Imperial immediacy was a privileged constitutional and political status rooted in German feudal law under which the Imperial estates of the Holy Roman Empire such as Imperial cities, prince-bishoprics and secular principalities, individuals such as the Imperial knights, were declared free from the authority of any local lord and placed under the direct authority of the Emperor, of the institutions of the Empire such as the Diet, the Imperial Chamber of Justice and the Aulic Council. The granting of immediacy began in the Early Middle Ages, for the immediate bishops and cities the main beneficiaries of that status, immediacy could be exacting and meant being subjected to the fiscal and hospitality demands of their overlord, the Emperor. However, with the gradual exit of the Emperor from the centre stage from the mid-13th century onwards, holders of imperial immediacy found themselves vested with considerable rights and powers exercised by the emperor; as confirmed by the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, the possession of imperial immediacy came with a particular form of territorial authority known as territorial superiority.
In today's terms, it would be understood as a limited form of sovereignty. Several immediate estates held the privilege of attending meetings of the Reichstag in person, including an individual vote: the seven Prince-electors designated by the Golden Bull of 1356 the other Princes of the Holy Roman Empire secular: Dukes, Landgraves et al. ecclesiastical: Prince-Bishops, Prince-Abbots and Prince-Provosts. They formed the Imperial Estates, together with 100 immediate counts, 40 Imperial prelates and 50 Imperial Cities who only enjoyed a collective vote. Further immediate estates not represented in the Reichstag were the Imperial Knights as well as several abbeys and minor localities, the remains of those territories which in the High Middle Ages had been under the direct authority of the Emperor and since had been given in pledge to the princes. At the same time, there were classes of "princes" with titular immediacy to the Emperor but who exercised such privileges if at all. For example, the Bishops of Chiemsee and Seckau were subordinate to the prince-bishop of Salzburg, but were formally princes of the Empire.
Additional advantages might include the rights to collect taxes and tolls, to hold a market, to mint coins, to bear arms, to conduct legal proceedings. The last of these might include the so-called Blutgericht through which capital punishment could be administered; these rights varied according to the legal patents granted by the emperor. As pointed out by Jonathan Israel in 1528 the Dutch province of Overijssel tried to arrange its submission to Emperor Charles V in his capacity as Holy Roman Emperor rather than as his being the Duke of Burgundy. If successful, that would have evoked Imperial immediacy and would have put Overijssel in a stronger negotiating position, for example given the province the ability to appeal to the Imperial Diet in any debate with Charles. For that reason, the Emperor rejected and blocked Overijssel's attempt. Disadvantages might include direct intervention by imperial commissions, as happened in several of the south-western cities after the Schmalkaldic War, the potential restriction or outright loss of held legal patents.
Immediate rights might be lost if the Emperor and/or the Imperial Diet could not defend them against external aggression, as occurred in the French Revolutionary wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The Treaty of Lunéville in 1801 required the emperor to renounce all claims to the portions of the Holy Roman Empire west of the Rhine. At the last meeting of the Imperial Diet in 1802–03 called the German Mediatisation, most of the free imperial cities and the ecclesiastic states lost their imperial immediacy and were absorbed by several dynastic states; the practical application of the rights of immediacy was complex. Such contemporaries as Goethe and Fichte called the Empire a monstrosity. Voltaire wrote of the Empire as something neither Holy nor Roman, nor an Empire, in comparison to the British Empire, saw its German counterpart as an abysmal failure that reached its pinnacle of success in the early Middle Ages and declined thereafter. Prussian historian Heinrich von Treitschke described it in the 19th century as having become "a chaotic mess of rotted imperial forms and unfinished territories".
For nearly a century after the publication of James Bryce's monumental work The Holy Roman Empire, this view prevailed among most English-speaking historians of the Early Modern period, contributed to the development of the Sonderweg theory of the German past. A revisionist view popular in Germany but adopted elsewhere argued that "though not powerful politically or militarily, was extraordinarily diverse and free by the standards of Europe at the time". Pointing out that people like Goethe meant "monster" as a compliment in modern understanding, The Economist has called the Empire "a great place to live... a union with which its subjects identified, whose loss distressed them greatly" and praised its cultural and religious diversity, saying that it "allowed a degree of liberty and diversity, unimaginable in the neighbouring kingdoms" and that "ordinary folk, including women, had
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2016, the city proper had 279,284 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 491,409 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2015, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants; the transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014. Strasbourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union; the city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights.
Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries through the University of Strasbourg the second largest in France, the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture, it is home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road and river transportation; the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, as Argentoratum; that Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth, arganto-, the Gaulish word for silver, but any precious metal gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.
After the 5th century, the city became known by a different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means "Town of roads"; the modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata, while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz. Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant", where he was exiled. Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany; this border is formed by the Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl.
The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, 4 kilometres from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city; the city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres and 151 metres above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km to the west and the Black Forest 25 km to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks; the city is some 397 kilometres east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies 450 kilometres to the north, or 650 kilometres as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres to the south, or 150 kilometres by river. In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as oceanic, but a "semicontinental" climate with some degree of maritime influence in relation to the mild patterns of Western and Southern France.
The city has warm sunny summers and cool, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year; the highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003, during the 2003 European heat wave. The lowest temperature eve
Molsheim is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. The total population in 2006 was 9,382. Molsheim had been a fast-growing city between the French censuses of 1968 and 1999, passing from 5,739 to 9,331 inhabitants, but this increase came to a noticeable halt since; the metropolitan area of Molsheim had 11,760 inhabitants in 2006, from 7,747 in 1968. The old town of Molsheim is well preserved and contains a considerable number of old houses and buildings of Alsatian architecture; the most notable buildings are the medieval Tour des Forgerons, the Renaissance Metzig, the baroque Eglise des Jésuites – an inordinately large church insofar as it could house the entire population of the town when built – and the classical Hôtel de ville. The former monastery La Chartreuse destroyed in the French Revolution, now houses a museum. Molsheim was part of the Holy Roman Empire until 1648, when it found itself located on the French side of the border. Between 1871 and 1919 and again between 1940 and 1944, the German speaking city was part of Germany.
A number of Merovingian tombs, dating from the sixth and seventh centuries were discovered in 1935 to the north of the town, on the Roman road leading from Avolsheim. Molsheim is notable as the home of the Bugatti automotive industry factory. Production of the Bugatti Veyron by Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S. Restarted in Dorlisheim near Molsheim in 2005; the French supercar maker unveiled the world's most expensive car, sold to an unnamed buyer for at least $11m before tax in March 2019. Eminent local Molsheim resident and automotive advisor, Scotte Monte de le Guminyourear, said that this initiative pays appropriate homage to the Type 57 SC Atlantic. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Molsheim". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. P. 677. Town council website Saint George's and Trinity Church at Structurae
Église Saint-Étienne de Rosheim
Église Saint-Étienne de Rosheim is a church in Rosheim, Bas-Rhin, France. Built in the 13th century, it was last built in 1788, it became a registered Monument historique in 1990
Treaties of Nijmegen
The Treaties of Peace of Nijmegen were a series of treaties signed in the Dutch city of Nijmegen between August 1678 and December 1679. The treaties ended various interconnected wars among France, the Dutch Republic, Brandenburg, Denmark, the Prince-Bishopric of Münster, the Holy Roman Empire; the most significant of the treaties was the first, which established peace between France and the Dutch Republic and placed the northern border of France near its modern position. The Franco-Dutch War of 1672–78 was the source of all the other wars that were ended formally at Nijmegen. Separate peace treaties were arranged for conflicts like the Third Anglo-Dutch War and the Scanian War, but all of them had been directly caused by and form part of the Franco-Dutch War. England participated in the war on the French side but withdrew in 1674, after the Treaty of Westminster. Peace negotiations had begun as early as 1676, but nothing was agreed to and signed before 1678; the treaties did not result in a lasting peace.
Some of the countries involved signed peace deals elsewhere, such as the Treaty of Celle, Treaty of Saint-Germain and Treaty of Fontainebleau. 10 August 1678 – France and the Dutch Republic make peace. Sweden was not part of the treaty, but a section orces the Dutch Republic to take a neutral approach toward Sweden with which it had been at war since 1675. 19 September 1678 – France and Spain make peace. 26 January 1679 – France makes peace with the Holy Roman Empire. 26 January 1679 – Sweden mades peace with the Holy Roman Empire. 19 March 1679 – Sweden makes peace with the Prince-Bishopric of Münster. All of Münster's soldiers in Danish war service are to be withdrawn. 2 October 1679 – Sweden made peace with the Dutch Republic. The Franco–Dutch War ended with a treaty which gave France control over the region of the Franche-Comté. France gained further territories of the Spanish Netherlands, adding to those it had annexed under the 1659 Peace of the Pyrenees and 1668 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
These included the town of Saint-Omer with the remaining northwestern part of the former Imperial County of Artois. In turn, French King Louis XIV ceded the occupied town of Maastricht and the Principality of Orange to the Dutch stadtholder William III; the French forces withdrew from several occupied territories in northern Hainaut. Emperor Leopold I had to accept the French occupation of the towns of Freiburg and Kehl on the right bank of the Rhine. Marc-Antoine Charpentier wrote a Te Deum for this occasion; the prelude of the Te Deum is known as the Eurovision Song Contest theme. Scan of the Franco-Dutch treaty
Obernai commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France. It lies on the eastern slopes of the Vosges mountains. Obernai is a growing city, its number of inhabitants having gone up from 6,304 in 1968 to 11,099 in 2006; the metropolitan area of Obernai had 12,369 inhabitants in 2006, from 7,293 in 1968. The Obernai region, the property of the dukes of Alsace in the 7th century, is the birthplace of St. Odile, daughter of the Duke, who would become the Patron Saint of Alsace; the Obernai name first appears in 1240, when the village acquires the status of town under the tutelage of the Hohenstaufen family. The town prospered, it became a member of the Décapole in 1354, an alliance of ten towns of the Holy Roman Empire in Alsace. Obernai's status reaches its apex in the 16th century. In 1562, Emperor Ferdinand I visited the prosperous town of Obernai; the Thirty Years' War damaged the town, occupied by the Imperial troops by the Swedes. The town was ransomed and ceded to France in 1679, started to recover some of its prosperity, without recapturing its former glory.
The town was annexed by Germany in 1871 with the rest of Alsace was returned to France after World War I in 1918. Obernai is an important center of beer production as well as a touristic destination; the industrial activity features the following companies: Hager, Triumph, Sobovia and Stoeffler. The historical wine of the city is called the Vin du Pistolet in reference to a local legend. During the mid-1800s, Obernai was home to a Marianist primary school. Domaine de la Léonardsau: current museum of the horse and the horse carriage. Truttenhausen abbey: old monastery of the regular canons of St-Augustin. Gail Castle: Currently the Freppel High School Oberkirch Castle: rebuilt between 1843 and 1846 with the characteristics of an older fortified castle of the 16th or 17th century. El Biar Castle: Built between 1864 and 1865 on the site of an old flour mill, by General de Vives. Old six-bucket well Clocktower Wheat Market Romanesque house in the rue des Pélerins Old Synagogue Nicolas Léonard Beker Jean-Victor Hocquard, musicologist Charles-Émile Freppel Thomas Murner André Neher Charles Pisot René Schickele John Stintzi, Marianist brother and academic, taught in the village during the 1840s Klevener de Heiligenstein, a wine style produced in Obernai Communes of the Bas-Rhin department Official website