Dog fighting is a type of blood sport defined as two or more game dogs against one another in a ring or a pit for the entertainment of the spectators or the gratification of the dogfighters, who are sometimes referred to as dogmen. In rural areas, fights are staged in barns or outdoor pits. Dog fights last until one dog is declared a winner, which occurs when one dog fails to scratch, one dog dies, or one dog jumps out of the pit. Sometimes dog fights end without declaring a winner. Dog fighting generates revenue from admission fees and gambling. Worldwide, several countries have banned dog fighting, but it is still legal in some countries like Japan, parts of Russia, Albania. Blood sports in general can be traced back to the Roman Empire. In 13 BC, for instance, the ancient Roman circus slew 600 African beasts. Under Emperor Claudius's reign, as spectators cheered, 300 bears and 300 Libyan beasts were slain in the Colosseum. Dog fighting, more can be traced to ancient Roman times. In 43 AD, for example, dogs fought alongside the Romans and the British in the Roman Conquest of Britain.
In this war, the Romans used. Though the British were outnumbered and lost this war, the Romans were so impressed with the English Mastiffs that they began to import these dogs for use in the Colosseum, as well as for use in times of war. While spectators watched, the imported English Mastiffs were pitted against animals such as wild elephants, bears and gladiators; the Romans bred and exported fighting dogs to Spain and other parts of Europe until these dogs made their way back to England. Though bull baiting and bear baiting were popular throughout the Middle Ages up to the 19th century in Germany, Spain and the Netherlands, the British pitted dogs against bulls and bears on a scale like no other. In 12th century England during the feudal era, the landed aristocracy, who held direct military control in decentralized feudal systems and thus owned the animals necessary for waging war, introduced bull baiting and bear baiting to the rest of the British population. In years, bull baiting and bear baiting became a popular source of entertainment for the British royalty.
For instance, Queen Elizabeth I, who reigned from 1558–1603, was an avid follower of bull and bear baiting. In addition to breeding Mastiffs and entertaining foreign guests with a fight, Queen Elizabeth, her successor, King James I, built a number of bear gardens in London; the garden buildings were round and roofless, housed not only bears, but bulls and other wild animals that could be used in a fight. Today, a person can visit the Bear Garden museum near the Shakespeare Global Complex in Bankside, Southwark. With the popularity of bull and bear baiting, bears needed for such fights soon became scarce. With the scarcity of bear population, the price of bears rose and, because of this, bull baiting became more common in England over time. Bulls who survived the fights were slaughtered afterwards for their meat, as it was believed that the fight caused bull meat to become more tender. In fact, if a bull was offered for sale in the market without having been baited the previous day, butchers were liable to face substantial fines.
Animal fights were temporarily suspended in England when Oliver Cromwell seized power, but were reinstated again after the Restoration. Dog fighting, bear baiting, bull baiting were outlawed in England by the Humane Act of 1835; the official ban on all fights, however served to promote dog fighting in England. Since a small amount of space was required for the pit where a dog fight took place, as compared to the ring needed for bull or bear baiting, authorities had a difficult time enforcing the ban on dog fighting. In 1817, the Staffordshire Bull Terrier dog breed was brought to America and dog fighting became part of American culture. Yet, though historical accounts of dog fighting in America can be dated back to the 1750s, it was not until the end of the Civil War that widespread interest and participation in the blood sport began in the United States. For instance, in 1881, the Mississippi and Ohio railroads advertised special fares to a dog fight in Louisville. Many of these dogs thrown into the "professional pits" that flourished during the 1860s came from England and Ireland—where citizens had turned to dogs when bear-baiting and bull-baiting became illegal in their countries.
In twentieth century America, despite the expansion of laws to outlaw dog fighting, dog fighting continued to flourish underground. Aiding in the expansion of dog fighting were the police and firemen, who saw dog fighting as a form of entertainment amongst their ranks. In fact, the Police Gazette served as a "go to" source for information about where one could attend a fight; when Henry Bergh, who started the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, witnessed police involvement in these fights, he was motivated to seek and receive authority for the ASPCA Humane Law Enforcement Agents to have arresting power in New York. Additionally, Bergh's 1867 revision to New York's animal cruelty law made all forms of animal fighti
Second-wave feminism is a period of feminist activity and thought that began in the United States in the early 1960s and lasted two decades. It spread across the Western world, with an aim to increase equality for women by gaining more than just enfranchisement. Whereas first-wave feminism focused on suffrage and overturning legal obstacles to gender equality, second-wave feminism broadened the debate to include a wider range of issues: sexuality, the workplace, reproductive rights, de facto inequalities, official legal inequalities. Second-wave feminism drew attention to the issues of domestic violence and marital rape, engendered rape-crisis centers and women's shelters, brought about changes in custody laws and divorce law. Feminist-owned bookstores, credit unions, restaurants were among the key meeting spaces and economic engines of the movement. Many historians view the second-wave feminist era in America as ending in the early 1980s with the intra-feminism disputes of the feminist sex wars over issues such as sexuality and pornography, which ushered in the era of third-wave feminism in the early 1990s.
The second wave of feminism in America came as a delayed reaction against the renewed domesticity of women after World War II: the late 1940s post-war boom, an era characterized by an unprecedented economic growth, a baby boom, a move to family-oriented suburbs and the ideal of companionate marriages. During this time, women did not tend to seek employment due to their engagement with domestic and household duties, seen as their primary duty but left them isolated within the home and estranged from politics and law making; this life was illustrated by the media of the time. Some important events laid the groundwork for the second wave. French writer Simone de Beauvoir had in the 1940s examined the notion of women being perceived as "other" in the patriarchal society, she went on to conclude in her 1949 treatise The Second Sex that male-centered ideology was being accepted as a norm and enforced by the ongoing development of myths, that the fact that women are capable of getting pregnant and menstruating is in no way a valid cause or explanation to place them as the "second sex".
This book was translated from French to English and published in America in 1953. In 1960 the Food and Drug Administration approved the combined oral contraceptive pill, made available in 1961; this made it easier for women to have careers without having to leave due to unexpectedly becoming pregnant. Though it is accepted that the movement lasted from the 1960s into the early 1980s, the exact years of the movement are more difficult to pinpoint and are disputed; the movement is believed to have begun in 1963, when Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, President John F. Kennedy's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women released its report on gender inequality; the administration of President Kennedy made women's rights a key issue of the New Frontier, named women to many high-ranking posts in his administration. Kennedy established a Presidential Commission on the Status of Women, chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt and comprising cabinet officials, representatives, psychologists, professors and public servants.
The report recommended changing this inequality by providing paid maternity leave, greater access to education, help with child care to women. There were other actions by women in wider society, presaging their wider engagement in politics which would come with the second wave. In 1961, 50,000 women in 60 cities, mobilized by Women Strike for Peace, protested above ground testing of nuclear bombs and tainted milk. In 1963 Betty Friedan, influenced by The Second Sex, wrote the bestselling book The Feminine Mystique. Discussing white women, she explicitly objected to how women were depicted in the mainstream media, how placing them at home limited their possibilities and wasted potential, she had helped conduct a important survey using her old classmates from Smith College. This survey revealed that the women who played a role at home and the workforce were more satisfied with their life compared to the women who stayed home; the women who stayed home showed feelings of agitation and sadness. She concluded that many of these unhappy women had immersed themselves in the idea that they should not have any ambitions outside their home.
Friedan described this as "The Problem That Has No Name". The perfect nuclear family image depicted and marketed at the time, she wrote, did not reflect happiness and was rather degrading for women; this book is credited with having begun second-wave feminism in the United States. The report from the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women, along with Friedan's book, spoke to the discontent of many women and led to the formation of local and federal government women's groups along with many independent feminist organizations. Friedan was referencing a "movement" as early as 1964; the movement grew with legal victories such as the Equal Pay Act of 1963, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Griswold v. Connecticut Supreme Court ruling of 1965. In 1966 Friedan joined other men to found the National Organization for Women. Despite the early successes NOW achieved under Friedan's leadership, her decision to pressure the Equal Employment Opportunity to
Jenna Maroney is a fictional character on the American television series 30 Rock, played by Jane Krakowski. For her portrayal of Maroney, Krakowski was nominated four times for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series, received seven Screen Actors Guild Award nominations, winning one. In Tina Fey's original pilot script for 30 Rock, Jenna was named "Jenna DeCarlo", The Girlie Show was titled Friday Night Bits with Jenna DeCarlo. In the unaired pilot for the show, Rachel Dratch, a former SNL cast member, played the role of Jenna. In August 2006, executive producer Lorne Michaels announced. In the month, NBC announced that Krakowski had replaced Dratch, that the character was renamed "Jenna Maroney". Despite being credited as a regular, the character does not appear in every episode, having been absent from five of the twenty-one episodes of the first season, three of the fifteen episodes of the second season, two of the twenty-two episodes of the third season.
She appeared in all subsequent episodes starting from Season 4. Jenna was born Ystrepa Grokovitz on February 24, 1969 in Tampa, FL, grew up in Bakersfield, CA. In "Queen of Jordan 2: Mystery of the Phantom Pooper", it was revealed that she was conceived in a Florida bathroom. In "The Return of Avery Jessup", Jenna mentions being from the Florida Panhandle, from a town called "Toilet Swamp Cove", she is revealed to have a strong Southern accent that she conceals. Her ethnic origin is that of an Ashkenazi Jew, as revealed through a DNA sample, which Jack mistakenly thought belonged to Kaylie Hooper. In "The One with the Cast of Night Court" she mentions. Jenna's father, Werner Maroney was a burger server in suburban Santa Barbara, before leaving her mother, for a "curly-haired surfer" named Roberta - which hurt her. In "Secret Santa", she reveals to Jack "Danny" Baker that after that, her mother forced her to sit on every mall Santa's lap in Bakersfield in an attempt to find him, it is hinted that because of this, Jenna has developed "daddy issues".
However, despite all this, Jenna still expresses affection for her father, claiming that she will always be his "little girl". Jenna started her singing career when she was young, by singing Christmas carols in Sears, as a distraction while her mother shoplifted. Jenna went to elementary and high school on a boat, sunk by some Miami Heat fans. Jenna studied game show pointing and theatre superstitions, majored in portraying prom queens and murdered runaways at the Royal Tampa Academy of Dramatic Tricks. Jenna studied voice at Northwestern University where she first met Liz Lemon in 1993. A recurring joke in the show is. By the time she was 12, she was dating a boy in a fraternity, a possible reference to National Lampoon's Animal House, she has been engaged to David Blaine. She has dated a sniper, O. J. Simpson, a music producer, a mob boss, she has been in at least two three-ways, one with Tom and Roseanne Arnold, another with two of the Backstreet Boys, in which she claimed she was "not necessary."
Jenna claimed to have had a relationship with Mickey Rourke, his attempts at killing her are a recurring joke on the series. However, in the series finale, she breaks the fourth wall and tells the audience that she has never met Rourke, she has had sex with Kevin Federline. Jenna's husband, Paul L'Astname is a "gender dysmorphic bi-genitalia pansexual" and a professional female impersonator most renowned for his performances as Jenna, she met him at a Jenna Maroney impersonator contest in which she came in fourth and he placed first. Before they were married it was revealed that she is so attracted to him because he gives her the opportunity to date herself. Throughout the series, during their relationship they are shown performing various, unusual sexual acts and rituals; the glamorous and attractive Jenna is shown to have histrionic personality disorder, an obsessive need for attention. She is willing to do anything for attention. In "Queen of Jordan", she organizes her own intervention for alcoholism because she believes audiences will respond to the "redemptive qualities" that such a storyline would have.
Jenna is portrayed as manipulative, amoral and abusive to her friends and coworkers. In "The Ones", Pete suspects that Jenna might be a sociopath, after she poisons Kenneth with strawberries, to date an attractive emergency medical technician; this is backed up in the episode "Stride of Pride", when she asks Jack "Are you alright Jack? You look like that flashcard that they told me means sadness." Jenna is threatened by anyone who displays any degree of talent those who are blonde and female, will go out of her way to sabotage their efforts in order to protect her position. Her usual response to these situations is to lock herself in her dressing room, forcing Liz to extricate her. Jenna disparages a number of other female celebrities as her "nemeses", including Jenny McCarthy, Raven-Symone, Abigail Breslin, Gina Gershon and "Flo". Despite being best friends, Jenna is a constant source of frustration
Chewbacca, nicknamed "Chewie", is a fictional character in the Star Wars franchise. He is a tall, hirsute biped and intelligent species from the planet Kashyyyk. Chewbacca is the loyal friend and first mate of Han Solo, serves as co-pilot on Solo's spaceship, the Millennium Falcon. Within the films of the main saga, Chewbacca is portrayed by Peter Mayhew from episodes III to VII. Suotamo took over the role alone in Star Wars: The Last Jedi and reprised the role in Solo: A Star Wars Story and Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker; the character has appeared on television, books and video games. Chewbacca, a 200-year-old Wookiee, becomes a young Han Solo's companion after they both escape Imperial captivity on Minban. After a series of adventures on Vandor and Kessel, Chewbacca embarks on the smuggling trade, serving as Han's co-pilot on the Millennium Falcon for the rest of Han's life. Standing at eight feet tall, Chewbacca wears only a bandolier, his weapon of choice is the Wookiee bowcaster. Chewbacca was named one of the "greatest sidekicks" in film history by Entertainment Weekly.
In France, in Episode IV, his name was changed to "Chiktaba" because the English name was similar to "chewing tobacco", which means in French "tabac à mâcher" or "tabac à chiquer", similar to "Chiktaba". In the other episodes, his name was "Chewbacca". In the Italian-language editions, Chewbacca is named "Chewbecca" and is nicknamed "Ciube". Chewbacca's creation as a "gentle, non-English-speaking co-pilot" was inspired by George Lucas seeing his own dog sitting up on the passenger seat of his car, it is said that Chewbacca's name is derived from the Russian word for dog. In his first six screen appearances, Chewbacca was played by Peter Mayhew, chosen for his height of 7'3". Five similar costumes were created for Mayhew: in the three original films and a holiday special, the suits were made of yak hair and mohair. In Revenge of the Sith, the suit was made of more comfortable materials, though Mayhew's filming only lasted a day. Only Mayhew's blue eyes could be seen in his costume, but fans recognize him by his gestures, his co-workers claimed the ability to tell when a stand-in was taking his place.
For The Force Awakens, the role was shared by Joonas Suotamo, who subsequently portrayed the character in screen appearances after Mayhew's retirement. Chewbacca's voice was created by the original films' sound designer, Ben Burtt, from recordings of walruses, camels, rabbits and badgers in Burtt's personal menagerie; the individual recordings were mixed at different ratios for Chewbacca's different utterances. One of the most prominent elements in the voice was a black bear named Tarik, from Happy Hollow Zoo in San Jose, California; the original costume was created by Stuart Freeborn and his wife Kay Freeborn, who hand knitted the torso section. During preproduction of The Force Awakens, Creature Effects Supervisor Neal Scanlan commented that the original suit was far more sophisticated than they had realized, leading him to scrap their first attempt at making the new suit, go back and study Freeborn's work in order to better appreciate how it worked, attempt to emulate it. First appearing in Star Wars and Han Solo accept a charter to take Luke Skywalker, Obi-Wan Kenobi, droids C-3PO and R2-D2 to the planet Alderaan.
When they find the planet destroyed by the Death Star, the two smugglers are drawn into the Rebel Alliance. As part of a plan to rescue Leia, Luke tries to put handcuffs on Chewbacca to make it look like he's a prisoner. Chewbacca attacks Luke believing him to be selling him and Solo out, but Han explains that he knows what Luke has in mind and convinces the Wookiee to play along. After rescuing Leia and taking her to the rebel base on Yavin IV, the two smugglers are given reward money in the value of a payload lost by him to which he owes Jabba The Hutt. Somehow, Chewbacca is able to convince Han to put his debt to Jabba aside for the time being and help the Rebels in their fight against the evil Galactic Empire's Death Star, they manage to save Luke from being killed allowing him to be the one to destroy the space station. In The Empire Strikes Back, Chewbacca finds a dismantled C-3PO in a junk pile in Cloud City and rescues him from being melted down, he tries to repair him, but does a terrible job at it.
Before Han is frozen in carbonite, he asks Chewbacca to look after Princess Leia for him. When Lando Calrissian is able to save Leia and Chewbacca from being taken to Darth Vader's ship, he uncuffs the Wookie, who upon release starts strangling him for selling them out; when Lando explains that they still have a chance to save Han, Leia has Chewbacca stop choking him. Though they're unsuccessful at saving the frozen Han, they make it back to the Falcon with R2-D2. Chewbacca carried C-3PO on his back throughout their escape to the Falcon; when Leia hears Luke's cry for help, she has Chewbacca turn the ship around to rescue him. After doing so, they attempt the jump to lightspeed but fail after Lando's men fixed it. Chewbacca is furious at Lando and goes to fix it himself, having spent part of the movie trying to do so. What none of them except for R2-D2 realize is that the hyperdrive had been deactivated by the Empire, which R2-D2 had learned from Cloud City's central computer while helping them escape.
Admiral Firmus Piett's men disguised themselves as Lando's repairmen and deactivated the hyperdrive as part of Vader's plan to capture Luke and turn him to the dark side of the Force
30 Rock (season 2)
The second season of 30 Rock, an American television comedy series aired between October 4, 2007 and May 8, 2008 on NBC in the United States. The second season of the show received overwhelmingly positive reviews from critics, with some calling it the best show on television; the season was nominated for 17 Emmy Awards, a number that broke the record for the most nominations for a comedy series, meaning that 30 Rock was the most nominated comedy series for any individual Emmy year in history. In a season shortened by the 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike, the fifteen episodes of the season aired as part of NBC's "Comedy Night Done Right"; the 30 Rock season two DVD box set was released in Region 1 on October 7, 2008 and subsequently released in regions 2 and 4. Season two begins with the crew of TGS returning from summer hiatus to many problems. An immediate problem is Jack being threatened by Jerry Seinfeld because Jack was planning to digitally insert Seinfeld into all of NBC's programming with edited footage from Seinfeld's sitcom Seinfeld.
The second season, much like the first season, includes various plotlines including Jenna Maroney coping with her obesity problem which she developed during the summer while performing on the fictitious Broadway musical Mystic Pizza: The Musical. Another story arc includes the conservative Jack dating the Democratic congresswoman Celeste Cunningham. Liz's attempts at recovering from her failed reunion with Floyd are viewed as well as Tracy trying to deal with his failing marriage to Angie Jordan. Tracy attempts to finish his masterpiece invention, a pornographic videogame; as the season progresses and his rival Devon Banks both aspire to become the Chairman of GE. When about to announce that Jack will be his successor, Don Geiss, the current Chairman of GE, slips into a diabetic coma. Taking advantage of this opportunity, Devon places his fiancée, Don's daughter, Kathy Geiss as the puppet GE Chairwoman; the season was produced by Broadway Video, Little Stranger, Inc. and Universal Media Studios and was aired on NBC, a terrestrial television network in the United States of America.
The executive producers were creator Tina Fey, Lorne Michaels, Joann Alfano, Marci Klein, David Miner, Robert Carlock with Jack Burditt and John Riggi acting as co-executive producers. Producers for the season were music composer Jeff Richmond, Matt Hubbard, Don Scardino with Diana Schmidt, Margo A. Myers and Irene Burns acting as co-producers. There were six different directors throughout the season; those who directed more than one episode were Michael Engler and Beth McCarthy. There were three directors who only directed one episode each throughout the season, they were Richard Shepard, Kevin Rodney Sullivan, Gail Mancuso; the main writers for the season were Tina Fey, Robert Carlock, Matt Hubbard, Jack Burditt and John Riggi, who all wrote, or co-wrote at least two episodes. Jon Pollack, Kay Cannon, Ron Weiner, Tami Sagher, Donald Glover, Andrew Guest only wrote, or co-wrote, one episode each. In July 2007, Fey talked to the Philadelphia Daily News about the show's second season, explaining some changes she had in mind: I would like to try to live in the world of the characters we've created for a little bit.
We had a lot of great guest stars last year, but I feel like there's a lot we could explore with the characters that we have. And I'd like to leave a little breathing room in the show. I feel like sometimes it was a little too dense, the shows last year. In a way, the thing that made Arrested Development so great, but I wonder if it will help new viewers come to the show if it's a little less packed; the season was affected by the 2007–2008 Writers Guild of America strike, which began on November 5, 2007 and ended on February 12, 2008. The season's show runners Tina Fey and Robert Carlock publicly committed to honor the strike themselves and to not ask their writers to do otherwise; as a result, only 15 episodes of the 22 episodes ordered could be produced. The second season had a cast of ten actors. Tina Fey portrayed Liz Lemon, the head writer of a fictitious live sketch comedy television series named TGS with Tracy Jordan; the TGS cast consists of three actors. The lead actor is the loose cannon movie star Tracy Jordan, portrayed by Tracy Morgan.
The co-stars are the dense, limelight-craving Jenna Maroney, portrayed by Jane Krakowski as well as the playful Josh Girard, a writer for TGS, portrayed by Lonny Ross. Jack McBrayer played the naïve Kenneth Parcell. Scott Adsit acted as Pete Hornberger. Judah Friedlander portrayed the wise-cracking, trucker hat wearing, repulsive staff writer Frank Rossitano. Alec Baldwin played the high flying NBC network executive Jack Donaghy. Donaghy's full corporate title for the majority of the season is "Head of East Coast Television and Microwave Oven Programming." Keith Powell played TGS staff writer Toofer Spurlock. Katrina Bowden acted as writers' assistant Cerie Xerox; the cast included some recurring characters including Maulik Pancholy as Jonathan, Grizz Chapman as Grizz Griswold, Kevin Brown as "Dot Com" Slattery, John Lutz as J. D. Lutz, Chris Parnell as Dr. Leo Spaceman. Tina Fey as Liz Lemon, the head writer of TGS, a live sketch comedy television show. Tracy Morgan as Tracy Jordan, a loose cannon movie star and cast member of TGS.
Jane Krakowski as Jenna Maroney, a vain, fame-obsessed TGS cast member and Liz's best friend. Jack McBrayer as Kenneth Parcell, a naïve, televis
Grizzwald "Grizz" Chapman is an American television actor best known for his recurring role as Grizz on the NBC series 30 Rock. A June 2007 interview with rollingout.com lists Chapman's height as 7'0". In his commentary for the episode "Tracy Does Conan", Tracy Morgan revealed that they met when Chapman was working as a bouncer at a strip club. Chapman and fellow actor Kevin Brown were featured in season six on an episode of Hidden Potential. Chapman received a kidney transplant in July 2010; the actor suffers from severe hypertension and had been undergoing dialysis treatments prior to the transplant. Due to his battle with his kidney disease, on March 31, 2010, Chapman signed on to be a spokesperson for the National Kidney Foundation. Chapman has created his own series of YouTube videos known as "Grizz Chroniclez" featuring him in variety sketches, he is in production with writers Sam Morgan and Chadwick Prima for his own series called The Lair, based on the comic store Chapman owns in the Bronx.
Grizz Chapman on IMDb