Nuremberg is the second-largest city of the German federal state of Bavaria after its capital Munich, its 511,628 inhabitants make it the 14th largest city in Germany. On the Pegnitz River and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it lies in the Bavarian administrative region of Middle Franconia, is the largest city and the unofficial capital of Franconia. Nuremberg forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring cities of Fürth and Schwabach with a total population of 787,976, while the larger Nuremberg Metropolitan Region has 3.5 million inhabitants. The city lies about 170 kilometres north of Munich, it is the largest city in the East Franconian dialect area. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, with 39,780 students Bavaria's third and Germany's 11th largest university with campuses in Erlangen and Nuremberg and a university hospital in Erlangen. Nuremberg Airport is the second-busiest airport of Bavaria after Munich Airport, the tenth-busiest airport of Germany.
Staatstheater Nürnberg is one of the five Bavarian state theatres, showing operas, operettas and ballets, plays, as well as concerts. Its orchestra, Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg, is Bavaria's second-largest opera orchestra after the Bavarian State Opera's Bavarian State Orchestra in Munich. Nuremberg is the birthplace of Johann Pachelbel. Nuremberg was the site of major Nazi rallies, it provided the site for the Nuremberg trials, which held to account many major Nazi officials; the first documentary mention of the city, in 1050, mentions Nuremberg as the location of an Imperial castle between the East Franks and the Bavarian March of the Nordgau. From 1050 to 1571 the city expanded and rose in importance due to its location on key trade-routes. King Conrad III established the Burgraviate of Nuremberg, with the first burgraves coming from the Austrian House of Raab. With the extinction of their male line around 1190, the last Raabs count's son-in-law, Frederick I from the House of Hohenzollern, inherited the burgraviate in 1192.
From the late 12th century to the Interregnum, the power of the burgraves diminished as the Hohenstaufen emperors transferred most non-military powers to a castellan, with the city administration and the municipal courts handed over to an Imperial mayor from 1173/74. The strained relations between the burgraves and the castellans, with gradual transferral of powers to the latter in the late 14th and early 15th centuries broke out into open enmity, which influenced the history of the city. Nuremberg is referred to as the "unofficial capital" of the Holy Roman Empire because the Imperial Diet and courts met at Nuremberg Castle; the Diets of Nuremberg played an important role in the administration of the empire. The increasing demands of the Imperial court and the increasing importance of the city attracted increased trade and commerce in Nuremberg. In 1219 Emperor Frederick II granted the Großen Freiheitsbrief, including town rights, Imperial immediacy, the privilege to mint coins, an independent customs policy - wholly removing the city from the purview of the burgraves.
Nuremberg soon became, with Augsburg, one of the two great trade-centers on the route from Italy to Northern Europe. In 1298 the Jews of the town were falsely accused of having desecrated the host, 698 of them were killed in one of the many Rintfleisch massacres. Behind the massacre of 1298 was the desire to combine the northern and southern parts of the city, which were divided by the Pegnitz; the Jews of the German lands suffered many massacres during the plague years of the mid-14th century. In 1349 Nuremberg's Jews suffered a pogrom, they were burned at the stake or expelled, a marketplace was built over the former Jewish quarter. The plague returned to the city in 1405, 1435, 1437, 1482, 1494, 1520 and 1534; the largest growth of Nuremberg occurred in the 14th century. Charles IV's Golden Bull of 1356, naming Nuremberg as the city where newly elected kings of Germany must hold their first Imperial Diet, made Nuremberg one of the three most important cities of the Empire. Charles was the patron of the Frauenkirche, built between 1352 and 1362, where the Imperial court worshipped during its stays in Nuremberg.
The royal and Imperial connection grew stronger in 1423 when the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg granted the Imperial regalia to be kept permanently in Nuremberg, where they remained until 1796, when the advance of French troops required their removal to Regensburg and thence to Vienna. In 1349 the members of the guilds unsuccessfully rebelled against the patricians in a Handwerkeraufstand, supported by merchants and some by councillors, leading to a ban on any self-organisation of the artisans in the city, abolishing the guilds that were customary elsewhere in Europe.
Büchenbach is a municipality in the district of Roth, in Bavaria, Germany. During the Thirty Years' War the population decreased sharp. Protestant refugees came from Austria. In 1886 the train station was opened. In 1913 electricity was installed. In 1939 Büchenbach had 705 inhabitants. After 1945 refugees came to Büchenbach, so in 1962 there were 2200 inhabitants
Greding is a town in the district of Roth, in Bavaria, Germany. It is situated 32 km north of Ingolstadt. Greding is located in the south-eastern corner of Middle Franconia; the municipal area borders on two neighbouring Bavarian districts, Eichstätt and Neumarkt, on the two regions of Upper Bavaria and Upper Palatinate. Greding is situated about 32 km north of the city of Ingolstadt on the A9 Autobahn. Greding stands on the river Schwarzach in the Altmühl Valley Nature Park. Two hills around the town are the Galgenberg; the township of Greding includes the villages of Attenhofen, Esselberg, Grafenberg, Großhöbing, Günzenhofen, Heimbach, Hofberg, Kleinnottersdorf, Landerzhofen, Mettendorf, Obermässing, Österberg, Röckenhofen, Untermässing and Viehhausen. Neighbouring townships are Beilngries, Dietfurt an der Altmühl, Hilpoltstein and Thalmässing. There are remains of animal jawbones and charcoal fires from early settlements dating from between 10000 BC and 6000 BC. Traces of a Celtic settlement have been found dating from 450-350 BC.
The first known documentary record of a township is from 1091. In the 11th century the Greding estate came under the ownership of the Bishops of Eichstätt and remained under their jurisdiction until 1803. Like most of Bavaria, Greding is predominantly Roman Catholic. Greding is surrounded by a 1.25 km town wall with fortified gate towers. The wall was erected during Count of Öttingen. A great fire in 1503 destroyed a tower and part of the town hall. Today, 20 towers can be seen around the town all used as private houses; the large fortified gate houses to be seen are the Fürstentor, the Eichstätter Tor and the Nürnberger Tor. The numerous historic towers throughout the town have earned it the nickname, "The City of 21 Towers"; the old town hall stood in the Market Square until the Thirty Years War. In 1633 the building was burned down in an attempt to extort 1000 Reichsthaler ransom money from the citizens; the site is now occupied by a fountain. The current town hall building was erected in 1699 and is thought to be the work of the Eichstätt architect Jakob Engel.
The façade is decorated with the arms of the lord of the estate, Prince Bishop Johann Martin von Eyb. This predominantly 12th-century church stands on a hill overlooking the town and is a conspicuous local landmark. St Martins is the largest Romanesque basilica in the former diocese of Eichstätt, it was consecrated by Bishop Otto. The late gothic altar dates from 1480 and is flanked by rococo figures of the Virgin Mary and St John from around 1780; the apse ceiling is painted with images of Christ enthroned and symbols of the Evangelists, the 15th-century nave frescoes depict St Martin astride a horse, dividing his cloak with a sword for a beggar. The church contains a number of early renaissance paintings and sculptures. To the left of St Martin's Church in the cellar of the former Michael's Chapel, dating from the early 12th century, is a so-called Charnel House; this was first used in the 14th century to store the bones of the dead as the graveyard itself became too full. The bones of about 2500 corpses can be seen behind an iron grille.
Other buildings of note include the Catholic Church of St. Jakob. Greding has the Museum Natur und Mensch and the Sparkassenmuseum. Greding is located near junction 57 on the A9 autobahn; the town is served by several local and regional buses, has direct bus connections to Nuremberg and Berlin. A bus service links the town with Kinding railway station, on the Nuremberg-Munich high-speed rail line which runs through the 7.7 km Euerwangtunnel. The Greding railway station on the Roth-Greding rail line closed in 1972; the local paper is the Hilpoltsteiner Kurier
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
A wire is a single cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal. Wires are used to bear electricity and telecommunications signals. Wire is formed by drawing the metal through a hole in a die or draw plate. Wire gauges come in various standard sizes; the term wire is used more loosely to refer to a bundle of such strands, as in "multistranded wire", more termed a wire rope in mechanics, or a cable in electricity. Wire comes in braided forms. Although circular in cross-section, wire can be made in square, flattened rectangular, or other cross-sections, either for decorative purposes, or for technical purposes such as high-efficiency voice coils in loudspeakers. Edge-wound coil springs, such as the Slinky toy, are made of special flattened wire. In antiquity, jewelry contains, in the form of chains and applied decoration, large amounts of wire, made and which must have been produced by some efficient, if not technically advanced, means. In some cases, strips cut from metal sheet were made into wire by pulling them through perforations in stone beads.
This causes the strips to fold round on themselves to form thin tubes. This strip drawing technique was in use in Egypt by the 2nd Dynasty. From the middle of the 2nd millennium BCE most of the gold wires in jewellery are characterised by seam lines that follow a spiral path along the wire; such twisted strips can be converted into solid round wires by rolling them between flat surfaces or the strip wire drawing method. The strip twist wire manufacturing method was superseded by drawing in the ancient Old World sometime between about the 8th and 10th centuries AD. There is some evidence for the use of drawing further East prior to this period. Square and hexagonal wires were made using a swaging technique. In this method a metal rod was struck between grooved metal blocks, or between a grooved punch and a grooved metal anvil. Swaging is of great antiquity dating to the beginning of the 2nd millennium BCE in Egypt and in the Bronze and Iron Ages in Europe for torcs and fibulae. Twisted square-section wires are a common filigree decoration in early Etruscan jewelry.
In about the middle of the 2nd millennium BCE, a new category of decorative tube was introduced which imitated a line of granules. True beaded wire, produced by mechanically distorting a round-section wire, appeared in the Eastern Mediterranean and Italy in the seventh century BCE disseminated by the Phoenicians. Beaded wire continued to be used in jewellery into modern times, although it fell out of favour in about the tenth century CE when two drawn round wires, twisted together to form what are termed'ropes', provided a simpler-to-make alternative. A forerunner to beaded wire may be the notched strips and wires which first occur from around 2000 BCE in Anatolia. Wire was drawn in England from the medieval period; the wire was used to make wool cards and pins, manufactured goods whose import was prohibited by Edward IV in 1463. The first wire mill in Great Britain was established at Tintern in about 1568 by the founders of the Company of Mineral and Battery Works, who had a monopoly on this.
Apart from their second wire mill at nearby Whitebrook, there were no other wire mills before the second half of the 17th century. Despite the existence of mills, the drawing of wire down to fine sizes continued to be done manually. Wire is drawn of cylindrical form; the draw-plate or die is a piece of hard cast-iron or hard steel, or for fine work it may be a diamond or a ruby. The object of utilising precious stones is to enable the dies to be used for a considerable period without losing their size, so producing wire of incorrect diameter. Diamond dies must be rebored when they have lost their original diameter of hole, but metal dies are brought down to size again by hammering up the hole and drifting it out to correct diameter with a punch. Wire has many uses, it forms the raw material of many important manufacturers, such as the wire netting industry, engineered springs, wire-cloth making and wire rope spinning, in which it occupies a place analogous to a textile fiber. Wire-cloth of all degrees of strength and fineness of mesh is used for sifting and screening machinery, for draining paper pulp, for window screens, for many other purposes.
Vast quantities of aluminium, copper and steel wire are employed for telephone and data cables, as conductors in electric power transmission, heating. It is in no less demand for fencing, much is consumed in the construction of suspension bridges, cages, etc. In the manufacture of stringed musical instruments and scientific instruments, wire is again used. Carbon and stainless spring steel wire have significant applications in engineered springs for critical automotive or industrial manufactured parts/components. Pin and hairpin making. Not all metals and metallic alloys possess the physical properties necessary to make useful wire; the metals must in the first place be ductile and strong in tension, the quality on which the utility of wire principally depends. The principal metals suitable for wire, possessing equal ductility, are platinum, iron, copper and gold. By careful treatment thin wire can be produced. Special purpose wire is however made fro
Prof. Dr. Ralf Dieter Speth, is a German automotive executive chief executive officer of Jaguar Land Rover, following previous roles with BMW, Linde and Ford's Premier Automotive Group. Speth was awarded a degree in Engineering from the University of Applied Sciences Rosenheim, Germany, he undertook a Doctorate of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering and Business Administration at The University of Warwick. Speth worked for them for twenty years. In 2002 he joined The Linde Group and served as Head of Global Operations and as Vice President of Operations, he was Chief Operating Officer and Member of Executive Board at its subsidiary KION Group GmbH. In 2007 Speth returned to the car industry and joined Ford Motor Company's Premier Automotive Group as Director of Production and Product Planning. Following the sale of two of the PAG marques and Land Rover, to Tata, he became Chief Executive Officer of Jaguar Land Rover in February 2010, a Non-Executive Director of Tata Motors in November 2010.
Under Speth's management, JLR has increased the company's workforce significantly. "We have added more than 17,000 people in the course of the last five years," he said in an interview published in June 2015. Speth champions the need for R&D and makes much of JLR's investment in R&D. "I guess we are the biggest R&D investor in the UK in the automotive business," he claims. In 2015 Special Honours list, Speth was appointed an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire for his services to the automotive industry. In September 2016 Speth was appointed as an Honorary Professor, having been an Industrial Professor. Professor Dr Speth was a graduate of the University of Warwick with an Engineering Doctorate from the University for his engineering research and study at the Warwick Manufacturing Group. On 25 October 2016, Dr Ralf Speth, CEO of Jaguar Land Rover, was appointed as an Additional Director to the board of Tata Sons, he is married, with two children, lives in Leamington Spa and Munich