Minister for Democracy (Sweden)
The Minister for Democracy is a cabinet minister within the Swedish Government and appointed by the Prime Minister of Sweden. The minister is responsible for issues regarding democracy; the current Minister for Democracy is Alice Bah Kuhnke, appointed on 3 October 2014. She concurrently serves as Minister for Culture and Democracy The office of Minister for Democracy have been under several different ministries since its founding in 1998
Minister for Gender Equality (Sweden)
The Minister for Gender Equality is a cabinet minister within the Swedish Government and appointed by the Prime Minister of Sweden. The minister is responsible for issues regarding gender equality, popular education and policies for the civil society; the current Minister for Gender Equality is Åsa Lindhagen, appointed on 21 January 2019. The office of Minister for Gender Equality have been under several different ministries since its founding in 1954. Minister for Women and Equalities
Minister for Nordic Cooperation (Sweden)
The Minister for Nordic Cooperation is a cabinet minister within the Swedish Government and appointed by the Prime Minister of Sweden. The minister is responsible for issues regarding Nordic affairs and development; the current Minister for Nordic Cooperation is Ann Linde, appointed on 21 January 2019. Minister for Nordic Cooperation Minister for Nordic Cooperation Minister for Nordic Cooperation
Minister for Government Coordination (Sweden)
The Minister for Government Coordination is a cabinet minister within the Swedish Government and appointed by the Prime Minister of Sweden. The minister is responsible for coordinating the government and being the Prime Minister's courier to the other ministres; the current Minister for Government Coordination is Ibrahim Baylan, appointed on 25 May 2016. He concurrently serves as Minister for Energy
The Riksdag is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden. Since 1971, the Riksdag has been a unicameral legislature with 349 members, elected proportionally and serving, from 1994 onwards, on fixed four-year terms; the constitutional functions of the Riksdag are enumerated in the Instrument of Government, its internal workings are specified in greater detail in the Riksdag Act. The seat of the Riksdag is at Parliament House, on the island of Helgeandsholmen in the central parts of Stockholm; the Riksdag has its institutional roots in the feudal Riksdag of the Estates, by tradition thought to have first assembled in Arboga in 1435, in 1866 following reforms of the 1809 Instrument of Government that body was transformed into a bicameral legislature with an upper chamber and a lower chamber. The most recent general election was held on 9 September 2018; the Swedish word riksdag, in definite form riksdagen, is a general term for "parliament" or "assembly", but it is only used for Sweden's legislature and certain related institutions.
In addition to Sweden's parliament, it is used for the Parliament of Finland and the Estonian Riigikogu, as well as the historical German Reichstag and the Danish Rigsdagen. In Swedish use, riksdagen is uncapitalized. Riksdag derives from the genitive of rike, referring to royal power, dag, meaning diet or conference; the Oxford English Dictionary traces English use of the term "Riksdag" in reference to the Swedish assembly back to 1855. The roots of the modern Riksdag can be found in a 1435 meeting of the Swedish nobility in the city of Arboga; this informal organization was modified in 1527 by the first modern Swedish king Gustav I Vasa to include representatives from all the four social estates: the nobility, the clergy, the burghers, the yeomanry. This form of Ständestaat representation lasted until 1865, when representation by estate was abolished and the modern bicameral parliament established. However, it did not become a parliament in the modern sense until parliamentary principles were established in the political system in Sweden, in 1917.
On 22 June 1866, the Riksdag decided to reconstitute itself as a bicameral legislature, consisting of Första kammaren or the First Chamber, with 155 members and Andra kammaren or the Second Chamber with 233 members. The First Chamber was indirectly elected by county and city councillors, while the Second Chamber was directly elected by universal suffrage; this reform was a result of great malcontent with the old Estates, following the changes brought by the beginnings of the industrial revolution, was no longer able to provide representation for large segments of the population. By an amendment to the 1809 Instrument of Government, the general election of 1970 was the first to a unicameral assembly with 350 seats; the following general election to the unicameral Riksdag in 1973 only gave the Government the support of 175 members, while the opposition could mobilize an equal force of 175 members. In a number of cases a tied vote ensued, the final decision had to be determined by lot. To avoid any reccurrence of this unstable situation, the number of seats in the Riksdag was reduced to 349, from 1976 onwards.
The Riksdag performs the normal functions of a legislature in a parliamentary democracy. It amends the constitution and appoints a government. In most parliamentary democracies, the head of state commissions a politician to form a government. Under the new Instrument of Government enacted in 1974, that task was removed from the Monarch of Sweden and given to the Speaker of the Riksdag. To make changes to the Constitution under the new Instrument of Government, amendments must be approved twice, in two successive electoral periods with a regular general election held in between. There are 15 parliamentary committees in the Riksdag; as of February 2013, 44.7 percent of the members of the Riksdag are women. This is the world's fourth highest proportion of females in a national legislature—behind only the Parliaments of Rwanda and Cuba – hence the second-highest in the developed world and among parliamentary democracies. Following the 2014 elections, in which the share of Liberal female members of parliament plunged and the Sweden Democrats more than doubled their seats, the figure dropped to 43,5%.
Only the Left Party has a majority of female MPs. Members of the Riksdag are full-time legislators with a salary of 66 900 SEK per month. According to a survey investigation by the sociologist Jenny Hansson, Members of the Riksdag have an average work week of 66 hours, including side responsibilities. Hansson's investigation further reports; the presidium consists of three deputy speakers. They are elected for a 4-year term. After holding talks with leaders of the various party groups in the Riksdag, the speaker of the Riksdag nominates a Prime Minister; the nomination is put to a vote. The nomination is rejected only if an absolute majority of the members vote "no"; this means the Riksdag can consent to a Prime Min
Minister for Foreign Affairs (Sweden)
The Minister for Foreign Affairs is the foreign minister of Sweden and the head of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The current Minister for Foreign Affairs is Margot Wallström of the Social Democrats; the office was instituted in 1809 as a result of the constitutional Instrument of Government promulgated in the same year. Until 1876 the office was called Prime Minister for Foreign Affairs, similar to the office of Prime Minister for Justice; the Prime Minister for Foreign Affairs served as head of the Cabinet of Foreign Mail Exchange at the Royal Office. Following the ministry reform in 1840, the Prime Minister for Foreign Affairs became head of the newly instituted Ministry for Foreign Affairs. In 1876 the office proper of Prime Minister of Sweden was created and at the same time the Prime Minister for Foreign Affairs was nominally demoted to a mere Minister; the holder of the office did however continue to be styled as "Your excellency", until 1974 when the new Instrument of Government came into force.
Before the parliamentary breakthrough in the early 20th century, that title had been granted to members of the most prominent noble families. Parties Status State Secretary for Foreign Affairs https://web.archive.org/web/20120506050731/http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2059