground, the player had to reach down from his horse to pick it up. One player recalls, "Others would try to unseat the rider, they would grab you by the shoulder to shove you off. There weren't many rules."Mounted team-based potato races, a popular pastime in early 20th-century America, bore some resemblance to buzkashi, although on a much smaller and tamer scale. Competition is fierce. Prior to the establishment of official rules by the Afghan Olympic Federation, the sport was conducted based upon rules such as not whipping a fellow rider intentionally or deliberately knocking him off his horse. Riders wear heavy clothing and head protection to protect themselves against other players' whips and boots.
For example, riders in the former Soviet Union wear salvaged Soviet tank helmets for protection. The boots have high heels that lock into the saddle of the horse to help the rider lean on the side of the horse while trying to pick up the goat. Games can last for several days, the winning team receives a prize, not money, as a reward for their win. Top players, such as Aziz Ahmad, are sponsored by wealthy Afghans. A buzkashi player is called a Chapandaz; this is based on the fact that the nature of the game requires its player to undergo severe physical practice and observation. Horses used in buzkashi undergo severe training and due attention. A player does not own the horse. Horses are owned by landlords and rich people wealthy enough to look after and provide for training facilities for such horses; however a master Chapandaz can choose to select any horse and the owner of the horse wants his horse to be ridden by a master Chapandaz as a winning horse brings pride to the owner. The game consists of two main forms: Qarajai.
Tudabarai is considered to be the simpler form of the game. In this version, the goal is to grab the goat and move in any direction until clear of the