Espeletia, commonly known as frailejón or fraylejón, is a genus of perennial subshrubs, in the sunflower family. The genus, which is mainly to Colombia, Venezuela. The genus was named after the viceroy of New Granada, José Manuel de Ezpeleta, the plants live at high altitude in páramo ecosystems. The trunk is thick, with succulent hairy leaves disposed in a spiral pattern. Marcescent leaves help protect the plants from cold, the flowers are usually yellow, similar to daisies. The frailejón plant is endangered due to destruction of the páramo for agricultural purposes and this activity continues, despite the Colombian government declaring it illegal
Brassicaceae or Cruciferae is a medium-sized and economically important family of flowering plants commonly known as the mustards, the crucifers, or the cabbage family. The name Brassicaceae is derived from the included genus Brassica, the alternative older name, meaning cross-bearing, describes the four petals of mustard flowers, which resemble a cross. Cruciferae is one of eight plant family names without the suffix -aceae that are authorized alternative names, the family contains 372 genera and 4060 accepted species. The largest genera are Draba, Lepidium, pieris rapae and other butterflies of the family Pieridae are some of the best-known pests of Brassicaceae species planted as commercial crops. The family is included in the Brassicales according to the APG system, older systems placed them into the Capparales, a now-defunct order that had a similar definition. This family comprises about 375 genera and 2500 species all over the world,94 species of 38 genera are found in Nepal, a close relationship has long been acknowledged between the Brassicaceae and the caper family, Capparaceae, in part because members of both groups produce glucosinolate compounds.
The APG II system, has merged the two families under the name Brassicaceae, the APG III system has recently adopted this last solution, but this may change as a consensus arises on this point. This article deals with Brassicaceae sensu stricto, i. e. treating the Cleomaceae and Capparaceae as segregated families, the family consists mostly of herbaceous plants with annual, biennial, or perennial lifespans. The leaves are alternate, sometimes organized in basal rosettes, in rare shrubby crucifers of Mediterranean their leaves are mostly in terminal rosettes and they are very often pinnately incised and do not have stipules. The structure of the flowers is extremely uniform throughout the family and they have four free saccate sepals and four clawed free petals, staggered. They can be disymmetric or slightly zygomorphic, with a typical cross-like arrangement and they have six stamens, four of which are longer and are arranged in a cross like the petals and the other two are shorter. The pistil is made up of two fused carpels and the style is short, with two lobes.
The flowers form ebracteate racemose inflorescences, often apically corymb-like, pollination occurs by entomogamy, nectar is produced at the base of the stamens and stored on the sepals. The fruit is a kind of capsule named siliqua. It opens by two valves, which are the modified carpels, leaving the attached to a framework made up of the placenta. Often, an indehiscent beak occurs at the top of the style, where a siliqua is less than three times as long as it is broad, it is usually termed a silicula. The siliqua may break apart at constrictions occurring between the segments of the seeds, thus forming a sort of loment, it may eject the seeds explosively or may be evolved in a sort of samara. The fruit is often the most important diagnostic character for plants in this family, most members share a suite of glucosinolate compounds that have a typical pungent odour usually associated with cole crops
Today, it is cultivated worldwide as an ornamental plant. It has become naturalized in regions, including the West Indies, parts of South America, the southern Mediterranean Basin, and parts of Africa, China, Thailand. Despite the common name American aloe, it is not closely related to plants in the genus Aloe, although it is called the century plant, it typically lives only 10 to 30 years. It has a spread around 6–10 ft with gray-green leaves of 3–5 ft long, each with a prickly margin and a heavy spike at the tip that can pierce deeply. Near the end of its life, the plant sends up a tall, branched stalk, laden with yellow blossoms and its common name derives from its semelparous nature of flowering only once at the end of its long life. The plant dies after flowering, but produces suckers or adventitious shoots from the base, a. americana was one of the many species described by Carl Linnaeus in the 1753 edition of Species Plantarum, with the binomial name that is still used today. A. americana is cultivated as a plant for the large dramatic form of mature plants - for modernist, drought tolerant.
It is often used in hot climates and where drought conditions occur, the plants can be evocative of 18th-19th-century Spanish colonial and Mexican provincial eras in the Southwestern United States and xeric Mexico. It is a landscape plant in beach gardens in Florida. Two subspecies and two varieties of A. americana are recognized by the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, protamericana Gentry A. a. var. expansa Gentry A. a. var. If the flower stem is cut without flowering, a liquid called aguamiel gathers in the heart of the plant. This may be fermented to produce the drink called pulque, the leaves yield fibers, known as pita, which are suitable for making rope, matting, or coarse cloth, and are used for embroidery of leather in a technique known as piteado. Both pulque and maguey fiber were important to the economy of pre-Columbian Mexico, in the tequila-producing regions of Mexico, agaves are called mezcales. The high-alcohol product of agave distillation is called mezcal, A. americana is one of several agaves used for distillation, a mezcal called tequila is produced from Agave tequilana, commonly called blue agave.
The many different types of mezcal include some which may be flavored with the very pungent mezcal worm, in mezcal and tequila production, the sugars are extracted from the piñas by heating them in ovens, rather than by collecting aguamiel from the plants cut stalk. Thus, if one were to distill pulque, it would not be a form of mezcal, Agave nectar is marketed as a natural form of sugar with a low glycemic index that is due to its high fructose content. The plant figures in the coat of arms of Don Diego de Mendoza, el maguey y el pulque en los códices mexicanos. Mexico City, Fondo de Cultura Económica 1956, memoria sobre el maguey mexicano y sus diversos productos
Taraxacum is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae which consists of species commonly known as dandelion. They are native to Eurasia and North America, but the two species worldwide, T. officinale and T. erythrospermum, were imports from Europe that now propagate as wildflowers. Both species are edible in their entirety, the common name dandelion is given to members of the genus. Like other members of the Asteraceae family, they have small flowers collected together into a composite flower head. Each single flower in a head is called a floret, many Taraxacum species produce seeds asexually by apomixis, where the seeds are produced without pollination, resulting in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent plant. The species of Taraxacum are tap-rooted, herbaceous plants, the genus contains many species which usually reproduce by apomixis, resulting in many local populations and endemism. In the British Isles alone,234 microspecies are recognised in 9 loosely defined sections, in general, the leaves are 5–25 cm long or longer, simple and form a basal rosette above the central taproot.
The flower heads are yellow to orange coloured, and are open in the daytime, the heads are borne singly on a hollow stem that is usually leafless and rises 1–10 cm or more above the leaves. Stems and leaves exude a white, milky latex when broken, a rosette may produce several flowering stems at a time. The flower heads are 2–5 cm in diameter and consist entirely of ray florets, the flower heads mature into spherical seed heads called blowballs or clocks containing many single-seeded fruits called achenes. Each achene is attached to a pappus of hairs, which enable wind-aided dispersal over long distances. The flower head is surrounded by bracts in two series, the inner bracts are erect until the seeds mature, flex downward to allow the seeds to disperse. The outer bracts are often reflexed downward, but remain appressed in plants of the sections Palustria and Spectabilia, some species drop the parachute from the achenes, the hair-like parachutes are called pappus, and they are modified sepals.
Between the pappus and the achene is a called a beak. The beak breaks off from the achene quite easily, separating the seed from the parachute, a number of species of Taraxacum are seed-dispersed ruderals that rapidly colonize disturbed soil, especially the common dandelion, which has been introduced over much of the temperate world. After flowering is finished, the flower head dries out for a day or two. The dried petals and stamens drop off, the reflex. Many similar plants in the Asteraceae family with yellow flowers are known as false dandelions
The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world. They are a range of highlands along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km long, about 200 to 700 km wide, the Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia and Chile. Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, the Andes are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities, such as Quito, Bogotá, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz. The Altiplano plateau is the worlds second-highest after the Tibetan plateau and these ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate, the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, and the Wet Andes. The Andes are the worlds highest mountain range outside of Asia, the highest mountain outside Asia, Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m above sea level. The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorean Andes is farther from the Earths center than any other location on the Earths surface, the worlds highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m.
The etymology of the word Andes has been debated, the majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means east as in Antisuyu, one of the four regions of the Inca Empire. In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is considered to be part of the Andes. The term cordillera comes from the Spanish word cordel, meaning rope, the Andes range is about 200 km wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 kilometres wide. The Andes are the result of plate tectonics processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American plate. The main cause of the rise of the Andes is the compression of the rim of the South American Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate. In the south, the Andes share a boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. To the west, the Andes end at the Pacific Ocean, from a geographical approach, the Andes are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography.
The Andes Mountains contain large quantities of iron ore located in mountains within the range. The Andean orogen has a series of bends or oroclines, the Bolivian Orocline is a seaward concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes Mountains at about 18° S. At this point the orientation of the Andes turns from Northwest in Peru to South in Chile, the Andean segment north and south of the orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° counter clockwise and clockwise respectively. The Bolivian Orocline area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano Plateau, the specific point at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the Arica Elbow
Dryas octopetala is an Arctic–alpine flowering plant in the family Rosaceae. It is a small prostrate evergreen subshrub forming large colonies, the specific epithet octopetala derives from the Greek octo and petalon, referring to the eight petals of the flower, an unusual number in the Rosaceae, where five is the normal number. However, flowers with up to 16 petals occur naturally, Dryas octopetala has a widespread occurrence throughout mountainous areas where it is generally restricted to limestone outcrops. These include the entire Arctic, as well as the mountains of Scandinavia, Iceland, in Great Britain it occurs in the Pennines, at two locations in Snowdonia, and more widely in the Scottish Highlands, in Ireland it occurs on The Burren and a few other sites. In North America it is found in Alaska, most frequently on previously glaciated terrain, as a floral emblem, it is the official territorial flower of the Northwest Territories and the national flower of Iceland. The stems are woody, with short, horizontal rooting branches, the leaves are glabrous above, densely white-tomentose beneath.
The flowers are produced on stalks 3–10 cm long, and have eight white petals - hence the specific epithet octopetala. The style is persistent on the fruit with white feathery hairs, the feathery hairs of the seed head first appear twisted together and glossy before spreading out to an expanded ball which the wind quickly disperses. It grows in dry localities where snow melts early, on gravel and rocky barrens, the Younger Dryas, Older Dryas and Oldest Dryas stadials are named after Dryas octopetala, because of the great quantities of its pollen found in cores dating from those times. D. octopetala is cultivated in regions as groundcover, or as an alpine or rock garden plant. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Societys Award of Garden Merit, the leaves are occasionally used as a herbal tea. Elkington, T. T. Dryas Octopetala L, journal of Ecology, Vol.59, No.3. Fungal Endophytes of Dryas octopetala from a High Arctic Polar Semidesert, refugia and postglacial migration in arctic-alpine Eurasia, exemplified by the mountain avens
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem. The leaves and stem together form the shoot, Leaves are collectively referred to as foliage, as in autumn foliage. Although leaves can be seen in different shapes and textures, typically a leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ, borne above ground. Most leaves have distinctive upper surface and lower surface that differ in colour, broad, flat leaves with complex venation are known as megaphylls and the species that bear them, the majority, as broad-leaved or megaphyllous plants. In others, such as the clubmosses, with different evolutionary origins, some leaves, such as bulb scales are not above ground, and in many aquatic species the leaves are submerged in water. Succulent plants often have thick juicy leaves, but some leaves are without major photosynthetic function and may be dead at maturity, as in some cataphylls, several kinds of leaf-like structures found in vascular plants are not totally homologous with them.
Examples include flattened plant stems called phylloclades and cladodes, and flattened leaf stems called phyllodes which differ from both in their structure and origin. Many structures of plants, such as the phyllids of mosses and liverworts and even of some foliose lichens. Leaves are the most important organs of most vascular plants and these are further processed by chemical synthesis into more complex organic molecules such as cellulose, the basic structural material in plant cell walls. The plant must therefore bring these three together in the leaf for photosynthesis to take place. Once sugar has been synthesized, it needs to be transported to areas of growth such as the plant shoots and roots. Vascular plants transport sucrose in a tissue called the phloem. The phloem and xylem are parallel to each other but the transport of materials is usually in opposite directions. Within the leaf these vascular systems branch to form veins which supply as much as the leaf as possible and they are arranged on the plant so as to expose their surfaces to light as efficiently as possible without shading each other, but there are many exceptions and complications.
For instance plants adapted to windy conditions may have pendent leaves, such as in many willows, the flat, or laminar, shape maximises thermal contact with the surrounding air, promoting cooling. Functionally, in addition to photosynthesis the leaf is the site of transpiration and guttation. Many gymnosperms have thin needle-like or scale-like leaves that can be advantageous in cold climates with frequent snow and these are interpreted as reduced from megaphyllous leaves of their Devonian ancestors. For xerophytes the major constraint is not light flux or intensity, some window plants such as Fenestraria species and some Haworthia species such as Haworthia tesselata and Haworthia truncata are examples of xerophytes. and Bulbine mesembryanthemoides
Asteraceae or Compositae is a very large and widespread family of flowering plants. The family currently has 32,913 accepted species names, in 1,911 genera and 13 subfamilies, in terms of numbers of species, the Asteraceae are rivaled only by the Orchidaceae. Many members have composite flowers in the form of flower heads surrounded by involucral bracts, when viewed from a distance, each capitulum may have the appearance of being a single flower. The name Asteraceae comes from the type genus Aster, from the Greek ἀστήρ, meaning star, Compositae is an older but still valid name which refers to the fact that the family is one of the few angiosperm ones to have composite flowers. Most members of Asteraceae are herbaceous, but a significant number are shrubs, the family has a worldwide distribution, from the polar regions to the tropics, colonizing a wide variety of habitats. It is most common in the arid and semiarid regions of subtropical, the Asteraceae may represent as much as 10% of autochthonous flora in many regions of the world.
Asteraceae is an important family, providing products such as cooking oils, sunflower seeds, sweetening agents, coffee substitutes. Several genera are of importance, including pot marigold, Calendula officinalis, various daisies, chrysanthemums, zinnias. Asteraceae are important in medicine, including Grindelia, yarrow. A number of species are considered invasive, most notably in North America, the name Asteraceae comes to international scientific vocabulary from New Latin, from Aster, the type genus, + -aceae, a standardized suffix for plant family names in modern taxonomy. The genus name comes from the Classical Latin word aster, Compositae, an older but still valid name, means composite and refers to the characteristic inflorescence, a special type of pseudanthium found in only a few other angiosperm families. The study of family is known as synantherology. The vernacular name daisy, widely applied to members of family, is derived from its Old English name, dægesege, from dæges eage. This is because the open at dawn and close at dusk.
Composite flowers have a distribution, and are found everywhere except Antarctica. They are especially numerous in tropical and subtropical regions, Compositae were first described in 1792 by the German botanist Paul Dietrich Giseke. Traditionally, two subfamilies were recognised and Cichorioideae, the latter has been shown to be extensively paraphyletic, and has now been divided into 12 subfamilies, but the former still stands. The phylogenetic tree presented below is based on Panero & Funk updated in 2014, the diamond denotes a very poorly supported node, the dot a poorly supported node
The Marchantiophyta /mɑːrˌkæntiˈɒfᵻtə/ are a division of non-vascular land plants commonly referred to as hepatics or liverworts. Like mosses and hornworts, they have a gametophyte-dominant life cycle and it is estimated that there are about 9000 species of liverworts. Some of the familiar species grow as a flattened leafless thallus. Leafy species can be distinguished from the apparently similar mosses on the basis of a number of features, leafy liverworts differ from most mosses in that their leaves never have a costa and may bear marginal cilia. Liverworts are typically small, usually from 2–20 mm wide with individual plants less than 10 cm long, certain species may cover large patches of ground, trees or any other reasonably firm substrate on which they occur. They are distributed globally in almost every habitat, most often in humid locations although there are desert. Some species can be a nuisance in shady greenhouses or a weed in gardens, most liverworts are small, usually from 2–20 millimetres wide with individual plants less than 10 centimetres long, so they are often overlooked.
The most familiar liverworts consist of a prostrate, ribbon-like or branching structure called a thallus, liverworts can most reliably be distinguished from the apparently similar mosses by their single-celled rhizoids. Liverworts have a gametophyte-dominant life cycle, with the dependent on the gametophyte. Cells in a typical liverwort plant each contain only a set of genetic information. This contrasts sharply with the pattern exhibited by all animals. In the more familiar seed plants, the generation is represented only by the tiny pollen. Another unusual feature of the life cycle is that sporophytes are very short-lived. Even in other bryophytes, the sporophyte is persistent and disperses spores over an extended period, the life of a liverwort starts from the germination of a haploid spore to produce a protonema, which is either a mass of thread-like filaments or else a flattened thallus. The protonema is a stage in the life of a liverwort. The male organs are known as antheridia and produce the sperm cells, clusters of antheridia are enclosed by a protective layer of cells called the perigonium.
As in other plants, the female organs are known as archegonia and are protected by the thin surrounding perichaetum. Each archegonium has a hollow tube, the neck, down which the sperm swim to reach the egg cell
Cabbage or headed cabbage is a leafy green or purple biennial plant, grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads. It is descended from the cabbage, B. oleracea var. oleracea. Cabbage heads generally range from 0.5 to 4 kilograms, smooth-leafed firm-headed green cabbages are the most common, with smooth-leafed red and crinkle-leafed savoy cabbages of both colors seen more rarely. Under conditions of long sunlit days such as are found at high latitudes in summer. Some records are discussed at the end of the history section and it is difficult to trace the exact history of cabbage, but it was most likely domesticated somewhere in Europe before 1000 BC, although savoys were not developed until the 16th century. By the Middle Ages, it had become a prominent part of European cuisine, cabbage is prone to several nutrient deficiencies, as well as to multiple pests, and bacterial and fungal diseases. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reports that production of cabbage.
Almost half of these crops were grown in China, where Chinese cabbage is the most popular Brassica vegetable, cabbages are prepared in many different ways for eating. They can be pickled, fermented for dishes such as sauerkraut, stewed, sautéed, cabbage is a good source of vitamin K, vitamin C and dietary fiber. Contaminated cabbage has been linked to cases of illness in humans. Cabbage is a member of the genus Brassica and the mustard family, several other cruciferous vegetables are considered cultivars of B. oleracea, including broccoli, collard greens, brussels sprouts and sprouting broccoli. All of these developed from the wild cabbage B. oleracea var. oleracea, the varietal epithet capitata is derived from the Latin word for having a head. B. oleracea and its derivatives have hundreds of names throughout the world. Cabbage was originally used to refer to forms of B. oleracea. A related species, Brassica rapa, is commonly named Chinese, napa or celery cabbage and it is a part of common names for several unrelated species.
These include cabbage bark or cabbage tree and cabbage palms, which include several genera of palms such as Mauritia, Roystonea oleracea, the original family name of brassicas was Cruciferae, which derived from the flower petal pattern thought by medieval Europeans to resemble a crucifix. The word brassica derives from bresic, a Celtic word for cabbage, many European and Asiatic names for cabbage are derived from the Celto-Slavic root cap or kap, meaning head. The late Middle English word cabbage derives from the word caboche and this in turn is a variant of the Old French caboce
Marcescence is the retention of dead plant organs that normally are shed. It is most obvious in deciduous trees that retain leaves through the winter, several trees normally have marcescent leaves such as oak and hornbeam, or marcescent stipules as in some but not all species of willows. Marcescent leaves of pin oak complete development of their abscission layer in the spring, the base of the petiole remains alive over the winter. Many other trees may have marcescent leaves in seasons where an early freeze kills the leaves before the abscission layer develops or completes development, diseases or pests can kill leaves before they can develop an abscission layer. Marcescent leaves may be retained indefinitely and do not break off until mechanical forces cause the dry, many palms form a skirt-like or shuttlecock-like crown of marcescent leaves under new growth that may persist for years before being shed. In some species only juveniles retain dead leaves and marcescence in palms is considered a primitive trait, the term marcescent is used in mycology to describe a mushroom which can dry out, but revive and continue to disperse spores.
Genus Marasmius is well known for feature, which was considered taxonomically important by Elias Magnus Fries in his 1838 classification of the fungi. One possible advantage of marcescent leaves is that they may deter feeding of large herbivores, such as deer and moose, dry leaves make the twigs less nutritious and less palatable. Marcescent leaves may protect some species from water stress or temperature stress, the litter-trapping marcescent leaf crown of Dypsis palms accumulate detritus to enhance their nutrient supply. By the same token, palms with marcescent leaf bases are more susceptible to epiphytic parasites like figs that may completely engulf. Semi-deciduous Evergreen Youtube. com, Marcescence — video with narration