The Skuldelev ships is a term used for 5 original Viking ships recovered from the waterway of Peberrenden at Skuldelev, c.20 km north of Roskilde in Denmark. In 1962, the remains of the ships were excavated in the course of four months. The recovered pieces constitute five types of Viking ships and have all dated to the 11th century. They were allegedly sunk to prevent attacks from the sea, information on Skuldelev 4 has been omitted, as the remains of this ship was discovered to be a part of Skuldelev 2. The Skuldelev ships provide a source of information about the shipbuilding traditions of the late Viking Age and are now exhibited at the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde. All five of the original Skuldelev ships have been replicated as true reconstructions by the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde, some of the Skuldelev ships have been replicated by other groups across the world as both true or inspired reconstructions. Skuldelev 1 was a sturdy seagoing cargo-vessel, possibly of the knarr type and it is 16 m long and 4.8 m wide and would have had a draught of 1 m with its crew of 6 to 8.
With a sail of approximately 90 square meters and only 2-4 oars, Skuldelev 1 could have navigated the Baltic Sea, the North Sea,60 % of the original ship has been preserved. Skuldelev 1 has been replicated as the viking ship Ottar by the Roskilde Viking Ship Museum, Skuldelev 2 is an oak-built, seagoing warship. It is a longship, possibly of the skeid type and it is approximately 30 m long and 3.8 m wide, and would have had a draught of just 1 m with a maximum crew of 70-80. Dendrochronology showed that the ship was built in the Dublin area around 1042, the shape of the ship and its large sail of an estimated 112 m2, would have allowed for great speed, up to 15 knots with a rowing crew of 60 and more while under sail. It is one of the longest Viking ships ever found, but was the least preserved of the Skuldelev ships, the Roskilde Viking Ship Museum administered a €1.34 million replication project of Skuldelev 2, known as The Sea Stallion from Glendalough. The project ran from August 2000 to September 2004 and comprised a total of almost 40,000 hours of hard work, in the summer of 2007, Sea Stallion sailed from Roskilde to Dublin, arriving on 14 August.
The ship was on exhibit in Dublin until the summer of 2008, at time it sailed back to Roskilde. The Skuldelev 3 is a 14 m long and 3.3 m wide cargo ship and it is made from oak, with a cargo capacity of 4-5 tons and a draught of just 0.9 m. It was constructed around 1040, somewhere in Denmark, with a crew of 5-8 and a 45 m2 sail as its primary power, Skuldelev 3 would have been well-suited for shorter journeys in Danish waters and the Baltic Sea. It could reach a top-speed of c.10 knots, Skuldelev 3 is the best preserved of the Skuldelev ships, with 75 % of the original remaining. Roskilde Viking Ship Museum has replicated Skuldelev 3 as the Viking ship replica Roar Ege, the Skuldelev 2 was originally thought to be two different ships, named Skuldelev 2 and 4
Roskilde, located 30 km west of Copenhagen on the Danish island of Zealand, is the main city in Roskilde Municipality. With a population of 50,046, the city is a business and educational centre for the region, Roskilde is governed by the administrative council of Roskilde Municipality. Roskilde has a history, dating from the pre-Christian Viking Age. Its UNESCO-listed Gothic cathedral, now housing 39 tombs of the Danish monarchs, was completed in 1275, among the largest private sector employers today are the IT firm BEC and GPI, specializing in plastics. The Risø research facility is becoming a major employer, extending interest in sustainable energy to the clean technology sphere. The local university, founded in 1972, the historic Cathedral School, Roskilde has a large local hospital which has been expanded and modernized since it was opened in 1855. It is now active in the research sphere. The Sankt Hans psychiatric hospital serves the Capital Region with specialized facilities for forensic psychiatry, the cathedral and the Viking Ship Museum, which contains the well-preserved remains of five 11th-century ships, attract more than 100,000 visitors annually.
The city is home to the FC Roskilde football club play in the Danish 1st Division, the Roskilde Vikings RK rugby club. In the 1970s, the city benefited from the opening of the university, Roskilde has the oldest operational railway station in Denmark, with connections across Zealand as well as with Falster and Jutland. The local airport opened in 1973, mainly serving light aircraft for business use, from the 11th century until 1443, it was the capital of Denmark. By the Middle Ages, with the support of kings and bishops, the Saxo Grammaticus and other early sources associate the name Roskilde with the legendary King Roar who possibly lived there in the 6th century. According to Adam of Bremen and the Saxo Grammaticus, Roskilde was founded in the 980s by Harald Bluetooth, on high ground above the harbour, he built a wooden church consecrated to the Holy Trinity as well as a royal residence nearby. Although no traces of buildings have been discovered, in 1997 archaeologists found the remains of Viking ships in the Isefjord.
At the time, there were two churches in the area, St Jørgensbjerg, an early stone church, and a wooden church discovered under todays St Ibs Church. Harald was buried in the church he had built on the site of todays Roskilde Cathedral. In 1020, King Canute elevated Roskilde to a bishopric, giving it high national status, the Danish bishop, had a brick church built on the site of Haralds church in 1170. Todays cathedral was completed in 1275 after five of Absalons successors had contributed to its construction, as a result of Absalons influence, many other churches were built in the vicinity, making Roskilde the most important town in Zealand
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Viking Ship Museum (Roskilde)
The Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde is Denmarks national museum for ships and boatbuilding in the prehistoric and medieval period. The main focus of the museum is a permanent exhibition of five original Viking ships excavated nearby in 1962, the Viking Ship Museum conducts research and educate researchers in the fields of maritime history, marine archaeology and experimental archaeology. Various academic conferences are held here and there is a library in association with the museum. Around the year 1070, five Viking ships were sunk at Skuldelev in Roskilde Fjord in order to block the most important fairway. These ships, known as the Skuldelev ships, were excavated in 1962 and they turned out to be five different types of ships ranging from cargo ships to ships of war. The Viking Ship Museum overlooking the inlet of Roskilde Fjord was built in 1969 with the purpose of exhibiting the five newly discovered Skuldelev ships. In the late 1990s, excavations for the expansion of the museum uncovered a further 9 ships from the Viking Age.
It is the largest discovery of prehistoric ships in Northern Europe and includes the longest Viking warship ever found, the excavations are not yet completed. The Viking Ship Museum has a tradition of Viking ship reconstructions and boat building. It is possible to follow or engage in the building process here. The shipyard is located on a small isle known as Museumsøen, every summer, a handful of boats are launched for extended seavoyages to accumulate more knowledge about the seafaring techniques and conditions of the Vikings
Roskilde Roklub is a rowing club based in Roskilde, Denmark. Its home water is Roskilde Fjord, the club was founded in 1890. Carl-Ebbe Andersen, Tage Henriksen, and Finn Pedersen won gold in Rowing, thomas Ebert won a bronze medal in Mens lightweight coxless four at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney and gold at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens and 2008 Summer Olympics
A blockship is a ship deliberately sunk to prevent a river, channel, or canal from being used. An even earlier use are the five 11th century Skuldelev ships in Roskilde Fjord and they are now on display in the Viking Ship Museum. Also called steam guardships, these conversions involved cutting down to a deck, with ballast removed. These ships, converted in 1846, were Blenheim, Hogue, although these ships were intended for coast defence some of them were used offensively, notably in the Baltic Campaign of 1854 and 1855, where they were an integral part of the British fleet. A second batch of five were similarly obtained from around 1855 by converting other elderly 74-gun ships, the most recent known use of blockships in warfare was during the 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine. Less than 24 hours later, on March 7, another blockship the former Black Sea Fleet rescue/diving support vessel BM-416 was scuttled near the Ochakov, stone fleet Blockade of Massawa Mulberry harbour Hulk Guard ship Brown, D. K.
A century of construction, The History of Royal Corps of Naval Constructors 1883-1983. The Sail and Steam Navy List, All the Ships of the Royal Navy 1815-1889, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-21477-7 Winfield, Rif. British Warships in the Age of Sail 1603–1714, Construction, media related to Block ships at Wikimedia Commons
The Roskilde Festival is a Danish music festival held annually south of Roskilde. It is one of the largest music festivals in Europe and the largest in Northern Europe and it was created in 1971 by two high school students, Mogens Sandfær and Jesper Switzer Møller, and promoter Carl Fischer. In 1972, the festival was taken over by the Roskilde Foundation, in 2014, the Roskilde Foundation provided festival participants with the opportunity to nominate and vote upon which organizations should receive funds raised by the festival. The Roskilde Festival was Denmarks first music-oriented festival created for hippies, and today more of the mainstream youth from Scandinavia. Until the mid-1990s, the festival attracted mostly Scandinavians, but in recent years it has more and more international. The first Roskilde Festival was held on August 28 and 29,1971 and it was inspired by festivals and youth gatherings like Newport, Isle of Wight and Woodstock. It was characterized mainly by poor management but great enthusiasm, in 1978, festival organizers acquired the Canopy Scene, an orange musical stage previously used by The Rolling Stones on a European tour.
Since its beginning, the Canopy Scene and its arches have become a well-known symbol. In the 1990s, electronic music was introduced to the festival, in 1991, Club Roskilde was held, which was an electronic music dance club held in the evenings. In 1995, electronic music artists received their own stage, in the following years, even more room for electronic music was created by the establishment of the chill-out zone and the Roskilde Lounge. Since then, artists like Fatboy Slim, The Prodigy, Basement Jaxx, by the 1990s, the number of tickets offered for sale was restricted and even reduced. Due to steadily increasing popularity of the festival, the number of visitors had increased to up to 125,000, in addition,90,000 tickets for about 25,000 volunteers,5,000 media people and 3,000 artists were added. In order to preserve the quality of the festival, the organizers decided to limit the number of participants. The distance from the rearmost part of the area to the stages of the festival management seemed to have become unreasonable.
The festival had become so popular that the management decided in 1994 to expand the festival area to the west. The festival site was now on divided by the line into two parts. In 1996 was the festival had its own station, which should facilitate the arrival of visitors, in 1997, another tent called Roskilde Ballroom was built. The 2007 edition saw two new tents, replacing Ballroom which presented mainly World music, and Metropol which presented mainly Electronica, in 2010 two stages and Lounge, did not return, due to a slight shift in focus towards fewer, but bigger bands
Roskilde Cathedral, in the city of Roskilde on the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark, is a cathedral of the Lutheran Church of Denmark. The first Gothic cathedral to be built of brick, it encouraged the spread of the Brick Gothic style throughout Northern Europe, constructed during the 12th and 13th centuries, the cathedral incorporates both Gothic and Romanesque architectural features in its design. Until the 20th century, it was Zealands only cathedral and its twin spires dominate the skyline of the town. The cathedral has been the burial site for Danish monarchs since the 15th century. As such, it has significantly extended and altered over the centuries to accommodate a considerable number of burial chapels. Following the Danish Reformation in 1536, the residence was moved to Copenhagen while the title was changed to Bishop of Zealand. Coronations normally took place in Copenhagens Church of Our Lady or in the chapel of Frederiksborg Palace, the cathedral is a major tourist attraction, bringing in over 125,000 visitors annually.
Since 1995, it has listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. A working church, it hosts concerts throughout the year. Roskilde was named the new capital of Denmark by King Harald Bluetooth around the year 960, moving to Roskilde, Bluetooth built a royal farm and next to it, a small stave church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity. Little is known of the Trinity Church, let alone its architecture, in Adam of Bremens Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum, there is an account of how the kings son, Sweyn Forkbeard, raised a rebellion against him, forcing him to flee to Jomsborg. When Bluetooth died in 985/986, the army that had raised against him brought his body to Roskilde. At Christmas in 1026, Ulf the Earl was murdered by one of Cnut the Greats housecarls, though the sources differ, this happened either inside the church or at the royal farm. Ulf had been married to Cnut the Greats sister Estrid, who was outraged by the murder, there is some doubt as to when Roskilde became the seat of the Bishop of Roskilde.
When Sweyn Forkbeard conquered England in 1013, he began sending English bishops to Denmark and this caused some conflict with the Archbishop of Hamburg, who regarded Scandinavia as belonging to the Archdiocese of Bremen. The earliest known bishop of Roskilde was Gerbrand, who had been a cleric with Cnut the Great, only after swearing allegiance to the archbishop was he allowed to continue his journey. The archbishop may have had reason to be suspicious, as documents of the time suggest that Cnut the Great may have planned to create an archdiocese in Roskilde. Funded by the weregild Estrid Svendsdatter had received, the old Trinity Church was torn down and this may have formed the base of the travertine cathedral, but it is difficult to tell, as two cathedrals have subsequently been built on the same site
Frederikssund is a Danish town, seat of the Frederikssund Municipality, in the Region Hovedstaden with a population of 15,865. It received the status of town in 1810. The town is famous for its annual Viking Games as well as for the J. F. Willumsen museum, since 1935, it has been connected to Hornsherred via the Kronprins Frederik Bridge. There is evidence of communities dating back to the stone age with a number of burial sites in the area. Located at a point on Roskilde Fjord, Sundby Færge became the harbour for the nearby market town of Slangerup. In 1809-10, the status of town was transferred from Slangerup to Frederikssund. In 1868, a bridge linking Frederikssund to Hornsherred was opened. This was replaced by todays Kronprins Frederik Bridge in 1935, Frederikssund is located on the east coast of Roskilde Fjord, about 45 km north-west of Copenhagen,20 km south of Hillerød and 30 km north of Roskilde. It is less than an hour from Copenhagen by either road or rail, s-trains leave about once every 10 minutes.
Copenhagen Airport can be reached by road or rail in about an hour, the low hills on which Frederikssund lies are formed of moraines from the last Ice Age. The shallow Roskilde Fjord which separates Frederikssund from Hornsherred originated in the same period, the fertile land surrounding Frederikssund is used for mixed farming - with an emphasis on cereals, root crops and pigs. It has all the associated with a modern Danish town, museums, a public library, supermarkets. With a location facing west over the Roskilde Fjord, it has many footpaths along the shores, the local rail and bus services are well developed. Activities range from sailing, cycling, golfing or gliding to simply sitting out on the pedestrian street. There are several clubs and facilities in Frederikssund covering soccer, American football, basketball. Aurskog-Høland Catoira Kumla Ramsgate Sipoo Frederikssund station Frederikssundbanen Media related to Frederikssund at Wikimedia Commons
Jyllinge is a town located on the eastern shores of Roskilde Fjord, midway between Roskilde and Frederiksværk, Roskilde Municipality, some 40 km west of Copenhagen, Denmark. The original fishing village is surrounded by areas of Single-family detached homes. As of 1. January 2015, it had a population of population of 10,092, Jyllinge is first mentioned in 1171 as Iuleghe, possibly derived from Iula, meaning the yellow, an old name for Lilleø, and from Old Danish eki, meaning oak forest. The village consisted of a mixture of fishermen and farmers, the fishing took place from small boats on the fiord and was mainly for eal. In 1861, the village had 28 fishermen and 21 boats, the first primitive harbor was constructed in 1870. It saw a modest expansion in 1906 and a boatyard opened in 1909, in 1926, a group of fishermen founded Jyllinge Fish Exports. A new harbor was constructed between 1956 and 1969, the town has experienced considerable growth after World War II, prospering from its location near Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Only a single commercial fishing continues to operate out of Jyllinge Harbour. A marina with room for 400 leisure crafts has been constructed to the south of the harbor, privately owned marina is located on its north side. The medieval Jyllinge Church around 1100, making it one of the oldest in Denmark, the original Tomanesque church was expanded with the short tower and the porch during the Late Gothic period. The modern Church of the Holy Cross was completed in 2008 to a design y Jan Søndergaards of KHR Arkitekter and it is built in GRP composite. Jyllinge has two schools, Jyllinge School and Baunehøj School. Jyllingecentret is a shopping centre