Parliament of Queensland
The Parliament of Queensland is the legislature of Queensland, Australia. According to the state's constitution, the Parliament consists of the Queen and the Legislative Assembly, it is the only unicameral state parliament in the country. The upper chamber, the Legislative Council, was abolished in 1922; the Legislative Assembly sits in Parliament House in Brisbane. All laws applicable in Queensland are authorised by the Parliament of Queensland, with the exception of specific legislation defined in the Constitution of Australia, criminal law applying under the Australia Act 1986 as well as older laws passed by New South Wales and the United Kingdom because the state having been was a colony. Following the outcome of the 2015 election, successful amendments to the electoral act in early 2016 include: adding an additional four parliamentary seats from 89 to 93, changing from optional preferential voting to full-preferential voting, moving from unfixed three-year terms to fixed four-year terms.
The Parliament was founded 22 May 1860, less than a year after the Colony of Queensland was created in June 1859. It was convened at military and convict barracks converted for the purpose located on Queen Street, Brisbane. Immigration was an important issue for the early Parliament. Population growth was encouraged with new settlers enticed by land ownership; the official flag of Queensland was adopted in 1867. In 1915, Queensland became the first state to make voting compulsory at state elections. Since 1 April 2003, live audio broadcasts have streamed through the internet from the Parliament while it is in session. In June 2007, the Parliament started broadcasting video of parliamentary proceedings. Nine in-house television cameras are used to record sessions; the first female Speaker, Fiona Simpson was elected on 15 May 2012. The Assembly has 93 Members of Parliament; these are intended to represent the same population in each electorate. Voting is by the Full Preferential Voting system, with elections held once every three years.
In April 2016, legislation was passed to increase the number of seats in the parliament by four to a total of 93. An amendment was passed to abolish optional preferential voting. A referendum held the previous month was passed, supporting a bill to establish fixed four-year terms; the role of the monarch in Parliament is to give royal assent to legislation. This function is in practice exercised by the Governor of Queensland, who conventionally will never refuse assent to a bill that has passed the Legislative Assembly; the party or coalition with the most seats in the house is invited by the Governor to form a government. The leader of that party subsequently becomes Premier of Queensland. In the Liberal National Party, the Premier selects members of their party to act as Ministers. In the Labor Party, the Ministers are elected by partyroom ballot, with the Leader assigning ministerial portfolios to each one. Once all winning candidates have been declared, the Governor of Queensland proclaims a date for the start of the new Parliament.
It is the role of the Clerk of the Parliament to call members to attendance. According to the Constitution of Queensland Act 2001, members of Parliament must swear an oath or affirmation to the Sovereign as well as an oath of office before signing a Roll of Members; the Clerk of the Parliament has the power to swear in members. Sworn-in representatives are required to elect a Speaker to preside over the House's business. Before this occurs the Clerk may point to the next member who may speak. Once elected the Speaker is presented to the Governor at Government House; the ceremonial opening of the new Parliament is marked by a speech by the Governor. Traditionally the speech is written by the new government and it may outline current activities, budget details and proposed lists of legislation which are intended to be introduced. A day in Parliament begins with housekeeping matters, including prayers and the tabling of any documents. An opportunity is given to Ministers to make statements. During a period of no more than an hour, known as question time, any member may pose a question to a Minister.
As of February 2019, the composition of Parliament is: 47 votes as a majority are required to pass legislation. Next Queensland state election Parliaments of the Australian states and territories Legislative Assembly of Queensland List of members of the Queensland Legislative Assembly Palaszczuk Ministry Official website
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
Legislative Assembly of Queensland
The Legislative Assembly of Queensland is the sole chamber of the unicameral Parliament of Queensland. Elections are held every four years. Voting is by the full-preferential voting form of the alternative vote system; the Assembly has 93 members, who have used the letters MP after their names since 2000. There is the same population in each electorate; the Assembly first sat in May 1860 and produced Australia's first Hansard in April 1864. Following the outcome of the 2015 election, successful amendments to the electoral act in early 2016 include: adding an additional four parliamentary seats from 89 to 93, changing from optional preferential voting to full-preferential voting, moving from unfixed three-year terms to fixed four-year terms; the Legislative Assembly was the lower house of a typical Westminster-style bicameral parliament. The upper house was the Legislative Council, its members appointed for life by the government of the day; the first sitting, in May 1860, was held in the old converted convict barracks in Queen Street.
It consisted of 26 members from 16 electorates, nearly half of whom were squatters. Early sessions dealt with issues of land, railways, public works, immigration and gold discoveries. In April 1864, Australia's first Hansard was produced, it was the second Hansard to be made in the Commonwealth, after Nova Scotia in 1855. That year saw member numbers increased to 32, by 1868—as more redistributions occurred—the number grew to 42. Members were not paid until 1886 excluding the working class from state politics; the Assembly was elected under the'first-past-the-post' system 1860 to 1892. From until 1942 an unusual form of preferential voting called the'contingent vote' was used; this was introduced by a conservative government to hinder the emerging Labor Party from gaining seats with minority support. In 1942 the plurality system was reintroduced; the Labor government in power had seen its vote decline in the 1940s and sought to divide the opposition. In 1962, it was replaced with full preferential voting, as the governing conservatives wanted to take advantage of a split in Labor.
In 1992, this was changed to the optional preferential system used. After 1912, electorates elected only a single member to the Assembly. In 1922, the Legislative Council was abolished, with the help of members known as the "suicide squad", who were specially appointed to vote the chamber out of existence; this left Queensland with a unicameral parliament—currently the only Australian state with this arrangement. From 1948 until the reforms following the end of the Bjelke-Petersen era, Queensland used an electoral zoning system, tweaked by the government of the day to maximise its own voter support at the expense of the opposition, it has been called a form of gerrymander, however it is more referred to as an electoral malapportionment. In a classic gerrymander, electoral boundaries are drawn to take advantage of known pockets of supporters and to isolate areas of opposition voters so as to maximise the number of seats for the government for a given number of votes and to cause opposition support to be "wasted" by concentrating their supporters in fewer electorates.
The Queensland "gerrymander", first introduced by the Labor Party government of Ned Hanlon in 1949 used a series of electoral zones based on their distance from Brisbane. Queensland was divided into three zones—the metropolitan zone, the provincial cities zone and the rural zone. While the number of electors in each seat in a zone was equal, there was considerable variation in the number of electors between zones, thus an electorate in the remote zone might have as few as 5,000 electors, while a seat in the metropolitan zone might have as many as 25,000. Using this system the Labor government was able to maximise its vote in its power base of the provincial city zone. With the split in the party in the late 1950s the ALP lost office and a conservative Coalition government led by the Country Party under Frank Nicklin came to power, which, as discussed above modified the voting system to introduce preferential voting, to take advantage of Labor's split, it separated the provincial cities from their hinterlands.
The hinterlands were added to the rural zone. As the divisions in the ALP abated in the early 1970s, tensions in the conservative coalition grew, the conservative government, now led by Joh Bjelke-Petersen, modified the zoning system to add a fourth zone—a remote zone, comprising seats with fewer electors, thus the conservative government was able to isolate Labor support in provincial cities and maximise its own rural power base. On average, the Country Party needed only 7,000 votes to win a seat, compared with 12,800 for a typical Labor seat; the entrenchment of a Coalition government was caused by socio-economic and demographic changes associated with mechanisation of farms and urbanisation which led to a drift of working class population from rural and remote electorates to the cities. By the late 1980s the decline in the political fortunes of the National Party, together with rapid growth in south east Queensland meant that the zonal system was no longer able to guarantee a conservative victory.
In addition, in 1988 the Federal Labor Government held four constitutional referendums—one of, for the adoption of fair electoral systems around
Sir Johannes Bjelke-Petersen, was an Australian politician. He was the longest-serving and longest-lived Premier of Queensland, holding office from 1968 to 1987, during which time the state underwent considerable economic development, his uncompromising conservatism, his political longevity, his leadership of a government that, in its years, was revealed to be institutionally corrupt, made him one of the best-known and most controversial political figures of 20th century Australia. Bjelke-Petersen's Country Party controlled Queensland despite receiving the smallest number of votes out of the state's leading three parties, achieving the result through a notorious system of electoral malapportionment that resulted in rural votes having a greater value than those cast in city electorates; the effect earned Bjelke-Petersen the nickname of "the Hillbilly Dictator". Yet he was a popular figure among conservative voters and over the course of his 19 years as premier he tripled the number of people who voted for his party and doubled the party's percentage vote.
After the Liberals pulled out of the government in 1983, Bjelke-Petersen reduced his former coalition partners to a mere six seats in an election held that year. In 1985 Bjelke-Petersen launched a campaign to move into federal politics to become prime minister, though the campaign was aborted. Bjelke-Petersen was a divisive premier and earned himself a reputation as a "law and order" politician with his repeated use of police force against street demonstrators and strongarm tactics with trade unions, leading to frequent descriptions of Queensland under his leadership as a police state. From 1987 his administration came under the scrutiny of a royal commission into police corruption and its links with state government ministers. Bjelke-Petersen was unable to recover from the series of damaging findings and after resisting a party vote that replaced him as leader, resigned from politics on 1 December 1987. Two of his state ministers, as well as the police commissioner Bjelke-Petersen had appointed and knighted, were jailed for corruption offences and in 1991 Bjelke-Petersen, was tried for perjury over his evidence to the royal commission.
Bjelke-Petersen was born in Dannevirke in the southern Hawke's Bay region of New Zealand, lived in Waipukurau, a small town in Hawke's Bay. The Australian Bjelke-Petersen family are of Swedish descent. Bjelke-Petersen's parents were both Danish immigrants, his father, was a Lutheran pastor. In 1913 the family moved to Australia, establishing a farm, "Bethany", near Kingaroy in south-eastern Queensland; the young Bjelke-Petersen suffered from polio. The family was poor, Carl Bjelke-Petersen was in poor health. Bjelke-Petersen finished formal schooling at age 14 to work with his mother on the farm, though he enrolled in correspondence school and undertook a University of Queensland extension course on the "Art of Writing", he taught Sunday school, delivered sermons in nearby towns and joined the Kingaroy debating society. In 1933, Bjelke-Petersen began work land-clearing and peanut farming on the family's newly acquired second property, his efforts allowed him to begin work as a contract land-clearer and to acquire further capital which he invested in farm equipment and natural resource exploration.
He developed a technique for clearing scrub by connecting a heavy anchor chain between two bulldozers. By the time he was 30, he was businessman. Obtaining a pilot's licence early in his adult life, Bjelke-Petersen started aerial spraying and grass seeding to further speed up pasture development in Queensland. After failing in a 1944 plebiscite against the sitting member to gain Country Party endorsement in the state seat of Nanango, based on Kingaroy, Bjelke-Petersen was elected in 1946 to the Kingaroy Shire Council, where he developed a profile in the Country Party. With the support of local federal member and shire council chairman Sir Charles Adermann and Sir Frank Nicklin, he gained Country Party endorsement for Nanango and was elected a year at age 36, going on to give regular radio talks and becoming secretary of the local Nationals branch, he would hold this seat, renamed Barambah in 1950, for the next 40 years. The Labor Party had held power in Queensland since 1932 and Bjelke-Petersen spent eleven years as an opposition member.
On 31 May 1952, Bjelke-Petersen married typist Florence Gilmour, who would become a significant political figure in her own right. In 1957, following a split in the Labor Party, the Country Party under Nicklin came to power, with the Liberal Party as a junior coalition partner; this was a reversal of the situation at the national level. Queensland is Australia's least centralised state. In these areas, the Country Party was stronger than the Liberal Party; as a result, the Country Party had been the larger of the two non-Labor parties, had been senior partner in the Coalition since 1925. In 1963 Nicklin appointed Bjelke-Petersen as minister for works and housing, a portfolio that gave him the opportunity to bestow favours and earn the loyalty of backbenchers by approving construction of schools, police stations and public housing in their electorates. At various times, he served as acting minister for education, police and Island Affairs, local government and conservation and labour and industry.
He would serv
A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone. In some countries, teaching young people of school age may be carried out in an informal setting, such as within the family, rather than in a formal setting such as a school or college; some other professions may involve a significant amount of teaching. In most countries, formal teaching of students is carried out by paid professional teachers; this article focuses on those who are employed, as their main role, to teach others in a formal education context, such as at a school or other place of initial formal education or training. A teacher's role may vary among cultures. Teachers may provide instruction in literacy and numeracy, craftsmanship or vocational training, the arts, civics, community roles, or life skills. Formal teaching tasks include preparing lessons according to agreed curricula, giving lessons, assessing pupil progress. A teacher's professional duties may extend beyond formal teaching.
Outside of the classroom teachers may accompany students on field trips, supervise study halls, help with the organization of school functions, serve as supervisors for extracurricular activities. In some education systems, teachers may have responsibility for student discipline. Teaching is a complex activity; this is in part because teaching is a social practice, that takes place in a specific context and therefore reflects the values of that specific context. Factors that influence what is expected of teachers include history and tradition, social views about the purpose of education, accepted theories about learning, etc; the competencies required by a teacher are affected by the different ways in which the role is understood around the world. Broadly, there seem to be four models: the teacher as manager of instruction; the OECD has argued that it is necessary to develop a shared definition of the skills and knowledge required by teachers, in order to guide teachers' career-long education and professional development.
Some evidence-based international discussions have tried to reach such a common understanding. For example, the European Union has identified three broad areas of competences that teachers require: Working with others Working with knowledge and information, Working in and with society. Scholarly consensus is emerging that what is required of teachers can be grouped under three headings: knowledge craft skills and dispositions, it has been found that teachers who showed enthusiasm towards the course materials and students can create a positive learning experience. These teachers do not teach by rote but attempt to find new invigoration for the course materials on a daily basis. One of the challenges facing teachers is that they may have covered a curriculum until they begin to feel bored with the subject, their attitude may in turn bore the students. Students who had enthusiastic teachers tend to rate them higher than teachers who didn't show much enthusiasm for the course materials. Teachers that exhibit enthusiasm can lead to students who are more to be engaged, interested and curious about learning the subject matter.
Recent research has found a correlation between teacher enthusiasm and students' intrinsic motivation to learn and vitality in the classroom. Controlled, experimental studies exploring intrinsic motivation of college students has shown that nonverbal expressions of enthusiasm, such as demonstrative gesturing, dramatic movements which are varied, emotional facial expressions, result in college students reporting higher levels of intrinsic motivation to learn, but while a teacher's enthusiasm has been shown to improve motivation and increase task engagement, it does not improve learning outcomes or memory for the material. There are various mechanisms by which teacher enthusiasm may facilitate higher levels of intrinsic motivation. Teacher enthusiasm may contribute to a classroom atmosphere of energy and enthusiasm which feeds student interest and excitement in learning the subject matter. Enthusiastic teachers may lead to students becoming more self-determined in their own learning process; the concept of mere exposure indicates that the teacher's enthusiasm may contribute to the student's expectations about intrinsic motivation in the context of learning.
Enthusiasm may act as a "motivational embellishment", increasing a student's interest by the variety and surprise of the enthusiastic teacher's presentation of the material. The concept of emotional contagion, may apply. Research shows that student motivation and attitudes towards school are linked to student-teacher relationships. Enthusiastic teachers are good at creating beneficial relations with their students, their ability to create effective learning environments that foster student achievement depends on the kind of relationship they build with their students. Useful teacher-to-studen
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli