Subdivisions of Scotland
For local government purposes, Scotland is divided into 32 areas designated as "council areas", which are all governed by single-tier authorities designated as "councils". They have the option under the Local Government Act 1997 of being known as a "comhairle" when opting for a Gaelic name; the council areas have been in existence since 1 April 1996, under the provisions of the Local Government etc. Act 1994. Scotland has been divided into 34 counties or shires. Although these no longer have any administrative function, they are still used to some extent in Scotland for cultural and geographical purposes. There are a number of other administrative divisions, some of which are handled by joint boards of the councils. At the most local level Scotland is divided into civil parishes, which are now used only for statistical purposes such as the census; the lowest level of administrative subdivision are the communities, which may elect community councils. Traditionally burghs have been the key unit of the local government of Scotland, being autonomous entities, with rights to representation in the old Parliament of Scotland.
After the Acts of Union 1707, burghs continued to be the principal subdivision. Until 1889 administration was on a parish basis; the years following 1889 saw the introduction of a hierarchy of local government administration comprising counties, counties of cities, large burghs and small burghs. With effect from 16 May 1975 and until 31 March 1996 the local government divisions of Scotland consisted of an upper tier of regions each containing a lower tier of districts except for the single-tier island council areas. Source: 2011 Census for Scotland Scotland has several other administrative divisions, some of which are handled by joint boards of the councils. There are several joint boards for electoral registration and the purposes of property valuation for assessing council tax and rates. See NHS Scotland Until 1 April 2014 the towns of Cambuslang and Rutherglen were in the Greater Glasgow and Clyde health board area despite being located in South Lanarkshire, they are now part of NHS Lanarkshire.
The Scottish Government has created seven "Regional Transport Partnerships", for establishing transport policy in the regions. They broadly follow council area groupings. In the Eurostat Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, Scotland is a level-1 NUTS region, coded "UKM", subdivided as follows: The current land registration system in Scotland divides Scotland into 33 Registration Counties, each coming into effect on various dates between 1981 and 2003; these areas in most cases resemble those of the pre-1975 administrative counties with Glasgow being the only current city to form a registration county. Sheriffdoms are judicial areas. Since 1 January 1975, these have been six in number: Glasgow and Strathkelvin Grampian and Islands Lothian and Borders North Strathclyde South Strathclyde and Galloway Tayside and Fife The Lieutenancy areas of Scotland are the areas used for the ceremonial lord-lieutenants, the monarch's representatives; the areas are similar to the Historic Counties and the Registration Counties, but are not identical to either.
Most notably, the four cities of Aberdeen, Dundee and Glasgow form separate areas from the surrounding countryside, with the Lord Provost of each city acting ex officio as the lord-lieutenant. The Police and Fire Reform Act 2012 resulted in the merger of local police and fire services on 1 April 2013 to form the Police Service of Scotland and the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service. Prior to 1975 policing was the responsibility of the Cities and Burghs of Scotland. Between 1975 and 2013 Scotland was subdivided into Police and fire service areas based on the regions and districts and island council areas that were formed in 1975; the police and fire service regions used between 1975 and 2013 are listed below. Scotland is divided into 871 civil parishes which resemble same-named but different ecclesiastical parishes. Although they have had no administrative function since 1930, they still exist and are still used for statistical purposes such as the census. Many former civil parish areas continue to form current registration districts.
Many boundary changes have occurred over the years and an area derived from an old parish might no longer contain a place within that parish. County boundaries have changed over the years such that a parish mentioned as being in one county might now be in a neighbouring county and consequentially in a different succeeding council area. For most administrative purposes, the base level of sub-division in Scotland is now that of communities, which may elect community councils; the main role of these bodies is to reflect local opinion to other bodies. There are around 1,200 communities in Scotland. Not all communities have councils. Scottish communities are the nearest equivalent to civil parishes in England. List of articles about local government in the United Kingdom ISO 3166-2:GB, subdivision codes for the United Kingdom Scottish Parliament constituencies and regions Scottish Westminster constituencies
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster in Ireland. It is sometimes called Lowland Scots to distinguish it from Scottish Gaelic, the Celtic language, restricted to most of the Highlands, the Hebrides and Galloway after the 16th century; the Scots language developed during the Middle English period as a distinct entity. As there are no universally accepted criteria for distinguishing a language from a dialect and other interested parties disagree about the linguistic and social status of Scots and its relationship to English. Although a number of paradigms for distinguishing between languages and dialects exist, they render contradictory results. Broad Scots is at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with Scottish Standard English at the other. Scots is regarded as one of the ancient varieties of English, but it has its own distinct dialects. Alternatively, Scots is sometimes treated as a distinct Germanic language, in the way that Norwegian is linked to but distinct from Danish.
In the 2011 Scottish Census, 1.5 million people in Scotland reported to be able to speak Scots. Native speakers sometimes refer to their vernacular as braid Scots or use a dialect name such as the "Doric", or the "Buchan Claik"; the old-fashioned Scotch, an English loan, occurs especially in Northern Ireland. The term Lallans, a variant of the Modern Scots word lawlands, is used, though this is more taken to mean the Lallans literary form. Scots in Ireland is known in official circles as Ulster-Scots or "Ullans", a recent neologism merging Ulster and Lallans. Scots is a contraction of Scottis, the Older Scots and northern version of late Old English Scottisc, which replaced the earlier i-mutated version Scyttisc. Before the end of the fifteenth century, English speech in Scotland was known as "English", whereas "Scottish" referred to Gaelic. By the beginning of the fifteenth century, the English language used in Scotland had arguably become a distinct language, albeit one lacking a name which distinguished it from all the other English variants and dialects spoken in Britain.
From 1495 the term Scottis was used to refer to the Lowland vernacular and Erse, meaning Irish, as a name for Gaelic. For example, towards the end of the fifteenth century, William Dunbar was using Erse to refer to Gaelic and, in the early sixteenth century, Gavin Douglas was using Scottis as a name for the Lowland vernacular; the Gaelic of Scotland is now called Scottish Gaelic. Northumbrian Old English had been established in what is now southeastern Scotland as far as the River Forth by the seventh century, as the region was part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. Middle Irish was the language of the Scottish court and the common use of Old English remained confined to this area until the thirteenth century; the succeeding variety of Early northern Middle English spoken in southeastern Scotland was known as Early Scots. It began to further diverge from the Middle English of Northumbria due to twelfth and thirteenth century immigration of Scandinavian-influenced Middle English-speakers from the North and Midlands of England.
Influences on the development of Scots came from the Romance languages via ecclesiastical and legal Latin, Norman French, Parisian French, due to the Auld Alliance. Additionally, there were Dutch and Middle Low German influences due to trade with and immigration from the Low Countries. Scots includes loan words in the legal and administrative fields resulting from contact with Middle Irish, reflected in early medieval legal documents. Contemporary Scottish Gaelic loans are for geographical and cultural features, such as ceilidh and clan. From the thirteenth century, the Early Scots language spread further into Scotland via the burghs, which were proto-urban institutions first established by King David I. In the fourteenth century Scotland, the growth in prestige of Early Scots and the complementary decline of French, made Scots the prestige dialect of most of eastern Scotland. By the sixteenth century Middle Scots had established orthographic and literary norms independent of those developing in England.
From 1610 to the 1690s during the Plantation of Ulster some 200,000 Scots-speaking Lowlanders settled in Ulster in Ireland. In the core areas of Scots settlement, Scots outnumbered English settlers by six to one; the name Modern Scots is used to describe the Scots language after 1700, when southern Modern English was adopted as the literary language, though Modern Scots remained the vernacular. In Scotland, Scots is spoken in the Scottish Lowlands, the Northern Isles, Caithness and Campbeltown. In Ulster it is spoken in the Counties of Down, Antrim and Donegal. Dialects include Northern Scots, Central Scots, Southern Scots and Ulster Scots. Before the Treaty of Union 1707, when Scotland and England joined to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, there is ample evidence that Scots was held to be an independent sister language forming a pluricentric diasystem with English; the linguist Heinz Kloss considered Modern Scots a Halbsprache in terms of an abstand and ausbau languages framework although today, in Scotland, most people's speech is somewhere on a continuum ranging from traditional broad Scots to Scottish Standard English.
Many speakers are either diglossic and/or able to code-switch along the continuum depending on the situation in which they find themselves
Saint Moluag was a Scottish missionary, a contemporary of Saint Columba, who evangelized the Picts of Scotland in the sixth century. Saint Moluag was the patron saint of Argyll as evidenced by a charter in 1544, from the Earl of Argyll, which states "in honour of God Omnipotent, the blessed Virgin, Saint Moloc, our patron"; the House of Lorne became the kings of Dalriada and united with the Picts to become the kings of Scots. Moluag was patron saint of the kings of Dalriada, was the apostle of the Picts, so is likely to have been the first patron saint of Scotland. Saint Lughaidh, better known by his pet name of Moluag, was an Irish noble of the Dál nAraide. There are various Irish forms of the name, such as Lughaidh and Lua. Latinized they become Lugidus, Lugadius and Luanus; the name, as it has come down the centuries, Moluag or Moluoc, is made up of the honorific mo, plus the original name Lughaidh, pronounced Lua, plus the endearing suffix –oc. Other variants include Lugdach, Molonachus and Molucus.
MacDonald suggests that there must have been a Vitae of St. Moluag, lost because of his prominent appearance in St. Bernard’s Life of Malachy, he writes ‘Further support for this occurs in the Life of Patrick by the Cistercian monk Jocelin of Furness written in circa 1185, where Mo-Luóc is described as one of the six Irish priests whom Patrick prophesied would become bishops’. In a footnote he adds that the five other priests were Columbanus, Lugadius and Creanus. Moluag was a bishop active during the period of the First Order of Celtic Saints and known as ‘The Clear and Brilliant, The Sun of Lismore in Alba’; the First Order were ‘most holy: shining like the sun’. This is a clear reference to his membership of the First Order. St. Moluag was born between 500 and 520; as bishop, in about 552 he ordained St. Comgal, his close kinsman as a deacon as a priest. Moluag persuaded St. Comgal to found Bangor Abbey, at Bangor, Ireland in modern-day Ulster. Having helped St. Comgal set up this abbey, he took the road of white martyrdom and left with twelve followers to lead the life of a missionary.
Tradition states that the rock on which Moluag stood detached itself from the Irish coast and he drifted across to the island of the Lyn of Lorn in Argyll now called the Isle of Lismore, in Loch Linnhe, where in 562 he founded his community.. This had been the sacred island of the Western Picts whose capital was at Beregonium, across the water at Benderloch. Lismore was the most important religious spot to the pagan kings of the area, their kings were cremated on the ancient man made ‘burial mound’ of Cnoc Aingeil at Bachuil, about three miles from the north of the island, near to the site that St. Moluag chose for his first centre, it was therefore the most desirable site for a missionary. Irish missionaries had learnt to focus on the similarity and continuity between early Christianity and Paganism rather than the differences between them; the conversion process was therefore one of gradual education rather than outright confrontation and there were remarkably few martyrs in the area. MacDonald describes Lismore as being ‘hugely important, being tied with one of the earliest and most important Christian Saints in Northern Britain: Mo Luóc, or Moluag.’ Bishop Moluag, travelled with St. Comgall, Abbot of Bangor, to obtain sanction for his missions in the land of the Northern Picts from King Brude at Inverness, Columba, an exiled penitent, was in this party.
Dr Reeves, writes that ‘The Life of St. Comgall represents St. Columba as only one of the agents on this occasion’, contradicting Adamnan’s claim that Columba was the leader of the mission. Ian Bradley writes ‘It seems on the best available evidence we now have that Columba does not deserve the accolade of apostle to the Picts, his forays into Pictish territory seem to have been few and far between and it is doubtful that he felt any evangelistic impulse to convert particular people to Christianity.’ This supports Smyth’s view that Columba was a saint of the Cenél Loairn and that he ventured out of their territory. St. Moluag was the patron saint of the Cenél Loairn, it is speculated that King Brude preferred Moluag to Columba because of Columba's close relation to the Gaelic leadership of Dál Riata. Columba could not speak the language of the Picts whereas Moluag was fluent, which could explain why Moluag evangelized Pictish areas and Columba stayed within the sphere of Dál Riata influence.
After founding an island monastery on the Isle of Lismore, Moluag went on to found two other great centres in the land of the Picts at Rosemarkie and Mortlach. These were his three centres of teaching, all three were to become the seats of the Roman Catholic Sees of the Isles and Aberdeen. W. Douglas Simpson noted that Moluag labored in Argyll and Banff but remains most noted for his work in Aberdeenshire, where he established three churches in the valley of the River Dee—Tarland and Durris. However, Simpson regarded the most important of Moluag’s etablishments to be the Clova Monastery in Kildrummy. In his life of the Irish Saint Malachy, Bernard of Clairvaux wrote of Moluag, “One of the sons of that sacred family Lua by name, is said himself alone to have been the founder of a hundred monasteries,” Michael Barrett clarifying this as a reference to monastic houses in Ireland. Moluag lived to extreme old age and died on 25
Chanonry Point lies at the end of Chanonry Ness, a spit of land extending into the Moray Firth between Fortrose and Rosemarkie on the Black Isle, Scotland. An active lighthouse situated at the tip of the point was designed by Alan Stevenson and was first lit in 1846; the lighthouse has been automated since 1984 and is operated by Northern Lighthouse Board. Chanonry Point is one of the best spots in the UK to view bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus from the land; the dolphins are visible off Chanonry point on an incoming tide when they play and fish in the strong currents. Other wildlife, including porpoises and grey seals, can regularly be spotted. European otters are occasional visitors; the Ness is home to two caravan sites towards the north. Most of the promontory is taken up by Rosemarkie Golf Club. Due to the popularity of the dolphins at Chanonry point, the parking area and roads leading up to the beach have become more and more congested during the summer months, causing concerns amongst local residents.
The death of Coinneach Odhar, more known as the Brahan Seer, is commemorated by a memorial stone on the spot not far from where he is reputed to have been brutally executed. While bottlenose dolphins can be seen off the point throughout the year, the chances of seeing them increase when their food supply increases, the peak times being when salmon are returning towards the two main rivers which feed into the Moray Firth; the salmon come in with the tidal current. If planning a trip, find tide details and pick days with midday low tides with the largest difference between low and high tide. An unofficial "jungle telegraph" system operates round the Rosemarkie campsite and point in June and on into August with details of the latest sightings only a brief conversation away; the University of Aberdeen operates a more formal range of surveys throughout the year from their field station based just along the coast at Cromarty, supported by funds from the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society. While the Point is regarded by many people as the best place to watch the dolphins from land, licensed boat trips do run from Cromarty and Avoch.
The nearby Dolphin and Seal Centre at North Kessock offers good dolphin watching opportunities during the summer months. Midsummer offers the best light for photography of bottlenose dolphins at the point, from late afternoon onwards. While early morning light is good, the direction of the point risks looking directly into the sun; the point has been featured in recent years on a wide range of television programmes, including the BBC's Coast series and nature programmes. These have increased visitor numbers to the point; the wildlife requires no special equipment, but those looking for serious photography should pack a fast 200 mm to 300 mm lens. Driving to the point, while possible, should be avoided on peak days. A path runs along the Rosemarkie side. Allow 20 minutes walking time; the path arrives at the point. If you do drive though, you can walk round to the point following the path between two cottages, or along the beach from the small pier at the end of the road; the lighthouse grounds are private and the walls dangerous.
There are no toilets at the point - the nearest are at Rosemarkie, either at the car park beside the Plough Inn or at Rosemarkie Beach Cafe. The point is exposed and offers little shelter in summer. Parking and walking from Rosemarkie or Fortrose is recommended. List of lighthouses in Scotland List of Northern Lighthouse Board lighthouses Finding Dolphins in Scotland Dolphin Pictures and a Movie at Chanonry Point Aberdeen University Lighthouse field station Dolphin Gallery Photographs and information by Charlie Phillips. Whale & Dolphin Conservation Society Northern Lighthouse Board
Scottish Ambulance Service
The Scottish Ambulance Service is the NHS Ambulance Services Trust, part of NHS Scotland, which serves all of Scotland's population. Uniquely, the Scottish Ambulance Service is considered a special health board and is funded directly by the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government, it is the sole public emergency medical service covering Scotland's mainland and islands. In 1948, the newly formed National Health Service contracted two voluntary organisations, the St Andrew's Ambulance Association and the British Red Cross, to jointly provide a national ambulance provision for Scotland, known as the St Andrew's and Red Cross Scottish Ambulance Service; the British Red Cross withdrew from the service in 1967. In 1974, with the reorganisation of the National Health Service, ambulance provision in Scotland was taken over by the NHS, with the organisational title being shortened to the now-current Scottish Ambulance Service. St. Andrew's First Aid, the trading name of St. Andrew's Ambulance Association, continues as a voluntary organisation and provides first aid training and provision in a private capacity.
The Scottish Ambulance Service now continues in its current form as one of the largest emergency medical providers in the UK, employing more than 4,000 staff in a variety of roles and responding to 740,631 emergency incidents in 2015/2016 alone. The service, like the rest of the National Health Service is free at point of access and is utilised by the public and healthcare professionals alike. Employing 1,300 paramedic staff, a further 1,200 technicians, the accident and emergency service is accessed through the public 999 system. Ambulance responses are now prioritised on patient requirement; the Scottish Ambulance Service maintains three command and control centres in Scotland, which facilitate handling of 999 calls and dispatch of ambulances. These three centres have handle over 800,000 calls per year; the AMPDS system is used for call prioritisation, provides post-dispatch instructions to callers allowing for medical advice to be given over the phone, prior to ambulance arrival. Clinical staff are present to provide tertiary triage.
Co-located with the Ambulance Control Centres are patient transport booking and control services, which handle 1 million patient journeys per year. The Scottish Ambulance Service maintains a varied fleet of around 1,500 vehicles; this includes Accident and Emergency ambulances single-response vehicles such as cars and small vans for paramedics, patient-transport ambulances which come in the form of adapted minibuses and support vehicles for major incidents and events, specialist vehicles such as 4x4s and tracked vehicles for difficult access. The unique geography of Scotland, which includes urban centres such as Edinburgh and Glasgow, areas of low-population such as Grampian and the Highlands, the Island communities mean that fleet provision has to be flexible and include different approaches to vehicle construction. In the past, 4x4-build ambulances on van chassis have been used in more rural areas, traditional van-conversions in more urban. With a large fleet upgrade project being commissioned in 2016, the business case was made to move to a box-body on chassis build, to provide some flexibility and more resilient parts procurement.
Most of these replacement ambulances have been based on either Mercedes or Volkswagen chassis, with a mixture of automatic or manual transmissions. The equipment used on board Scottish Ambulance Service vehicles broadly falls in line with NHS Scotland and allows for intraoperability in most cases. Equipment is replaced at regular service intervals; the uniform falls in line with the NHS Scotland National Uniform standard, in keeping with the uniform standard described by the National Ambulance Uniform Procurement group in 2016. Amongst cost and comfort considerations, all Scottish Ambulance Service Staff now wear the national uniform which comprises a dark green trouser / shirt combination. Personal Protective Equipment are issued to all staff and denote rank / clinical rank by way of epaulette and helmet markings; the national headquarters are in west side of Edinburgh and there are five divisions within the Service, namely: The Patient Transport Service carries over 1.3 million patients every year.
This service is provided to patients who are physically or medically unfit to travel to hospital out-patient appointments by any other means can still make their appointments. The service handles non-emergency admissions, transport of palliative care patients and a variety of other specialised roles. Patient Transport Vehicles come in a variety of forms and are staffed by Ambulance Care Assistants, whom work
Countries of the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom comprises four countries: England and Wales and Northern Ireland. Within the United Kingdom, a unitary sovereign state, Northern Ireland and Wales have gained a degree of autonomy through the process of devolution; the UK Parliament and British Government deal with all reserved matters for Northern Ireland and Wales, but not in general matters that have been devolved to the Northern Ireland Assembly, Scottish Parliament and National Assembly for Wales. Additionally, devolution in Northern Ireland is conditional on co-operation between the Northern Ireland Executive and the Government of Ireland and the British Government consults with the Government of Ireland to reach agreement on some non-devolved matters for Northern Ireland. England, comprising the majority of the population and area of the United Kingdom, remains the responsibility of the UK Parliament centralised in London. England, Northern Ireland and Wales are not themselves listed in the International Organization for Standardization list of countries.
However the ISO list of the subdivisions of the UK, compiled by British Standards and the UK's Office for National Statistics, uses "country" to describe England and Wales. Northern Ireland, in contrast, is described as a "province" in the same lists; each has separate national governing bodies for sports and compete separately in many international sporting competitions, including the Commonwealth Games. Northern Ireland forms joint All-Island sporting bodies with the Republic of Ireland for most sports, including rugby union; the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man are dependencies of the Crown and are not part of the UK. The British overseas territories, remnants of the British Empire, are not part of the UK. From 1801, following the Acts of Union, until 1921 the whole island of Ireland was a country within the UK. Ireland was split into two separate jurisdictions in 1921: Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland. Southern Ireland left the United Kingdom under the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922.
1 The UK Parliament makes all English legislation, whilst the London Assembly scrutinizes the Mayor of London.2 The UK Government, the Mayor of London and their Mayoral cabinet, Metro Mayors and combined authorities, the councils of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly exercise executive power in England.3 The former flag of Northern Ireland, the Ulster Banner, is still used in some sport-related contexts. *Gross value added. Figures for GVA do not include oil and gas revenues generated beyond the UK's territorial waters, in the country's continental shelf region. Various terms have been used to describe England, Northern Ireland and Wales; the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 annexed the legal system of Wales to England to create the single entity known for centuries as England, but officially renamed England and Wales. Wales was described as the "country", "principality", "dominion" of Wales. Outside Wales, England was not given a specific term; the Laws in Wales Acts have subsequently been repealed.
The Acts of Union 1707 refer to both England and Scotland as a "part" of a united kingdom of Great Britain The Acts of Union 1800 use "part" in the same way to refer to England and Scotland. However, they use the word "country" to describe Great Britain and Ireland when describing trade between them The Government of Ireland Act 1920 described Great Britain, Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland as "countries" in provisions relating to taxation; the Northern Ireland Act 1998, which repealed the Government of Ireland Act 1920, does not use any term to describe Northern Ireland. The Interpretation Act 1978 provides statutory definitions of the terms "England", "Wales" and the "United Kingdom", but neither that Act nor any other current statute defines "Scotland" or "Northern Ireland". Use of the first three terms in other legislation is interpreted following the definitions in the 1978 Act; the definitions in the 1978 Act are listed below: "England" means, "subject to any alteration of boundaries under Part IV of the Local Government Act 1972, the area consisting of the counties established by section 1 of that Act, Greater London and the Isles of Scilly."
This definition applies from 1 April 1974. "United Kingdom" means "Great Britain and Northern Ireland." This definition applies from 12 April 1927. "Wales" means the combined area of 13 historic counties, including Monmouthshire, re-formulated into 8 new counties under section 20 of the Local Government Act 1972, as enacted, but subject to any alteration made under section 73 of that Act. In 1996 these 8 new counties were redistributed into the current 22 unitary authorities. In the Scotland Act 1998 there is no delineation of Scotland, with the definition in section 126 providing that Scotland includes "so much of the internal waters and territorial sea of the United Kingdom as are adjacent to Scotland"; the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act 2011 refers to England, Scotland and Northern Ireland as "parts" of the United Kingdom in the following clause: "Each constituency shall be wholly in one of the four parts of the United Kingdom." The Royal Fine Art Commission's 1847 report on decorating the Palace of Westminster referred to "the nationality of the component parts of the United Kingdom" being represented by their four respective patron saints.
"Regions": For purposes of NUTS 1 co
The Rosemarkie Stone or Rosemarkie Cross, a Class II Pictish stone, is one of the major surviving examples of Pictish art in stone. Carved from fine-grained sandstone, the Rosemarkie stone was found sometime prior to 1821 in the floor of the old church in the village of Rosemarkie. Rosemarkie was the probable site of a major Pictish monastery, on the Black Isle of Easter Ross; when found, the stone was broken into two parts. The reconstructed stone is now on display in Rosemarkie's Groam House Museum. On the front side is an elaborately decorated cross, while on the reverse side are various common Pictish symbols, including three crescents and v-rods and a double-disc and Z-rod, as well as a smaller cross at the bottom, it is the only Pictish stone to bear three versions of the same symbol. The sides are decorated with a number of interlace patterns. Rosemarkie sculpture fragments Fraser, Ritchie, J. N. G. Et al. Pictish Symbol Stones: An Illustrated Gazetteer, Duncan, A Wee Guide to The Picts, MacNamara, The Pictish Stones of Easter Ross, Am Baile