Rotavirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses in the family Reoviridae. Rotaviruses are the most common cause of diarrhoeal disease among young children. Nearly every child in the world is infected with a rotavirus at least once by the age of five. Immunity develops with each infection, so subsequent infections are less severe. There are nine species of the genus, referred to as A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I and J. Rotavirus A, the most common species, causes more than 90% of rotavirus infections in humans; the virus is transmitted by the faecal-oral route. It damages the cells that line the small intestine and causes gastroenteritis. Although Rotavirus was discovered in 1973 by Ruth Bishop and her colleagues by electron micrograph images and accounts for one third of hospitalisations for severe diarrhoea in infants and children, its importance has been underestimated within the public health community in developing countries. In addition to its impact on human health, rotavirus infects animals, is a pathogen of livestock.
Rotaviral enteritis is an managed disease of childhood, but in 2013, rotaviruses caused 37 percent of deaths of children from diarrhoea and 215,000 deaths worldwide, two million more became ill. Most of these deaths occurred in developing countries. In the United States, before initiation of the rotavirus vaccination programme in the 2000s, rotavirus caused about 2.7 million cases of severe gastroenteritis in children 60,000 hospitalisations, around 37 deaths each year. Following rotavirus vaccine introduction in the United States, hospitalisation rates have fallen significantly. Public health campaigns to combat rotavirus focus on providing oral rehydration therapy for infected children and vaccination to prevent the disease; the incidence and severity of rotavirus infections has declined in countries that have added rotavirus vaccine to their routine childhood immunisation policies. There are nine species of rotavirus, referred to as A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I and J. Humans are infected by the species rotavirus A. A–E species cause disease in other animals, species E and H in pigs, D, F and G in birds, I in cats and J in bats.
Within rotavirus A there are different strains, called serotypes. As with influenza virus, a dual classification system is used based on two proteins on the surface of the virus; the glycoprotein VP7 defines the G serotypes and the protease-sensitive protein VP4 defines P serotypes. Because the two genes that determine G-types and P-types can be passed on separately to progeny viruses, different combinations are found. A whole genome genotyping system has been established for rotavirus A, used to determine the origin of atypical strains; the prevalence of the individual G-types and P-types varies between, within and years. There are at least 32 G types and 47 P types but in infections of humans only a few combinations of G and P types predominate, they are G1P, G2P, G3P, G4P, G9P and G12P. The genome of rotaviruses consists of 11 unique double helix molecules of RNA which are 18,555 nucleotides in total; each helix, or segment, is a gene, numbered 1 to 11 by decreasing size. Each gene codes except genes 9, which codes for two.
The RNA is surrounded by a three-layered icosahedral protein capsid. Viral particles are not enveloped. There are six viral proteins; these structural proteins are called VP1, VP2, VP3, VP4, VP6 and VP7. In addition to the VPs, there are six nonstructural proteins, that are only produced in cells infected by rotavirus; these are called NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4, NSP5 and NSP6. At least six of the twelve proteins encoded by the rotavirus genome bind RNA; the role of these proteins play in rotavirus replication is not understood. VP1 is an RNA polymerase enzyme. In an infected cell this enzyme produces mRNA transcripts for the synthesis of viral proteins and produces copies of the rotavirus genome RNA segments for newly produced virus particles. VP2 binds the RNA genome. VP3 is an enzyme called guanylyl transferase; this is a capping enzyme that catalyses the formation of the 5' cap in the post-transcriptional modification of mRNA. The cap stabilises viral mRNA by protecting it from nucleic acid degrading enzymes called nucleases.
VP4 is on the surface of the virion. It binds to molecules on the surface of cells called receptors and drives the entry of the virus into the cell. VP4 has to be modified by the protease enzyme trypsin, found in the gut, into VP5* and VP8* before the virus is infectious. VP4 determines how virulent the virus is and it determines the P-type of the virus. In humans there is an association between the blood group secretor status and susceptibility to infection. Non-secretors seem resistant to infection by types P and P, indicating that blood group antigens are the receptors for these genotypes. VP6 forms the bulk of the capsid, it is antigenic and can be used to identify rotavirus species. This protein is used in laboratory tests for rotavirus A infections. VP7 is a glycoprotein. Apart from its structural functions, it determines the G-type of the strain and, along with VP4, is invol
The Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland known as the Chetniks, or The Ravna Gora movement, was the military formation under the direct command of Draža Mihailović, one of several formations under the umbrella Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army established on 10 June 1942. Rasina–Toplica Corps group 4th Storm Corps group Lim-Sandžak Chetnik Detachment Dinara Division Branko Latas. Četnički pokret Draže Mihailovića: 1941-1945. Beogradski izdavačko-grafički zavod. Jozo Tomasevich; the Chetniks. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-0857-9. Matteo Joseph Milazzo; the Chetnik Movement in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945. Jozo Tomasevich. Četnici u drugom svjetskom ratu 1941-1945. Sveučilišna naklada Liber. Miloš Minić. Oslobodilački ili građanski rat u Jugoslaviji 1941-1945. Agencija "Mir". Milan Lazić. Ravnogorski pokret: 1941-1945. Institut za noviju istoriju Srbije. ISBN 978-86-7005-019-8
Founded in 1900, the INR 369 Billion Murugappa Group is one of India's leading business conglomerates. The Group has 28 businesses including nine listed Companies traded in NSE & BSE. Headquartered in Chennai, the major Companies of the Group include Carborundum Universal Ltd. Cholamandalam Financial Holdings Ltd. Cholamandalam Investment and Finance Company Ltd. Cholamandalam MS General Insurance Company Ltd. Coromandel International Ltd. Coromandel Engineering Company Ltd. EID Parry Ltd. Parry Agro Industries Ltd. Shanthi Gears Ltd. Tube Investments of India Limited. Net Access India Ltd and Wendt Ltd; the current executive chairman is MM Murugappan. They have presence in several segments including abrasives, auto components, sugar, farm inputs, plantations and nutraceuticals, the group has forged strong alliances with leading international companies like Groupe Chimique Tunisien, Cargill, Mitsui Sumitomo, Morgan Crucible and Sociedad Química y Minera de Chile; the group has a wide geographical presence all over India and spanning 6 continents.
Renowned brands like BSA, Montra, Mach City, Ajax, Parry's, Gromor, Shanthi Gears and Paramfos are from the Murugappa stable. The Group has a workforce of over 50,000 employees. Murugappa family Founder:Dewan Bahadur A. M. Murugappa ChettiarSecond Generation:A. M. M. Murugappa Chettiar A. M. M. Vellayan Chettiar A. M. M. Arunachalam Murugappa family Founder:Dewan Bahadur A. M. Murugappa ChettiarPast Chairman:A. M. M. Murugappa Chettiar A. M. M. ArunachalaM M. M. Muthaiah M. V. Arunachalam M. V. Murugappan M. V. Subbiah M. A. Alagappan A. VellayanPresent Chairman:M. M. Murugappan The foundation for this group was laid by Dewan Bahadur A M Murugappa Chettiar who established a money-lending and banking business in 1900; the business was first set up in Moulmein and spread to Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. In the 1930s the business was moved back to India. 1947: Established Coromandel Engineering Company Limited 1949: Established TI Cycles of India Limited in association with Tube Investments Limited, UK 1954: Carborundum Universal of Madras India Limited was established in Madras, Tamil Nadu, as a tripartite collaboration between the Murugappa Group, The Carborundum Company Limited USA and the Universal Grinding Wheel Co.
Limited, U. K 1955: Tube Investments of India Limited Established Tube Products of India Limited in association with Tube Products Limited, UK 1960:Tube Investments of India Limited Established TI Diamond Chains Limited in association with Diamond Chain Company 1960: Tube Investments of India Limited Established TI Miller in association with Miller, UK 1965: Established TI Metal Forming 1968: Purchased Kadamane Estates 1978: Carborundum Universal Ltd acquired Eastern Abrasives Limited 1981: Murugappa Group Took over EID Parry 1983:Murugappa Morgan Thermal Ceramics Limited is established as a JV between Morgan Thermal Ceramics division of Morgan Crucible Plc. UK and Carborundum Universal Ltd of Murugappa Group Murugappa Group established Polutech Limited in association with EPI1990: Tube Investments of India Limited Acquired Press Metal 1991:The House of Khataus Group divested its share in Wendt Limited to Carborundum Universal Ltd Prodorite Anticorrosives Limited becomes a subsidiary of Carborundum Universal Ltd1993:TIDC India acquired Satavahana Chains EID Parry merged Murugappa Electronics Limited with itself as Murugappa Industrial & Technical Services 1994:Chevron Corporation Group California Chemical Company divested its share in Coromandel International to EID Parry Carborundum Universal Ltd acquired Cutfast Abrasive Tools Limited and Cutfast Polymers Limited1995:January: EID Parry de-merged Murugappa Industrial & Technical Services as MEL Systems and Services Electronics Limited June: Carborundum Universal Ltd acquired Sterling Abrasives Limited December: Murugappa Group exited from electronics business after EID Parry divested MEL Systems and Services Electronics Limited1999Tube Products of India acquired Steel Strips And Tubes Limited International Minerals and Chemical Corporation divested its share in Coromandel International to EID Parry.
Following this sale Coromandel Fertilisers Limited became a Group company. November: Murugappa Corporate Board formed Tube Investments of India Limited acquired Cholamandalam Investment and Finance Company Limited Established Cholamandalam MS General Insurance Company Ltd2003:July: Government of Andhra Pradesh divested its share in Godavari Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited to Coromandel International November: Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative Limited divested its share in Godavari Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited to Coromandel International, thus Godavari Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited became a Murugappa Group Company December: Godavari Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited merged with Coromandel International2006: Coromandel Fertilizer acquired Ficom Organics Limited 2008: Carborundum Universal Ltd acquired Foskor Zirconia Limited 2009: Coromandel Fertilizer changed to its present name Coromandel International with new logo 2010: Tube Investments of India Limited acquired Sedis Chain France 2011:October: EID Parry acquired U. S. Nutraceuticals LLC, a Company based in Florida, USA December: Coromandel International acquired Sabero Organics, a leading player in crop protection products2013:January: Coromandel International acquired Liberty phosphates