Kittson County, Minnesota
Kittson County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota along the Canada–US border, south of the Canadian province of Manitoba. As of the 2010 census, the population was 4,552, its county seat is Hallock. Evidence of occupation dating back 1800 years has been confirmed through archaeological expeditions done in the 1930s and 1970s around the burial mounds on the sand ridges in the eastern part of the county, which date to the Woodland Period. Evidence has been found that the Laurel, Arvilla, St. Croix, Blackduck complexes were the area's early occupants. 400 years ago, the Cree, Assiniboine and Ojibway inhabited the county. The early explorers of the region were fur traders. Pembina, North Dakota's oldest settlement, across the Red River from Kittson County, dates from 1797, when the first trading post was established by Charles Baptiste Chaboillez of the Northwest Fur Company; the Hudson Bay and American Fur Companies were in Pembina as the fur trading industry increased. The fur traders and voyageurs traveled on the eastern side of the Red.
Alexander Henry the younger, who erected a fort for the North West Company in Pembina, is thought to be the first white man to test agriculture in the valley. Joe Rolette, who started a fur post for the American Fur Company in Pembina, Norman W. Kittson, were two early entrepreneurs who opened this area by developing the Red River Ox Cart trails and broadening the use of oxcarts; the need for oxcarts diminished as steamboats became the new mode for transporting furs and supplies. The steamboats were replaced by the railroad. Pembina County was one of five large counties established by the Minnesota Territory legislature on October 27, 1849, it was not organized at that time. On March 9, 1878, the Minnesota Legislature renamed Pembina County Kittson County. On February 25, 1879, Kittson County was divided; the county seat, was organized in 1880. Kittson County was further diminished in 1894. Kittson County has retained its present boundaries since 1894. St. Vincent, directly across the Red River from Pembina, was settled in 1857.
With rumors of a railroad coming through, settlers moved there to stake their claims. Many of these early settlers were a mixture of native and naturalized North Americans. In 1878, the St. Paul & Pacific Railroad line opened the area to settlement, it extended through the western portion of the county, with Donaldson, Hallock, Humboldt and St. Vincent established along the line; the eastern portion of the county was settled in the early 1900s. The Soo Line railroad was completed in 1904 and the communities of Karlstad, Bronson, Lancaster and Noyes were established. Scandinavians, Polish, Irish, Germans, French Canadians and Métis all contributed to Kittson County's melting pot. Once home to over 10,000 residents, the county population declined below 5,000 in 2006. Three sites in the county are listed in the National Register of Historic Places: the St. Nicholas Orthodox Church, in Caribou Township. Lake Bronson State Park has interpretive sites for the tower, a pioneer cemetery and the WPA camp.
Kittson County is on the borders of North Dakota and Canada. The Red River flows north along the county's western border; the South Fork of Two Rivers flows east through the central part of the county on its way to discharge into the Red. The Joe River flows northwest out of the county into Canada, to discharge into the Red a few miles past the international border; the county's terrain consists of low rolling hills, devoted to agriculture. The terrain slopes to the north and west, with its highest point near the southeast corner at 1,079' ASL; the county has a total area of 1,104 square miles, of which 1,099 square miles is land and 4.8 square miles is water. Kittson County was once part of glacial Lake Agassiz. Evidence of this prehistoric lake can still be seen in the county's topography. Remnants of McCauleyville Beach can be found in the eastern part of the county, an area of sandy soil and sand ridges. Other evidence of the glacier and Lake Agassiz is the 140' drop in elevation from the eastern part of the county to the western part, near the Red River Valley, with its proliferation of black rich soil.
Lake Bronson is a man-made reservoir, completed in 1937. Beaches State Wildlife Management Area Lake Bronson Parklands Scientific and Natural Area Lake Bronson State Park Lake Bronson Lake Stella Twin Lakes As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 5,285 people, 2,167 households, 1,447 families in the county; the population density was 4.81/sqmi. There were 2,719 housing units at an average density of 2.47/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 98.09% White, 0.15% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.38% from other races, 0.87% from two or more races. 1.27% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 30.1 % were of 6.6 % Polish ancestry. Kittson County had the highest percentage of Swedish speakers of any county in the United States. There were 2,167 households out of which 29.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.40% were married couples living together, 6.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.20% were non
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
The Mandan are a Native American tribe of the Great Plains who have lived for centuries in what is now North Dakota. They are enrolled in the Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation. About half of the Mandan still reside in the area of the reservation; the Mandan lived along both banks of the Upper Missouri River and two of its tributaries—the Heart and Knife rivers— in present-day North and South Dakota. Speakers of Mandan, a Siouan language, they developed a agrarian culture, they established permanent villages featuring large, earth lodges, some 40 feet in diameter, surrounding a central plaza. Matrilineal families lived in the lodges; the Mandan were a great trading nation, trading their large corn surpluses with other tribes in exchange for bison meat and fat. Food was the primary item, but they traded for horses and other trade goods; the Mandan population was 3,600 in the early 18th century. It is estimated to have been 10,000-15,000 before European encounter. Decimated by a widespread smallpox epidemic in 1781, the people had to abandon several villages, remnants of the Hidatsa gathered with them in a reduced number of villages.
In 1836, there were more than 1,600 full-blood Mandans but, following another smallpox epidemic in 1836-37, this number was estimated to have dropped to 125 by 1838. In the 20th century, the people began to recover. In the 1990s, 6,000 people were enrolled in the Three Affiliated Tribes. In the 2010 Census, 1,171 people reported Mandan ancestry; some 365 of them identified as full-bloods, 806 had partial Mandan ancestry. The English name Mandan is derived from the French-Canadian explorer Pierre Gaultier, Sieur de la Verendrye, who in 1738 heard it as Mantannes from his Assiniboine guides, which call the Mandan Mayádąna, he had heard the earth lodge peoples referred to by the Cree as Ouachipouennes, "the Sioux who go underground". The Assiniboine are Siouan speakers. Nearby Siouan speakers had exonyms similar to Mantannes in their languages, for instance, Teton Miwáthaŋni or Miwátąni, Yanktonai Miwátani, Yankton Mawátani or Mąwátanį, Dakota Mawátąna or Mawátadą, etc; the Mandan have used differing autonyms to refer to themselves: Numakaki was inclusive and not limited to a specific village or band.
This name was used before the smallpox epidemic of 1837-1838. Nueta, the name used after this epidemic was the name of Mandan villagers living on the west bank of the Missouri River; the Mandan used Nųmą́khų́·ki / Rųwą́ʔka·ki to refer to a general tribal entity. This word fell to disuse and instead two divisions' names were used, Nuweta or Ruptare; the term Nų́ʔetaa / Rų́ʔeta was extended to refer to a general tribal entity. The name Mi-ah´ta-nēs recorded by Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden in 1862 means "people on the river bank", but this may be a folk etymology. Various other terms and alternate spellings that occur in the literature including: Mayátana, Mayátani, Mąwádanį, Mąwádąδį, Mandani, Mantannes, Mendanne, Mandians, Maw-dân, les Mandals, Me-too´-ta-häk, Numakshi, Rųwą́'kši, Wíhwatann, Mevataneo. Gloria Jahoda in Trail of Tears states that they call themselves the "Pheasant people." George Catlin said the Mandans The Mandan language or Nų́ų́ʔetaa íroo belongs to the Siouan language family. It was thought to be related to the languages of the Hidatsa and the Crow.
However, since the Mandan language has been in contact with Hidatsa and Crow for many years, the exact relationship between Mandan and other Siouan languages has been obscured. For this reason, linguists classify Mandan most as a separate branch of the Siouan family. Mandan has two main dialects: Nuetare. Only the Nuptare variety survived into the 20th century, all speakers were bilingual in Hidatsa. Linguist Mauricio Mixco of the University of Utah has been involved in fieldwork with remaining speakers since 1993; as of 1999, there were only six fluent speakers of Mandan still alive. As of 2010, programs in local schools encourage students' learning the language; the Mandan and their language received much attention from European Americans, in part because their lighter skin color caused speculation they were of European origin. In the 1830s, Prince Maximilian of Wied spent more time recording Mandan over all other Siouan languages and additionally prepared a comparison list of Mandan and Welsh words.
The theory of the Mandan/Welsh connection, was supported by George Catlin, but researchers have found no evidence of such ancestry. Mandan has different grammatical forms. Questions asked of men must use the suffix -oʔša while the suffix -oʔrą is used when asking of women; the indicative suffix is -oʔs when addressing men and -oʔre when addressing women, for imperatives: -ta, -rą. Mandan, like many other North American languages, has elements of sound symbolism in their vocabulary. A /s/ sound denotes smallness/less intensity, /ʃ/ denotes medium-ness, /x/ denotes largeness/greater intensity: síre "yellow" šíre "tawny" xíre "brown" sró "tinkle" xró "rattle" The exact origins and early history of the Mandan is unknown. Early studies by linguists gave evidence that the Mandan language may have been related to the language of the Ho-Chunk or Winnebago people of present-day Wisconsin. Scholars theorize the Mandan ance
Beltrami County, Minnesota
Beltrami County is a county in the northern part of the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 44,442, its county seat is Bemidji. The county's name comes from Italian adventurer Giacomo Beltrami, who explored the area in 1825; the county was created in 1866 and organized in 1896. Beltrami County comprises MN Micropolitan Statistical Area. Portions of the Leech Lake and Red Lake Indian reservations are in the county; the northernmost portion of the Mississippi River flows through the southern part of the county, through Bemidji. Beltrami and Renville are Minnesota's only counties. Beltrami County's southwest corner is considered part of the headwaters of the Mississippi River, which flows easterly and northeasterly from Lake Itasca through the southern part of the county. Much of the middle and upper county is taken up with the two sections of Red Lake; the county terrain consists of rolling low tree-covered hills, dotted with ponds. The terrain slopes to the east and north with its highest point near its southwest corner, at 1,457' ASL.
The county has a total area of 3,056 square miles, of which 2,505 square miles is land and 551 square miles is water. It is the fourth-largest county in Minnesota by area. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Bemidji have ranged from a low of −4 °F in January to a high of 79 °F in July, although a record low of −50 °F was recorded in January 1950 and a record high of 101 °F was recorded in July 1975. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.59 inches in February to 4.33 inches in July. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 39,650 people, 14,337 households, 9,749 families in the county; the population density was 15.8/sqmi. There were 16,989 housing units at an average density of 6.78/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 76.66% White, 0.36% Black or African American, 20.36% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, 1.84% from two or more races. 0.99% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 21.6% were of German, 19.7% Norwegian and 5.6% Swedish ancestry.
95.1 % spoke 2.4 % Ojibwa as their first language. There were 14,337 households out of which 34.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.30% were married couples living together, 13.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.00% were non-families. 24.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.13. The county population contained 28.70% under the age of 18, 13.90% from 18 to 24, 25.20% from 25 to 44, 20.50% from 45 to 64, 11.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 97.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,392, the median income for a family was $40,345. Males had a median income of $30,434 versus $22,045 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,497. About 12.90% of families and 17.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.70% of those under age 18 and 12.20% of those age 65 or over.
Over half the children in the county are born out of wedlock. About a third are born to teenaged mothers; the county has about twice the state average in terms of high school dropouts. Between 1990 and 2005 the county had a suicide rate four times higher than the state; the county exceeds the state and national rates in both violent and property crimes. On March 21, 2005 ten people were murdered by a spree killer at the Red Lake Indian Reservation. Beltrami County voters have tended to vote Democratic for several decades. Since 1960 the county has selected the Democratic Party candidate in 79% of national elections. Gilfillan Biotic Area National Register of Historic Places listings in Beltrami County, Minnesota Red Lake, the largest lake, in Minnesota. Official website 360 Degree Virtual Tour of 2011 Beltrami County Fair
Roseau River (Manitoba–Minnesota)
The Roseau River is a 214-mile-long tributary of the Red River of the North, in southern Manitoba in Canada and northwestern Minnesota in the United States. Via the Red River, Lake Winnipeg and the Nelson River, it is part of the watershed of Hudson Bay; the river flows through the Roseau River Anishinabe First Nation. List of Manitoba rivers List of Minnesota rivers Roseau River Watershed at the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
David Marston Clough
David Marston Clough was an American politician. He served in the Minnesota State Senate from January 1887 to January 1893, he served as the state's Lieutenant Governor, January 9, 1893 to January 31, 1895. He was the 13th Governor of Minnesota from January 31, 1895 to January 2, 1899, he was a Republican. Born in 1846 in Lyme, New Hampshire, the fourth of fourteen children of New England farmers who resettled near the Rum River, David Clough helped his family eke out a scanty living from the land by raising crops and cutting timber, his boyhood experiences would serve him well as both an entrepreneur and public servant in a state where agriculture and lumber dominated the economy. Clough's first business venture, a logging operation he founded at 20, lifted him from poverty and launched him on a path toward wealth and political prominence, he moved to Minneapolis in 1872 and was elected to the city council eleven years and to the Minnesota Senate. From the Senate, he advanced to the office of lieutenant governor under Republican Knute Nelson, whose election to the U.
S. Senate moved Clough into the governor's office. Clough's first administration was notable for the ratification of significant amendments to the state constitution, including those establishing the Minnesota Board of Pardons, withdrawing the right of aliens to vote, authorizing municipalities to frame "home rule" charters. During his second term, narrowly won in 1896, the legislature raised taxes on several private industries and enacted child-labor laws. In 1900 the redoubtable railroad magnate James J. Hill urged Clough to establish a lumber operation near Puget Sound; until his death at age 77, the logger-turned-lumber baron lived in Everett, where he championed the interests of the mill owners against their employees' unionization efforts. Clough is the namesake of Morrison County, Minnesota. Biographical information and his gubernatorial records are available for research use at the Minnesota Historical Society. Minnesota Legislators Past and Present