Sheffield station Pond Street and Sheffield Midland, is a combined railway station and tram stop in Sheffield and the busiest station in South Yorkshire. Adjacent is Sheffield station/Sheffield Hallam University Sheffield Supertram stop. In 2017-18, the station was the 43rd-busiest in the UK, the 15th-busiest outside London; the station is being considered as a stop for the High Speed 2 rail project. The station was opened in 1870 by the Midland Railway to the designs of the company architect John Holloway Sanders, it was the last station to be built in Sheffield city centre. The station was built on the'New Line', which ran between Grimesthorpe Junction, on the former Sheffield and Rotherham Railway, Tapton Junction, just north of Chesterfield; this line replaced the Midland Railway's previous route, the'old road', to London, which ran from Sheffield Wicker via Rotherham. The new line and station were built despite opposition locally; the Duke of Norfolk, who owned land in the area, insisted that the southern approach be in a tunnel and the land known as The Farm landscaped to prevent the line being seen.
Some years the tunnel was opened out into a cutting. Sheffield Corporation was so concerned about the eastern side of the city being cut off from the city centre that it insisted that public access be preserved across the railway site; the station and Pond Street Goods Depot opened on a cold day without any celebrations. There were different passenger entrances for each class; the original station buildings have been preserved and are between island platforms 2 to 5. The station was given two extra platforms and a new frontage in 1905 at a cost of £215,000; the enlargements consisted of creating an island platform out of the old platform 1 and building a new platform 1 and a new entrance. These works were overseen by the Chief Architect to the Midland Railway Charles Trubshaw. Offices were built at the north end of the 300 feet long carriageway rooftop. A large parcels office was built to the south of the main buildings. Two footbridges connected the platforms, the one to the north for passengers, the one to the south for station staff and parcels.
The tracks were covered by two overall roofs. The older and larger spanned platforms 5 and 6, an identical structure can still be viewed today at Bath Green Park railway station. Wartime damage put the roofs beyond economic repair; the 1960s saw the introduction of the Class 45 and Class 46 diesel-electric engines, known as Peaks. Sheaf House was built in 1965 adjacent to the station to house British Rail's Sheffield Division headquarters; as part of the reconstruction of the area as the "Gateway to Sheffield", it was demolished in early 2006. In 1970 Sheffield's other main station, Sheffield Victoria, was closed and its remaining services, from Penistone, were diverted until 1981 via a cumbersome reversal; the Pullman service between Sheffield Victoria and London King's Cross, including the morning and evening Master Cutler now ran onto the East Coast Main Line via Retford from Sheffield Midland instead. This was the third route used by the train of that name; the station was resignalled in 1972, its track layout remodelled.
British Rail introduced the High Speed Train to Sheffield on the Midland Main Line in 1984. The cross-country services had seen the introduction of the HSTs in 1982. On 21 December 1991, the station was flooded by the River Sheaf. A log, part of the debris commemorates the event on platform 5. In 1991 construction of the new Supertram network began and by late 1994 Sheffield Midland was connected to the network, after the opening of the line between Fitzalan Square in the city centre and Spring Lane, to the east of the station. In 2002, Midland Mainline, as the main train operating company of the station, instigated a major regeneration of Sheffield station. Prior to this, a taxi rank was located inside what is now the main concourse and the new entrance hall; the stone façade of the station was sandblasted and its archways filled with unobstructed windows to improve views both from inside and out. Other changes included the improvement of platform surfaces and the addition of a pedestrian bridge connecting the station concourse with the Sheffield Supertram stop at the far side of the station.
To coincide with the regeneration of the station, Sheaf Square was rebuilt as part of a project designed to create the Gateway to Sheffield. The station and the square form part of a route that leads passengers through the square past the 262.5 feet Cutting Edge water feature, up Howard Street and into the Heart of the City. This Gateway to Sheffield won the Project of the Year Award in the 2006 National Rail Awards. On 11 November 2007, East Midlands Trains, an amalgamation of Midland Mainline and part of Central Trains, took over the management of the station. In December 2009, following the restoration of the station, a new pub, the Sheffield Tap, opened next to platform 1B; the room, located within the main station building, had been used as a store room for 35 years but was used for much longer as a bar and restaurant, catering for first class passengers since 1904. The bar is noteworthy for its restored early 20th century interior and its selection of quality cask ales and beers from around the world.
Since opening, the bar has won the National Railway Heritage Award and the Cask Ale pub of the year award. In October 2010, East Midland Trains initiated £10 million worth of improvements to its stations. Sheffield received renovated waiting rooms, toilet facilities and upgraded
London Midland Region of British Railways
The London Midland Region was one of the six regions created on the formation of the nationalised British Railways, consisted of ex-London and Scottish Railway lines in England and Wales. The region was managed first from buildings adjacent to Euston station, from Stanier House in Birmingham, it existed from the creation of BR in 1948, ceased to be an operating unit in its own right in the 1980s, was wound up at the end of 1992. At its inception, the LMR's territory consisted of ex-LMS lines in Wales. LMS lines in Scotland became part of the Scottish Region, whilst those of the Northern Counties Committee in Northern Ireland became part of the Ulster Transport Authority; the Mersey Railway, which had avoided being "Grouped" with the LMS in 1923 joined the LMR. The other regions formed at the same time were the Eastern Region, the North Eastern Region, the Southern Region, the Western Region and the Scottish Region; the LMR's territory principally consisted of the West Coast Main Line, the Midland Main Line south of Carlisle, the ex-Midland Cross Country route from Bristol to Leeds.
During the LMR's existence there were a number of transfers of territory to and from other regions. The major changes were: In 1949 the London and Southend Railway, wholly surrounded by Eastern lines and completely cut off from the rest of the LMR network, was transferred to the Eastern. In 1958 a major re-drawing of the regional boundaries took place. LMR lines in South Wales and south-west of Birmingham were transferred to the Western. In return the London Midland gained the lines of the former Great Central Railway that lay outside Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. In 1974, the Chiltern line from London Marylebone to Banbury and Birmingham Moor Street was transferred to the LMR from the Western Region; the LMR inherited ex-LMS types of steam locomotive. For a few months in early 1948, an M prefix was added to existing LMS locomotive numbers. From mid-1948, 40000 was added, giving numbers of ex-LMS types in the 5XXXX series; some elderly locomotive classes were renumbered in the 58XXX series to make way for new production of LMS designs.
The LMR continued building ex-LMS stock Black Fives, Ivatt 2MT, two Duchesses, rebuilds of Royal Scots and Patriots. Stanier "Period III" carriages continued to be built and were developed into a new style known as "Porthole" stock. Freight stock on order at Nationalisation was completed: some LMS designs were accepted as BR standard designs and continued to be built for the whole network through the 1950s and early 1960s. In 1968 it was the last region of BR to eliminate steam traction under the 1955 Modernisation Plan. In the 1960s, the West Coast Main Line was electrified between London Euston and Crewe, Liverpool and Birmingham; this was extended via Carlisle to Glasgow in the 1970s. Ball, MG. British Railways Atlas Ian Allan Publishing 2004
Rotherham is a town in South Yorkshire, which together with its conurbation and outlying settlements to the north and south-east forms the Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham, with a recorded population of 257,280 in the 2011 census. In the West Riding of Yorkshire, its central area is on the banks of the River Don below its confluence with the Rother on the traditional road between Sheffield and Doncaster. Rotherham was well known as a coal mining town as well as a major contributor to the steel industry. Iron Age and Roman settlements dot the area covered by the district, including a small Roman fort to the south-west in the upper flood meadow of the Don at Templeborough. Rotherham was founded in the early Middle Ages, its name is from Old English hām'homestead, estate', meaning'homestead on the Rother'. The river name was carried into Old English from Brittonic branch of Celtic words: ro-'over, chief' and duβr'water', thus'main river', it established itself on a Roman road near a forded part of the River Don.
By the late Saxon period, Rotherham was at the centre of a large parish on the Don's banks. Following the Norman Conquest an absentee lord held Nigel Fossard; the Domesday'Book' or Survey records this lord of the manor with a Norman name took the place of the Saxon lord Hakon holding 20 years before in 1066 and was tenant of an overlord of hundreds of such manors, Robert de Mortain, the Conqueror's half-brother. The central assets at the time were medium in rank among manors: eight adult male householders were counted as villagers, three were smallholders and one the priest, three ploughlands were tilled by one lord's plough team and two and a half men's plough teams were active; the manor's other resources were a church, four loosely called'acres' of meadow, seven of woodland. Rotherham had a mill valued at an ordinary half of one pound sterling, his successors, the De Vesci family visited the town and did not build a castle but maintained a Friday market and a fair. In the mid 13th century, John de Vesci and Ralph de Tili gave all their possessions in Rotherham to Rufford Abbey, a period of growing wealth in the church.
The monks collected tithes from the town and gained rights to an extra market day on Monday and to extend the annual fair from two to three days. The townsmen of Rotherham formed the "Greaves of Our Lady's Light", an organisation which worked with the town's three guilds, it was suppressed in 1547 but revived in 1584 as the feoffees of the common lands of Rotherham, remains in existence. In the 1480s the Rotherham-born Archbishop of York, Thomas Rotherham, instigated the building of a College of Jesus or Jesus College, Rotherham to rival the colleges of Cambridge and Oxford, it was the first brick building in what is now South Yorkshire and taught theology, religious chant and hymns and writing. The College and new parish church of All Saints made Rotherham an enviable and modern town at the turn of the 16th century; the college was dissolved in 1547 in the reign of Edward VI, its assets stripped for the crown to grant to its supporters. Little remains of the original building in College Street.
Walls of part of the College of Jesus are encased within number 23 and Nos 2, 2A, 4, 6 and 8 Effingham Street. Its fragments of walls are the earliest surviving brick structure in South Yorkshire and are remains of the key institution to Rotherham's growth into a town of regional significance. Sixty years after the College's dissolution Rotherham was described by a wealthy visitor as falling from a fashionable college town to having admitted gambling and vice; the history of Thomas Rotherham and education in the town are remembered in the name of Thomas Rotherham College. The region had been exploited for iron since Roman times, but it was coal that first brought the Industrial Revolution to Rotherham. Exploitation of the coal seams was the driving force behind the improvements to navigation on the River Don, which formed the Sheffield and South Yorkshire Navigation system of navigable inland waterways. In the early Industrial Revolution major uses of iron demanded good local ore and established processing skills for iron strength, qualities found in Rotherham's smelting plants and foundries.
Iron, steel, became the principal industry in Rotherham, surviving into the 20th century. The Walker family built an iron and steel empire in the 18th century, their foundries producing high quality cannon, including some for the ship of the line HMS Victory, cast iron bridges, one of, commissioned by Thomas Paine. Rotherham's cast iron industry expanded in the early 19th century, the Effingham Ironworks Yates, Haywood & Co, opened in 1820. Other major iron founders included William Co.. Perrot, W. H. Micklethwait and John and Richard Corker of the Ferham Works; the Parkgate Ironworks was established in 1823 by Sanderson and Watson, changed ownership several times. In 1854, Samuel Beal & Co produced wrought iron plates for Isambard Kingdom Brunel's famous steamship the SS Great Eastern. In 1864, the ironworks was taken over by the Parkgate Iron Co. Ltd, becoming the Park Gate Iron and Steel Company in 1888; the company was purchased by Tube Investments Ltd in 1956 and closed in 1974. Steel and Tozer's massive Templeborough steelworks was, at its peak, over a mile long, employing 10,000 workers, h
Leeds is a city in West Yorkshire, England. Leeds has one of the most diverse economies of all the UK's main employment centres and has seen the fastest rate of private-sector jobs growth of any UK city, it has the highest ratio of private to public sector jobs of all the UK's Core Cities, with 77% of its workforce working in the private sector. Leeds has the third-largest jobs total by local authority area, with 480,000 in employment and self-employment at the beginning of 2015. Leeds is ranked as a gamma world city by World Cities Research Network. Leeds is the cultural and commercial heart of the West Yorkshire Urban Area. Leeds is served by four universities, has the fourth largest student population in the country and the country's fourth largest urban economy. Leeds was a small manorial borough in the 13th century, in the 17th and 18th centuries it became a major centre for the production and trading of wool, in the Industrial Revolution a major mill town. From being a market town in the valley of the River Aire in the 16th century, Leeds expanded and absorbed the surrounding villages to become a populous urban centre by the mid-20th century.
It now lies within the West Yorkshire Urban Area, the United Kingdom's fourth-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.6 million. Today, Leeds has become the largest legal and financial centre, outside London with the financial and insurance services industry worth £13 billion to the city's economy; the finance and business service sector account for 38% of total output with more than 30 national and international banks located in the city, including an office of the Bank of England. Leeds is the UK's third-largest manufacturing centre with around 1,800 firms and 39,000 employees, Leeds manufacturing firms account for 8.8% of total employment in the city and is worth over £7 billion to the local economy. The largest sub-sectors are engineering and publishing, food and drink and medical technology. Other key sectors include retail and the visitor economy and the creative and digital industries; the city saw several firsts, including the oldest-surviving film in existence, Roundhay Garden Scene, the 1767 invention of soda water.
Public transport and road communications networks in the region are focused on Leeds, the second phase of High Speed 2 will connect it to London via East Midlands Hub and Sheffield Meadowhall. Leeds has the third busiest railway station and the tenth busiest airport outside London; the name derives from the old Brythonic word Ladenses meaning "people of the fast-flowing river", in reference to the River Aire that flows through the city. This name referred to the forested area covering most of the Brythonic kingdom of Elmet, which existed during the 5th century into the early 7th century. Bede states in the fourteenth chapter of his Ecclesiastical History, in a discussion of an altar surviving from a church erected by Edwin of Northumbria, that it is located in...regione quae vocatur Loidis. An inhabitant of Leeds is locally known as a word of uncertain origin; the term Leodensian is used, from the city's Latin name. The name has been explained as a derivative of Welsh lloed, meaning "a place".
Leeds developed as a market town in the Middle Ages as part of the local agricultural economy. Before the Industrial Revolution, it became a co-ordination centre for the manufacture of woollen cloth, white broadcloth was traded at its White Cloth Hall. Leeds handled one sixth of England's export trade in 1770. Growth in textiles, was accelerated by the building of the Aire and Calder Navigation in 1699 and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal in 1816. In the late Georgian era, William Lupton, Lord of the Manor of Leeds, was one of a number of central Leeds landowners with the mesne lord title, some of whom, like him, were textile manufacturers. At the time of his death in 1828, Lupton's land in Briggate in central Leeds included a mill, manor house and outbuildings; the railway network constructed around Leeds, starting with the Leeds and Selby Railway in 1834, provided improved communications with national markets and for its development, an east-west connection with Manchester and the ports of Liverpool and Hull giving improved access to international markets.
Alongside technological advances and industrial expansion, Leeds retained an interest in trading in agricultural commodities, with the Corn Exchange opening in 1864. Marshall's Mill was one of the first of many factories constructed in Leeds from around 1790 when the most significant were woollen finishing and flax mills. Manufacturing diversified by 1914 to printing, engineering and clothing manufacture. Decline in manufacturing during the 1930s was temporarily reversed by a switch to producing military uniforms and munitions during World War II. However, by the 1970s, the clothing industry was in irreversible decline, facing cheap foreign competition; the contemporary economy has been shaped by Leeds City Council's vision of building a'24-hour European city' and'capital of the north'. The city has developed from the decay of the post-industrial era to become a telephone banking centre, connected to the electronic infrastructure of the modern global economy. There has been growth in the corporate and legal sectors, increased local affluence has led to an expanding retail sector, including the luxury goods market.
Leeds City Region Enterprise Zone was launched in April 2012 to promote development in four sites along the A63 East Leeds Link Road. Leeds was a manor and townshi
Derby is a city and unitary authority area in Derbyshire, England. It lies on the banks of the River Derwent in the south of Derbyshire, of which it was traditionally the county town. At the 2011 census, the population was 248,700. Derby gained city status in 1977. Derby was settled by Romans – who established the town of Derventio – Saxons and Vikings, who made Derby one of the Five Boroughs of the Danelaw. A market town, Derby grew in the industrial era. Home to Lombe's Mill, an early British factory, Derby has a claim to be one of the birthplaces of the Industrial Revolution, it contains the southern part of the Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site. With the arrival of the railways in the 19th century, Derby became a centre of the British rail industry. Derby is a centre for advanced transport manufacturing, home to the world's second largest aero-engine manufacturer, Rolls-Royce. Bombardier Transportation are based at the Derby Litchurch Lane Works and were for many years the UK's only train manufacturer.
Toyota Manufacturing UK's automobile headquarters is south west of the city at Burnaston. The Roman camp of'Derventio' is considered to have been located at Little Chester/Chester Green, the site of the old Roman fort; the town was one of the'Five Boroughs' of the Danelaw, until it was captured by Lady Aethelflaed of Mercia in July 917, subsequent to which the town was annexed into the Kingdom of Mercia. The Viking name Djúra-bý, recorded in Old English as Deoraby, means "Village of the Deer". However, the origin of the name'Derby' has had multiple influences; the town name does appear as'Darbye' in early maps, such as that of John Speed, 1610. Modern research into the history and archaeology of Derby has provided evidence that the Vikings and Anglo-Saxons would have co-existed, occupying two areas of land surrounded by water; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that "Derby is divided by water". These areas of land were known as Norþworþig and Deoraby, were at the "Irongate" side of Derby. During the Civil War of 1642–1646, Derby was garrisoned by Parliamentary troops commanded by Sir John Gell, 1st Baronet, appointed Governor of Derby in 1643.
These troops took part in the defence of nearby Nottingham, the Siege of Lichfield, the Battle of Hopton Heath and many other engagements in Nottinghamshire and Cheshire, as well as defending Derbyshire against Royalist armies. A hundred years Bonnie Prince Charlie set up camp at Derby on 4 December 1745, whilst on his way south to seize the British crown; the prince called at The George Inn on Irongate, where the Duke of Devonshire had set up his headquarters, demanded billets for his 9,000 troops. He stayed at Exeter House, Full Street where he held his "council of war". A replica of the room is on display at Derby Museum in the city centre, he had received misleading information about an army coming to meet him south of Derby. Although he wished to continue with his quest, he was over-ruled by his fellow officers, he abandoned his invasion at Swarkestone Bridge on the River Trent just a few miles south of Derby. As a testament to his belief in his cause, the prince – who on the march from Scotland had walked at the front of the column – made the return journey on horseback at the rear of the bedraggled and tired army.
Derby and Derbyshire were among the centres of Britain's Industrial Revolution. In 1717, Derby was the site of the first water-powered silk mill in Britain, built by John Lombe and George Sorocold, after Lombe had reputedly stolen the secrets of silk-throwing from Piedmont in Italy. In 1759, Jedediah Strutt patented and built a machine called the Derby Rib Attachment that revolutionised the manufacture of hose; this attachment was used on the Rev. Lee's Framework Knitting Machine; the partners were William Woollatt. The patent was obtained in January 1759. After three years and Stafford were paid off, Samuel Need – a hosier of Nottingham – joined the partnership; the firm was known as Need and Woollatt. The patent expired in 1773. Messrs Wright, the bankers of Nottingham, recommended that Richard Arkwright apply to Strutt and Need for finance for his cotton spinning mill; the first mill was driven by horses. In 1771 Richard Arkwright, Samuel Need and Jedediah Strutt built the world's first commercially successful water-powered cotton spinning mill at Cromford, developing a form of power, to be a catalyst for the Industrial Revolution.
This was followed in Derbyshire by Jedediah Strutt's cotton spinning mills at Belper. They were: South Mill, the first, 1775; the Belper and Milford mills were not built in partnership with Arkwright. These mills were all Strutt financed. Oth
An employment agency is an organization which matches employers to employees. In all developed countries, there is a publicly funded employment agency and multiple private businesses which act as employment agencies. One of the oldest references to a public employment agency was in 1650, when Henry Robinson proposed an "Office of Addresses and Encounters" that would link employers to workers; the British Parliament rejected the proposal, but he himself opened such a business, short-lived. The idea to create public employment agencies as a way to fight unemployment was adopted in every developed country by the beginning of the twentieth century. In the United Kingdom, the first labour exchange was established by social reformer and employment campaigner Alsager Hay Hill in London in 1871; this was augmented by sanctioned exchanges created by the Labour Bureau Act 1902, which subsequently went nationwide, a movement prompted by the Liberal government through the Labour Exchanges Act 1909. The present public provider of job search help is called Jobcentre Plus.
In the United States, a federal programme of employment services was rolled out in the New Deal. The initial legislation was called the Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933 and more job services happen through one-stop centers established by the Workforce Investment Act of 1998. In Australia, the first public employment service was set up in 1946, called the Commonwealth Employment Service; the first known private employment agency, Gabbitas & Thring, was founded in 1873 by John Gabbitas who recruited schoolmasters for public schools in England. In the United States, the first private employment agency was opened by Fred Winslow who started an Engineering Agency in 1893, it became part of General Employment Enterprises who owned Businessmen's Clearing House. Another of the oldest agencies was developed by Katharine Felton as a response to the problems brought on by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire. Many temporary agencies specialize in a particular profession or field of business, such as accounting, health care, technical, or secretarial.
The International Labour Organization's first Recommendation was targeted at fee charging agencies. The Unemployment Recommendation, 1919, Art. 1 called for each member to, "take measures to prohibit the establishment of employment agencies which charge fees or which carry on their business for profit. Where such agencies exist, it is further recommended that they be permitted to operate only under government licenses, that all practicable measures be taken to abolish such agencies as soon as possible." The Unemployment Convention, 1919, Art. 2 instead required the alternative of, "a system of free public employment agencies under the control of a central authority. Committees, which shall include representatives of employers and workers, shall be appointed to advise on matters concerning the carrying on of these agencies." In 1933 the Fee-Charging Employment Agencies Convention formally called for abolition. The exception was if the agencies were licensed and a fee scale was agreed in advance.
In 1949 a new revised Convention was produced. This secured an ` opt out' for members that did not wish to sign up. Agencies were an entrenched part of the labor market; the United States did not sign up to the Conventions. The latest Convention, the Private Employment Agencies Convention, 1997 takes a much softer stance and calls for regulation. In most countries, agencies are regulated, for instance in the UK under the Employment Agencies Act 1973, or in Germany under the Arbeitnehmerüberlassungsgesetz. An executive-search firm specializes in recruiting executive personnel for companies in various industries; this term may apply to job-search-consulting firms who charge job candidates a fee and who specialize in mid-to-upper-level executives. In the United States, some states require job-search-consulting firms to be licensed as employment agencies; some third-party recruiters work on their own, while others operate through an agency, acting as direct contacts between client companies and the job candidates they recruit.
They can specialize in client relationships only, in both areas. Most recruiters tend to specialize in either permanent, full-time, direct-hire positions or in contract positions, but in more than one. In an executive-search assignment, the employee-gaining client company – not the person being hired – pays the search firm its fee. An executive agent is a type of agency that represents executives seeking senior executive positions which are unadvertised. In the United Kingdom all positions up to £125,000 a year are advertised and 50% of vacancies paying £125,000 – £150,000 are advertised. However, only 5% of positions which pay more than £150,000 are advertised and are in the domain of around 4,000 executive recruiters in the United Kingdom; such roles are unadvertised to maintain stakeholder confidence and to overcome internal uncertainties. Contract, Contract-to-hire, Part-time, Full-time, GAP Staffing Bundesagentur für Arbeit, German federal employment agency Contingent workforce Executive search Hiring hall Human resource management Olsen v. Nebraska, a US legal case concerning compensation issues with private employment agencies Payrolling Professional employer organization Recruitment Talent agent Temporary work UK agency worker law DE Balducchi, RW Eberts, CJ O'Leary, Labour Exchange Policy in the United States (W.
E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research 2