Dairy Queen is a chain of soft serve ice cream and fast-food restaurants owned by International Dairy Queen, Inc. a subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway. International Dairy Queen, Inc. owns Orange Julius and Karmelkorn. The first DQ restaurant was located in Illinois, it was operated by Sherb Noble and opened for business on June 22, 1940. It served a variety such as soft serve ice cream; the company's corporate offices are located in the Minneapolis suburb of Minnesota. The soft-serve formula was first developed in 1938 by Douds, Iowa-born John Fremont "J. F." "Grandpa" McCullough and his son Alex. They convinced friend and loyal customer Sherb Noble to offer the product in his ice cream store in Kankakee, Illinois. On the first day of sales, Noble dished out more than 1,600 servings of the new dessert within two hours. Noble and the McCulloughs went on to open the first Dairy Queen store in 1940 in Joliet, Illinois. While this Dairy Queen has not been in operation since the 1950s, the building still stands at 501 N Chicago St. as a city-designated landmark.
Since 1940, the chain has used a franchise system to expand its operations globally. In the US, the state with the most Dairy Queen restaurants is Texas. Using the 2010 census, the state with the most Dairy Queen Restaurants per person is Minnesota. International Dairy Queen, Inc. is the parent company of Dairy Queen. In the United States, it operates under American Dairy Queen Corp. At the end of fiscal year 2014, Dairy Queen reported over 6,400 stores in more than 25 countries. DQ was an early pioneer of food franchising, expanding its 10 stores in 1941 to 100 by 1947, 1,446 in 1950, 2,600 in 1955; the first store in Canada opened in Estevan, Saskatchewan, in 1953. The red Dairy Queen symbol was introduced in 1958; the company became International Dairy Queen, Inc. in 1962. In 1987, IDQ bought the Orange Julius chain. IDQ was acquired by Berkshire Hathaway in 1998. Dairy Queens were a fixture of social life in small towns of the Midwestern and Southern United States during the 1950s and 1960s. In that role, they have come to be referenced as a symbol of life in small-town America, as in Walter Benjamin at the Dairy Queen: Reflections at Sixty and Beyond by Larry McMurtry, Dairy Queen Days by Robert Inman, Chevrolet Summers, Dairy Queen Nights by Bob Greene.
The company's stores are operated under several brands, all bearing the distinctive Dairy Queen logo and carrying the company's signature soft-serve ice cream. In the 1970s, most restaurants were "Brazier" locations with a second floor for storage, recognizable for their red mansard roofs; as of the end of 2014, Dairy Queen had more than 6,400 stores in 27 countries, including more than 1,400 locations outside the United States and Canada. The largest Dairy Queen in the United States is located in Illinois; the largest store in the world was built in Saudi Arabia. The busiest store in the world is located in Prince Edward Island. While some stores serve a abbreviated menu featuring DQ frozen treats and may be open only during spring and summer, the majority of DQ restaurants serve hot food and are open all year. So-called "Limited Brazier" locations may additionally offer hot dogs, barbecue beef sandwiches, in some cases french fries and chicken, but not hamburgers. Dairy Queen Full Brazier restaurants serve a normal fast-food menu featuring burgers, french fries, grilled and crispy chicken in addition to frozen treats and hot dogs.
In some locations built in the 1990s, the "Hot Eats, Cool Treats" slogan can be seen printed on windows or near the roof of the building. One such example was a former Dairy Queen Brazier location in Woodinville, where the slogan was printed near the tops of the windows; this location was converted into a Grill & Chill store around late 2016-2017. Known as the "Treat Center" concept, an enhanced version of the original stores serves drinks and foods from the Orange Julius menu; this was the company's preferred concept for new, small-scale locations in shopping mall food courts. Some early Treat Centers included Karmelkorn. Since 2012, all Dairy Queen locations feature Orange Julius drinks, except for the select few stores under private ownership; the name "Brazier" originated in 1957 when one of the company's franchisees, Jim Cruikshank, set out to develop the standardized food system. When he witnessed flames rising from an open charcoal grill in a New York eatery, he knew he had found the Brazier concept.
The "Brazier" name has been phased out of signage and advertising since 1993, although it has not been removed from all existing signage in many smaller towns and rural locations. Since the early 2000s, new or renovated locations which are similar to Brazier restaurants in terms of size and menu selection, but have been updated with the current logo and/or exterior carry the name "DQ Restaurant", although the website's store locator still lists the stores that do not carry the "Grill & Chill" name as "Dairy Queen Brazier" and the smaller stores "Dairy Queen Ltd Brazier" and "Dairy Queen Stores". However, the company website still considers their burger and hot dog lines as "Brazier Foods", according to the history section and some FAQ listed topics in the website. DQ Grill & Chill locations feature hot food, table delivery, self-serve soft drinks, it is the new concept for renovated full-service restaurants. Stores are larger than older-style locations and feature a new store design. In most cases, they offer an expanded menu including breakfast, Grill Burgers, grilled sandwiches, as well
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Analytics is the discovery and communication of meaningful patterns in data. In other words, analytics can be understood as the connective tissue between data and effective decision making, within an organization. Valuable in areas rich with recorded information, analytics relies on the simultaneous application of statistics, computer programming and operations research to quantify performance. Organizations may apply analytics to business data to describe and improve business performance. Areas within analytics include predictive analytics, prescriptive analytics, enterprise decision management, descriptive analytics, cognitive analytics, Big Data Analytics, retail analytics, supply chain analytics, store assortment and stock-keeping unit optimization, marketing optimization and marketing mix modeling, web analytics, call analytics, speech analytics, sales force sizing and optimization and promotion modeling, predictive science, credit risk analysis, fraud analytics. Since analytics can require extensive computation, the algorithms and software used for analytics harness the most current methods in computer science and mathematics.
Analysis is focused on understanding the past. Analytics focuses on what will happen next. Data analytics is a multidisciplinary field. There is extensive use of computer skills and statistics, the use of descriptive techniques and predictive models to gain valuable knowledge from data.. The insights from data are used to recommend action or to guide decision making rooted in business context. Thus, analytics is not so much concerned with individual analyses or analysis steps, but with the entire methodology. There is a pronounced tendency to use the term analytics in business settings e.g. text analytics vs. the more generic text mining to emphasize this broader perspective. There is an increasing use of the term advanced analytics used to describe the technical aspects of analytics in the emerging fields such as the use of machine learning techniques like neural networks, Decision Tree, Logistic Regression, linear to multiple regression analysis, Classification to do predictive modeling, it includes Unsupervised Machine learning techniques like cluster analysis, Principal Component Analysis, segmentation profile analysis and association analysis.
Marketing has evolved from a creative process into a data-driven process. Marketing organizations use analytics to determine the outcomes of campaigns or efforts and to guide decisions for investment and consumer targeting. Demographic studies, customer segmentation, conjoint analysis and other techniques allow marketers to use large amounts of consumer purchase and panel data to understand and communicate marketing strategy. Web analytics allows marketers to collect session-level information about interactions on a website using an operation called sessionization. Google Analytics is an example of a popular free analytics tool; those interactions provide web analytics information systems with the information necessary to track the referrer, search keywords, identify IP address, track activities of the visitor. With this information, a marketer can improve marketing campaigns, website creative content, information architecture. Analysis techniques used in marketing include marketing mix modeling and promotion analyses, sales force optimization and customer analytics e.g.: segmentation.
Web analytics and optimization of web sites and online campaigns now work hand in hand with the more traditional marketing analysis techniques. A focus on digital media has changed the vocabulary so that marketing mix modeling is referred to as attribution modeling in the digital or marketing mix modeling context; these tools and techniques support both strategic marketing decisions and more tactical campaign support, in terms of targeting the best potential customer with the optimal message in the most cost effective medium at the ideal time. People Analytics is using behavioral data to understand how people work and change how companies are managed. People analytics is known as workforce analytics, HR analytics, talent analytics, people insights, talent insights, colleague insights, human capital analytics, HRIS analytics. HR analytics is the application of analytics to help companies manage human resources; the aim is to discern which employees to hire, which to reward or promote, what responsibilities to assign, similar human resource problems.
HR analytics is becoming important to understand what kind of behavioral profiles would succeed and fail. For example, an analysis may find that individuals that fit a certain type of profile are those most to succeed at a particular role, making them the best employees to hire. However, there are key differences between HR analytics. "People Analytics solves business problems. HR Analytics solves HR problems. People Analytics looks at its social organization. HR Analytics measures and integrates data about HR administrative processes," says Ben Waber, MIT Media Lab Ph. D. and CEO of Humanyze. Josh Bersin and principal at Bersin by Deloitte agrees that people analytics is a larger industry than HR Analytics, explaining, "… over time, I believe it doesn't belong within HR. While it may reside in HR to begin with, over time this team takes responsible for analysis of sales productivity, retention, accidents and the people-
Scrabble is a word game in which two to four players score points by placing tiles bearing a single letter onto a board divided into a 15×15 grid of squares. The tiles must form words that, in crossword fashion, read left to right in rows or downward in columns, be included in a standard dictionary or lexicon; the name is a trademark of Mattel in most of the world, but of Hasbro, Inc. in the United States and Canada. The game is available in 29 languages. There are around 4,000 Scrabble clubs around the world; the game is played by two to four players on a square board with a 15×15 grid of cells, each of which accommodates a single letter tile. In official club and tournament games, play is between two players or between two teams each of which collaborates on a single rack; the board is marked with "premium" squares, which multiply the number of points awarded: eight dark red "triple-word" squares, 17 pale red "double-word" squares, of which one, the center square, is marked with a star or other symbol.
In 2008, Hasbro changed the colors of the premium squares to orange for TW, red for DW, blue for DL, green for TL, but the original premium square color scheme is still preferred for Scrabble boards used in tournaments. In an English-language set, the game contains 100 tiles, 98 of which are marked with a letter and a point value ranging from 1 to 10; the number of points for each lettered tile is based on the letter's frequency in standard English. The game has two blank tiles that are unmarked and carry no point value; the blank tiles can be used as substitutes for any letter. Other language sets use different letter set distributions with different point values. Tiles are made of wood or plastic and are 19 by 19 millimetres square and 4 mm thick, making them smaller than the squares on the board. Only the rosewood tiles of the deluxe edition varies the width up to 2 mm for different letters. Travelling versions of the game have smaller tiles; the capital letter is printed in black at the centre of the tile face and the letter's point value printed in a smaller font at the bottom right corner.
S is one of the most valuable tiles in English-language Scrabble because it can be appended to many words to pluralize them. Q is considered the most troublesome letter, as all words with it contain U. J is difficult to play due to its low frequency and a scarcity of words having it at the end. C and V may be troublesome in the endgame, since no two-letter words with them exist, save for CH in the Collins Scrabble Words lexicon. In 1938, American architect Alfred Mosher Butts created the game as a variation on an earlier word game he invented called Lexiko; the two games had the same set of letter tiles, whose distributions and point values Butts worked out by performing a frequency analysis of letters from various sources, including The New York Times. The new game, which he called "Criss-Crosswords," added the 15×15 gameboard and the crossword-style game play, he manufactured a few sets himself, but was not successful in selling the game to any major game manufacturers of the day. In 1948, James Brunot, a resident of Newtown and one of the few owners of the original Criss-Crosswords game, bought the rights to manufacture the game in exchange for granting Butts a royalty on every unit sold.
Though he left most of the game unchanged, Brunot rearranged the "premium" squares of the board and simplified the rules. In 1949, Brunot and his family made sets in a converted former schoolhouse in Dodgingtown, a section of Newtown, they lost money. According to legend, Scrabble's big break came in 1952 when Jack Straus, president of Macy's, played the game on vacation. Upon returning from vacation, he was surprised to find, he placed a large order and within a year, "everyone had to have one."In 1952, unable to meet demand himself, Brunot sold manufacturing rights to Long Island-based Selchow and Righter, one of the manufacturers who, like Parker Brothers and Milton Bradley Company, had rejected the game. In its second year as a Selchow and Righter-built product, nearly four million sets were sold. Selchow and Righter bought the trademark to the game in 1972. JW Spear began selling the game in Australia and the UK on January 19, 1955; the company is now a subsidiary of Mattel. In 1986, Selchow and Righter was sold to Coleco.
Hasbro purchased the company's assets, including Parcheesi. In 1984, Scrabble was turned into a daytime game show on NBC. Scrabble ran from July 1984 to March 1990, with a second run from January to June 1993; the show was hosted by Chuck Woolery. Its tagline in promotional broadcasts was "Every man. In 2011, a new TV variation of Scrabble
WKRP in Cincinnati
WKRP in Cincinnati is an American sitcom that features the misadventures of the staff of a struggling fictional radio station in Cincinnati, Ohio. The show was created by Hugh Wilson and was based upon his experiences working in advertising sales at Top 40 radio station WQXI in Atlanta. Many of the characters and some of the stories are based on people and events at WQXI; the ensemble cast consists of Gary Sandy, Howard Hesseman, Gordon Jump, Loni Anderson, Tim Reid, Jan Smithers, Richard Sanders and Frank Bonner. The series won a Humanitas Prize and received 10 Emmy Award nominations, including three for Outstanding Comedy Series. Andy Ackerman won an Emmy Award for Videotape Editing in season 3. WKRP premiered September 18, 1978, on the CBS television network, aired for four seasons and 90 episodes through April 21, 1982. Starting in the middle of the second season, CBS moved the show around its schedule, contributing to lower ratings and its eventual cancellation; when WKRP went into syndication, it became an unexpected success.
For the next decade, it was one of the most popular sitcoms in syndication, outperforming many programs, more successful in prime time, including all the other MTM Enterprises sitcoms. Jump and Bonner reprised their roles, appearing as regular characters in a spin-off/sequel series, The New WKRP in Cincinnati, which ran from 1991 to 1993 in syndication. Hesseman and Anderson reprised their roles on this show as guest stars; the station's new program director, Andy Travis, tries to turn around struggling radio station WKRP by switching its format from dated easy listening music to rock and roll, despite the well-meaning efforts of the incompetent staff: bumbling station manager Arthur Carlson, greasy sales manager Herb Tarlek, clueless news director Les Nessman. To help bolster ratings, Travis hires New Orleans native Gordon Sims. Rounding out the cast are super receptionist Jennifer Marlowe and enthusiastic junior employee Bailey Quarters. Lurking in the background and making an occasional appearance is ruthless business tycoon Lillian Carlson, the station's owner and the mother of Arthur Carlson.
Andy Travis. For the most part, vice president and program director Andy Travis serves as the straight man for the eccentric staff of the station he has been hired to run. Before coming to WKRP, he had an unblemished record of turning around failing radio stations, but meets his match in his wacky staff members, of whom he becomes reluctantly fond; the show's opening theme song is about his decision to settle down in Cincinnati. In the season 4 episode "The Creation of Venus," Andy echoes the opening theme lyrics in talking about his past. Andy wears tight jeans, something to which Jennifer Marlowe alludes, much to Andy's surprise, in the season 2 episode "Most Improved Station". Arthur Carlson called the "Big Guy", is the middle-aged general manager, whose main qualification for the job is that his mother, a business tycoon, is the station's owner. Mama Carlson adopted strict methods in raising him in the mistaken belief that it would make him strong. Instead, it made him weak, his bumbling, indecisive management style is one of the main reasons the station is unprofitable.
Despite this, he is a principled, kind and sometimes wise man. He has far more interest in playing than he does in the radio station hiding in his office from people who want to see him on business. Dr. Johnny Fever is a veteran disc jockey who comes to WKRP after being fired from a major Los Angeles station when he said "booger" on the air. In the season 4 episode "Three Days of the Condo", always broke Johnny receives a $24,000 out-of-court settlement from that station for wrongful dismissal. Cynical and neurotic, an occasional insomniac who consumes large amounts of coffee, Johnny is in one sort of trouble or another, he adopts the "Fever" on-air name as a quick improvisation in the pilot episode upon being told by Travis to abruptly change the format of his morning show, but he has used other monikers on the air at other stations to conform to whatever station format he found himself working with. Les Nessman, the fastidious, bow-tied news reporter, a Mama's boy of a man, approaches his job with absurd seriousness, despite being totally incompetent.
For instance, he mispronounces golfer Chi-Chi Rodríguez's name as "Chy Chy Rod-ri-gweeze". His best friend is fellow employee Herb Tarlek; the two of them refer to themselves and Mr. Carlson as "the suits", compared to "the dungarees"; as a running gag, Nessman wears a bandage in a different spot each episode. It is suggested these bandages are the result of repeated attacks by Nessman's monstrous dog. During taping of the pilot, Richard Sanders bumped his head on a studio light and had to wear a bandage to cover the cut. From on, Sanders decided the character would always wear a bandage. Other gags are Nessman's fixation on anything associated with agriculture, especial
Mall of America
The Mall of America is a shopping mall located in Bloomington, United States. It lies southeast of the junction of Interstate 494 and Minnesota State Highway 77, north of the Minnesota River, across the Interstate from the Minneapolis–St. Paul International Airport. Opened in 1992, it is the largest mall in the United States in terms of total floor area, the fifth largest mall in North America in terms of leaseable space, the twelfth largest in the world; the mall is managed by the Triple Five Group. Eighty percent of visitors to the Mall of America are from Minnesota, Iowa, the Dakotas, Illinois and Canada; the mall's concept was designed by the Triple Five Group, owned by the Ghermezian brothers, who own the largest shopping mall in North America, the West Edmonton Mall. The Mall of America is located on the site of the former Metropolitan Stadium, where the Minnesota Vikings and Minnesota Twins played until the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome opened in 1982. A plaque in the mall's amusement park commemorates the former location of home plate, one seat from Met Stadium was placed in Mall of America at the exact location it occupied in the stadium, commemorating a 520-foot home run hit by hall-of-famer Harmon Killebrew on June 3, 1967.
In 1986, the Bloomington Port Authority signed an agreement with the Ghermezian organization. Groundbreaking for the mall took place on June 14, 1989. Organizations involved include Melvin Simon and Associates, Teachers Insurance and Annuity and the office of architect Jon Jerde. Mall of America opened its doors to the public on August 11, 1992, its anchors were Nordstrom, Macy’s, Bloomingdale's and Sears. Before opening, the mall had earned several nicknames, including "The Megamall", "Sprawl of America", "Hugedale"—in reference to the four major "dale" shopping malls within the Twin Cities: Rosedale, Southdale and the now-defunct Brookdale. Mall of America became the largest shopping mall in total area and largest in total store vendors in the United States when it opened; the Mall of America's 42 million annual visitors equal eight times the population of the state of Minnesota. As of 2015, the mall employed over 13,000 during peak seasons. In 2003, after a protracted six-year legal battle between Simon Property Group, the managing general partner of the property, the Ghermezian brothers/Triple Five Group, over majority ownership of the site, a federal appeals court ruled in favor of the Ghermezians transferring control and planning authority of the mall back to the creator of the concept.
The dispute stemmed from a 1999 purchase of Teacher's Insurance's 27.5% equity stake by Simon Properties, giving them majority ownership. The Ghermezians claimed they were never told of the deal and sued Simon, citing fiduciary responsibility. On November 3, 2006, the Ghermezians gained full control of Mall of America by spending US$1 billion. On May 18, 2008, the Mall of America received a tax break for a proposed $2 billion expansion; the bill gave the city of Bloomington the ability to increase taxes on sales and food and beverages to finance a parking ramp at the mall. On March 24, 2012, the Triple Five Group announced the start of a $200 million expansion that would build into the north parking lot of the mall; the plans called for an additional 200,000 square feet of retail space. The project broke ground in the fall of 2013 and began opening in stages in the summer of 2015. In March 2014, ground was broken on the mall's north side for the $104 million, 14-story JW Marriott hotel and financed by the Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community.
In 2018, it was announced that MOA had proposed to build an indoor water park, with a cost between $150 to $200 million for the project. The Mall of America has a gross area of 4,870,000 sq ft or 96.4 acres, enough to fit seven Yankee Stadiums inside, with 2,500,000 sq ft available as retail space. The mall is nearly symmetric, with a rectangular floor plan. More than 530 stores are arranged along three levels of pedestrian walkways on the sides of the rectangle, with a fourth level on the east side. Four anchor department stores are located at the corners; the mall is organized into four different zones, each of those zones had its own decorative style until a series of renovations from 2010 to 2015 led to a unified and more luxurious style, as well as to coincide with the mall's first major expansion. Despite Minnesota's cold winters, only the mall's entrances and some below ground areas are heated. Heat is allowed in through skylights above the central amusement park area; the majority of the heat is produced by lighting fixtures, other electric devices, people in the mall.
In fact during the winter, air conditioning systems may still be in use during peak hours to ensure a comfortable shopping environment. Although the common areas are unheated, the individual stores do have heating systems. Two nearly identical seven-story parking ramps on the east and west sides of the mall provide 12,287 parking spaces. Overflow parking north of the building provides an additional 1,200–1,500 spaces, 1,407 spaces are provided by IKEA, which opened in July, 2004. Level One is the location of Nickelodeon Universe amusement park, first level of general retail which includes Sea Life Minnesota Aquarium, Hard Rock Cafe, Lego Store, American Girl Place, Apple Store, Barnes & Noble, Nordstrom, Macy's, Microsoft Store, Level Tw
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea