Bing or Gebrüder Bing was a German toy company founded in 1863 in Nuremberg, Germany by two brothers, Ignaz Bing and Adolf Bing producing metal kitchen utensils, but best remembered for its extensive lines of model trains and live steam engines. Ignaz is known for his discovery and development of the Bing Cave, a show cave in Germany; the company produced fine pewter and copper tableware before embarking on toy production in 1880, their first teddy bears were released in 1907. By the early 20th century, Bing was the largest toy company in the world, Bing's factory in Nuremberg was the largest toy factory in the world. Although Bing produced numerous toys, it is best remembered today for toy trains and live steam powered toys. In addition to toys it made scientific and educational novelties, a huge range of kitchenware, office equipment, record players, electrical goods and so on; the "Nuremberg Style" of manufacturing toys on steel sheets with lithographed designs that were stamped out of the metal and assembled using tabs and slots, was perfected by Bing.
This manufacturing method remained in widespread use well into the 1950s, long after the Bing company had been dissolved. Bing's first trains hit the market in the 1880s; when Märklin formalized several standards for track gauges in 1891, Bing adopted them, added O gauge by 1895 and gauge III, causing confusion as Marklin Gauge III became Bing gauge IV. In the early 1920s, under the auspices of Bassett-Lowke, Bing introduced a still-smaller gauge, half that of'0' at 0.625 inch, which it called OO. However, Bing's OO gauge at 4 mm scale became a British standard, larger than the 3.5 mm scale on the same gauge of track favoured elsewhere. Bing produced numerous items for export which were sold either under its own name or for other companies. Bing produced trains styled for the British market for Bassett-Lowke and A. W. Gamage, it produced trains for the North American market, which it exported and marketed on its own. Early in the 20th century, Bing jockeyed for market share with the Ives Manufacturing Company, who did not surpass Bing in sales for good until 1910.
Throughout their histories, the two companies would copy one another's designs. In some instances, the two companies used the same catalog number on their competing products. Due to cheap German labor and low shipping and duty costs, Bing was able to undercut the prices of its U. S. competitors. By 1914, Bing had 5,000 employees. By comparison, Märklin employed 600; the range of live steam engines included stationary engines, railway locomotives, road vehicles and boats. Steam engines were made throughout most the company's history. From the start they made mobile models; the stationary models were generic in outline, not representative of particular prototypes. Mobile engines were more recognisable and the more expensive versions could be classed as scale models, albeit inaccurate; the Railway locomotive versions were very similar in outline to their clockwork and electric models. World War I forced Bing out of the export market. In 1916, Ives and the A. C. Gilbert Company formed the Toy Manufacturers Association and lobbied to protect the growing U.
S. toy manufacturing industry. As a result, tariffs on German toys rose from 35 percent to 70 percent. Additionally, the death of the company's founder, Ignaz Bing, in 1918 created a void in leadership. German wages rose after the war; this created an unfavorable climate for German exports. Meanwhile, the Lionel Corporation produced advertising that criticized the manufacturing methods of its competitors' trains. Although targeted at Ives, this ad campaign hurt Bing's image because Bing's methods were so similar. Bing struggled to sell through misjudged demand; when the market evaporated for its 1 gauge trains, it re-gauged some models to O gauge, where they looked oversized, re-gauged other models to Lionel's Standard gauge, where they looked undersized. Despite these setbacks, by 1921 Bing had re-established itself in the U. S. market via sales through the catalog retailer Sears, Roebuck & Co. However, by 1925, Lionel was selling through Sears, Bing found itself squeezed out of the market. Bing attempted to compensate by increasing its presence in Canada, where it competed with mixed success with American Flyer.
By 1927, Bing was in serious financial trouble and the company's president, Stephan Bing, his son, left the company going to work with another Nuremberg-based toy firm. In 1932, Bing was in liquidation, the Bings, who were Jewish, fled to England because of the rise of Adolf Hitler; the company went out of business for good in 1933. Much of its tooling was acquired by a rival toy company. Stephan Bing helped to start the British company Trix. Other Bing executives started the named company Trix Express. Bing toys and other products can be identified and dated by variations in the company trademark. 1882 - 1902 Statue holding a shield with the letters "GBN" 1902 Circle with the letters "GBN" 1902 - 1907 Diamond with the letters "GBN" 1908 - 1925 Diamond with the letters "GBN" and "Bavaria" below 1925 - 1934 Stylised letters B over W There is a private collection of Bing products in the Historic Toy Museum at Freinsheim in Rhineland-Palatinate. Bing Bingola Records List of show caves in Germany Rudolf Endres: Gebrüder Bing, Nürnberg, in: Historisches Lexikon Bayerns The Bing'Pigmyphone' toy gramop
The Graphics Interchange Format, is a bitmap image format, developed by a team at the online services provider CompuServe led by American computer scientist Steve Wilhite on June 15, 1987. It has since come into widespread usage on the World Wide Web due to its wide support and portability between many applications and operating systems; the format supports up to 8 bits per pixel for each image, allowing a single image to reference its own palette of up to 256 different colors chosen from the 24-bit RGB color space. It supports animations and allows a separate palette of up to 256 colors for each frame; these palette limitations make GIF less suitable for reproducing color photographs and other images with color gradients, but it is well-suited for simpler images such as graphics or logos with solid areas of color. GIF images are compressed using the Lempel–Ziv–Welch lossless data compression technique to reduce the file size without degrading the visual quality; this compression technique was patented in 1985.
Controversy over the licensing agreement between the software patent holder and CompuServe in 1994 spurred the development of the Portable Network Graphics standard. By 2004 all the relevant patents had expired. CompuServe introduced GIF on June 15, 1987 to provide a color image format for their file downloading areas, replacing their earlier run-length encoding format, black and white only. GIF became popular because it used LZW data compression, more efficient than the run-length encoding that formats such as those used by PCX and MacPaint, large images could therefore be downloaded in a reasonably short time with slow modems; the original version of GIF was called 87a. In 1989, CompuServe released an enhanced version, called 89a, which added support for animation delays, transparent background colors, storage of application-specific metadata; the 89a specification supports incorporating text labels as text, but as there is little control over display fonts, this feature is not used. The two versions can be distinguished by looking at the first six bytes of the file, when interpreted as ASCII, read "GIF87a" and "GIF89a", respectively.
CompuServe encouraged the adoption of GIF by providing downloadable conversion utilities for many computers. By December 1987, for example, an Apple IIGS user could view pictures created on an Atari ST or Commodore 64. GIF was one of the first two image formats used on Web sites, the other being the black-and-white XBM. In September 1995 Netscape Navigator 2.0 added the ability for animated GIFs to loop. The feature of storing multiple images in one file, accompanied by control data, is used extensively on the Web to produce simple animations; the optional interlacing feature, which stores image scan lines out of order in such a fashion that a downloaded image was somewhat recognizable helped GIF's popularity, as a user could abort the download if it was not what was required. In May 2015 Facebook added support for GIF; as a noun, the word GIF is found in the newer editions of many dictionaries. In 2012, the American wing of the Oxford University Press recognized GIF as a verb as well, meaning "to create a GIF file", as in "GIFing was perfect medium for sharing scenes from the Summer Olympics".
The press's lexicographers voted it their word of the year, saying that GIFs have evolved into "a tool with serious applications including research and journalism". The creators of the format pronounced the word as "jif" with a soft "G" as in "gin". Steve Wilhite says that the intended pronunciation deliberately echoes the American peanut butter brand Jif, CompuServe employees would say "Choosy developers choose GIF", spoofing this brand's television commercials; the word is now widely pronounced with a hard "G" as in "gift". In 2017, an informal poll on programming website Stack Overflow showed some numerical preference for hard-"G" pronunciation among respondents in eastern Europe, though both soft-"G" and enunciating each letter individually were found to be popular in Asia and emerging countries; the American Heritage Dictionary cites both, indicating "jif" as the primary pronunciation, while Cambridge Dictionary of American English offers only the hard-"G" pronunciation. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary and the OED cite both pronunciations, but place "gif" in the default position.
The New Oxford American Dictionary gave only "jif" in its 2nd edition but updated it to "jif, gif" in its 3rd edition. The disagreement over the pronunciation led to heated Internet debate. On the occasion of receiving a lifetime achievement award at the 2013 Webby Award ceremony, Wilhite rejected the hard-"G" pronunciation, his speech led to 17,000 posts on Twitter and 50 news articles; the White House and TV program Jeopardy! entered the debate during 2013. GIFs are suitable for sharp-edged line art with a limited number of colors; this takes advantage of the format's lossless compression, which favors flat areas of uniform color with well defined edges. GIFs may be used to store low-color sprite data for games. GIFs can be used for low-resolution video clips. Conceptually, a GIF file describes a fixed-sized graphical area populated with zero or more "images". Many GIF files have a single image. Others divide the logical screen into separate sub-images; the images may function as animation frames in an animated GIF file, but again these need not fill the entire logical screen.
GIF files start with a fixed-length header ("GIF87a" o
Horse gaits are the various ways in which a horse can move, either or as a result of specialized training by humans. Gaits are categorized into two groups: the "natural" gaits that most horses will use without special training, the "ambling" gaits that are various smooth-riding four-beat footfall patterns that may appear in some individuals, but which occur only in certain breeds. Special training is required before a horse will perform an ambling gait in response to a rider's command. Another system of classification that applies to quadrupeds uses three categories: walking and ambling gaits, running or trotting gaits, leaping gaits; the British Horse Society Dressage Rules require competitors to perform four variations of the walk, six forms of the trot, five leaping gaits and rein back, but not the gallop. The British Horse Society Equitation examinations require proficiency in the gallop as distinct from the canter; the so-called "natural" gaits, in increasing order of speed, are the walk, trot and gallop.
Some consider these as three gaits, with the canter a variation of the gallop though the canter is distinguished by having three beats, whereas the gallop has four beats. All four gaits are seen in wild horse populations. While other intermediate speed gaits may occur to some horses, these four basic gaits occur in nature across all horse breeds. In some animals the trot is replaced by an ambling gait. Horses who possess an ambling gait are also able to trot; the walk is a four-beat gait. When walking, a horse's legs follow this sequence: left hind leg, left front leg, right hind leg, right front leg, in a regular 1-2-3-4 beat. At the walk, the horse will alternate between having two feet on the ground. A horse moves its neck in a slight up and down motion that helps maintain balance. In detail, suppose the horse starts by lifting its left front leg, it lifts its right hind leg. Next, the left front foot touches the ground, it lifts its left rear leg, puts down the front right, lifts the left front, puts down the rear left, the pattern repeats.
Ideally, the advancing rear hoof oversteps the spot where the advancing front hoof touched the ground. The more the rear hoof oversteps, the smoother and more comfortable the walk becomes. Individual horses and different breeds vary in the smoothness of their walk. However, a rider will always feel some degree of gentle side-to-side motion in the horse's hips as each hind leg reaches forward; the fastest "walks" with a four-beat footfall pattern are the lateral forms of ambling gaits such as the running walk and similar rapid but smooth intermediate speed gaits. If a horse begins to speed up and lose a regular four-beat cadence to its gait, the horse is no longer walking, but is beginning to either trot or pace; the trot is a two-beat gait that has a wide variation in possible speeds, but averages about 13 kilometres per hour. A slow trot is sometimes referred to as a jog. An fast trot has no special name, but in harness racing, the trot of a Standardbred is faster than the gallop of the average non-racehorse.
The North American speed record for a racing trot under saddle was measured at 48.68 kilometres per hour In this gait, the horse moves its legs in unison in diagonal pairs. From the standpoint of the balance of the horse, this is a stable gait, the horse need not make major balancing motions with its head and neck; the trot is the working gait for a horse. Despite what one sees in movies, horses can only canter and gallop for short periods at a time, after which they need time to rest and recover. Horses in good condition can maintain a working trot for hours; the trot is the main way horses travel from one place to the next. Depending on the horse and its speed, a trot can be difficult for a rider to sit because the body of the horse drops a bit between beats and bounces up again when the next set of legs strike the ground; each time another diagonal pair of legs hits the ground, the rider can be jolted upwards out of the saddle and meet the horse with some force on the way back down. Therefore, at most speeds above a jog in English riding disciplines, most riders post to the trot, rising up and down in rhythm with the horse to avoid being jolted.
Posting is easy on the horse's back, once mastered is easy on the rider. To not be jostled out of the saddle and to not harm the horse by bouncing on its back, riders must learn specific skills in order to sit the trot. Most riders can learn to sit a slow jog trot without bouncing. A skilled rider can ride a powerfully extended trot without bouncing, but to do so requires well-conditioned back and abdominal muscles, to do so for long periods is tiring for experienced riders. A fast, racing trot, such as that of the harness racing horse, is impossible to sit; because the trot is such a safe and efficient gait for a horse, learning to ride the trot is an important component in all equestrian disciplines. Nonetheless, "gaited" or "ambling" horses that possess smooth 4-beat intermediate gaits that replace or supplement the trot are popular with riders who prefer for various reasons
Koko the Clown
Koko the Clown is an animated character created by animation pioneer Max Fleischer. He first appeared as the main protagonist in Out of the Inkwell, a major animated series of the silent era. Throughout the series, he goes on many adventures with his canine companion “Fitz the Dog”, who would evolve into Bimbo in the Betty Boop cartoons; the character originated when Max Fleischer invented the Rotoscope, a device that allowed for animation to be more lifelike by tracing motion picture footage of human movement. The use of the clown character came after a search for an original character. Fleischer filmed his brother Dave in a clown costume. After tracing the film footage amounting to some 2,500 drawings and a year's work, the character that would become Koko the Clown was born, although he did not have a name until 1924. "The Clown"'s appearance. Dave's clown costume was inspired by one worn by Bessie McCoy, with the additions of a black ruffled collar replacing the big white bow, three pom-pom front buttons, a prominent cone-shaped cap with three pom-poms.
The white face with slit eyes was a design common among German circus clowns. Both costumes have white gloves with long fingers, white foot coverings, a hat with the same white pom-pom as in front. A 1922 sheet music drawing makes the connection more explicit, saying "Out of the Inkwell, the New Yama Yama Clown", with a picture of Koko; because of the realistic effects displayed in his sample films, the result of Fleischer's Rotoscope, a past relationship with John R. Bray, he was hired as production manager for John R. Bray Studios, in 1918 they began Out of the Inkwell as an entry in the Bray Pictograph Screen Magazine released through Paramount, Goldwyn. Aside from the novelty of the Rotoscoped animation, this series combined live-action and animation centered on Max Fleischer as the creative cartoonist and "Master" of "The Clown." "The Clown" would slip from Max's eye and go on an adventure, pull a prank on his creator. Fleischer wrote, animated the early shorts along with Roland Crandall, with Dave directing the live action filming, performing on camera as "The Clown" for Rotoscoping, assisted with the animation and Roto tracings.
The series was popular, in 1921 Max and Dave Fleischer formed their own studio, Out of the Inkwell Films, Inc. Their films were distributed through the States Rights method through Warner Brothers, Winkler Pictures and The Red Seal Pictures Corporation; the "Clown" was named Ko-Ko in 1924 when Dick Huemer came to the studio as their animation supervisor, having animated on the Mutt and Jeff series for eight years. He redesigned the "Clown" for more efficient animation production and moved the Fleischers away from their dependency upon the Rotoscope for fluid animation. Huemer created Fitz. Most Huemer set the drawing style that gave the series its distinctive look; the illustration at the heading is an example by Huemer. In the films produced from 1924 to 1927, the clown's name was hyphenated, "Ko-Ko"; the hyphen was dropped due to legal issues associated with the bankruptcy of the Fleischer's partnership company, The Red Seal Pictures Corporation. Alfred Weiss presented the Fleischers with a new Paramount contract beginning in mid-1927, "Out of the Inkwell" was retitled as "The Inkwell Imps".
The series continued for two years until July 1929, ending with "Chemical Koko." Due to alleged mismanagement under Alfred Weiss, the Inkwell Studios filed bankruptcy in January 1929, Koko was put into retirement for two years. In 1931, the legal entanglements regarding Koko were resolved, he returned to the screen beginning with "The Herring Murder Case" and became a regular in the new Fleischer Talkartoons series with costars, Betty Boop and Bimbo. Koko's last theatrical appearance was in the "Betty Boop" cartoon, "Ha! Ha! Ha!", a remake of an "Out of the Inkwell" silent, "The Cure". Koko's first color appearance was a cameo in Famous Studios' Screen Song, "Toys Will Be Toys,", one of the revived "Screen Songs" series produced by Famous Studios. In 1958, Max Fleischer set out to revive Out of the Inkwell for television, a series of 100 color episodes were produced in 1960–1961 by Hal Seeger using the voice talents of Larry Storch. Song Car-Tunes Animation in the United States during the silent era Golden age of American animation Crafton, Donald: Before Mickey: The Animated Film, 1898–1928.
University of Chicago Press. Maltin, Leonard: Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons. Penguin Books. Pointer, Ray: Max Fleischer's Famous Out of the Inkwell DVD. Inkwell Images. Pointer, Ray "The Search for Ko-Ko" http://www.traditionalanimation.com/2014/the-search-for-koko-the-clown/]] Pointer, Ray: The Art and Invention of Max Fleischer: American Animation Pioneer. McFarland & Co. Publishers
Chronophotography is an antique photographic technique from the Victorian era, which captures movement in several frames of print. These prints can be subsequently arranged either like animation cels or layered in a single frame, it is a predecessor to cinematography and moving film, involving a series of different cameras created and used for the scientific study of movement. Chronophotography is defined as "a set of photographs of a moving object, taken for the purpose of recording and exhibiting successive phases of motion"; the term chronophotography was coined by French physiologist Étienne-Jules Marey to describe photographs of movement from which measurements could be taken and motion could be studied. It is derived from the Greek word χρόνος chrónos combined with photography. Photography is an art and science, invented and developed beginning in the 1830s, it was used as a documentation device – for portraiture, historical moments, battles in war, so on. With how the technological and artistic world began to develop, new uses and ideas for the camera began to develop.
With the invention of the camera, art no longer had to capture life. The camera became the dominant source of accurate depiction of life; as the technology became more sophisticated, so did the activities for which people needed cameras. The earliest Daguerreotype photographers took multiple shots of a subject to increase their chances of obtaining a successful picture. Making multiple shots of one subject was a sensible solution when multiple pictures where needed, since Daguerreotypes could not be reproduced. At least from the early 1840s some photographers used multiple cameras, resulting in series of pictures with small differences in time and/or angle. However, changes in poses or angles between exposures were aimed at the most advantageous look for the model; those were not the slight and regular changes needed for a chronophotographic sequence. In 1844 Antoine Claudet exhibited some "portraits multiples" at l'Exposition, including a self portrait series of twelve pictures showing his face from the left side profile to the right side profile.
He had made the pictures in London in 1843 with a simple multiplier device that allowed successive exposures of parts of Daguerreotype plates in a short time. Claudet regarded these pictures as curious specimens of photography of little practical use and forgot about it. After the Mayer brothers patented a "multiplicateur" in 1850 Claudet contested the priority of their invention. In 1853 André-Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri popularized the multiplier through the mass production of cartes de visite; as early as the 1850s, some photographers were making “moving pictures” by taking photographs of a subject in a series of poses simulating phases of motion using various devices to display them one after the other in rapid succession. English instrument maker Francis Herbert Wenham would claim in 1895 that he had made a series of ten stereoscopic images to be viewed on two phenakistiscopes in 1852. In 1861 American engineer Coleman Sellers II received US patent No. 35,317 for the kinematoscope, a device that exhibited "stereoscopic pictures as to make them represent objects in motion".
In his application he stated: "This has been done with plane pictures but has never been, with stereoscopic pictures". He used three sets of stereoscopic photographs in a sequence with some duplicates to regulate the flow of a simple repetitive motion, but described a system for large series of pictures of complicated motion. A pixilation type of photography was necessary because the photographic materials available at that time were not sensitive enough to permit the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. Improvements in the sensitivity of photographic emulsions made real-time chronophotography possible. In 1872, Leland Stanford, former governor of California and horse enthusiast, hired Eadweard Muybridge to provide photographic proof that at some instants a galloping horse has all four hooves off the ground. Muybridge lined part of a racecourse with a row of cameras that had shutters connected to a series of tripwires photographed a horse against a white background as it galloped past.
One of the resulting silhouette photographs provided the desired proof. In the decade, with the benefit of more sensitive photographic plates, he obtained improved results. Muybridge arranged such sequences of photographs in order around the inner surface of a zoetrope. Muybridge's first chronophotographic sequence is known as Sallie Gardner at a Gallop; the images of the horse caused astonishment to the public, as no one had seen such precise documentation of the movement of the animal. Muybridge was subsequently commissioned to photograph a variety of other moving subjects. In 1878, Albert Londe was hired as a medical photographer by neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot. Londe used a camera with nine lenses and intricate timing system to study the physical and muscular movements of patients. Over time Londe refined this system to be able to take a sequence of twelve pictures in as little as a tenth of a second. Physicist Étienne-Jules Marey began using the technique to more study movement and exercise.
He soon discovered that by overlapping celluloid prints on top of one another, he was able to see phases of movement and study their relations to each other in a single frame. Georges Demeny, Marey’s assistant, developed further applications for the reproduction o
Chromolithography is a unique method for making multi-colour prints. This type of colour printing stemmed from the process of lithography, includes all types of lithography that are printed in colour; when chromolithography is used to reproduce photographs, the term photochrome is used. Lithographers sought to find a way to print on flat surfaces with the use of chemicals instead of raised relief or recessed intaglio techniques. Chromolithography became the most successful of several methods of colour printing developed by the 19th century. Hand-colouring remained important; the initial technique involved the use of multiple lithographic stones, one for each colour, was still expensive when done for the best quality results. Depending on the number of colours present, a chromolithograph could take very skilled workers months to produce; however much cheaper prints could be produced by simplifying both the number of colours used, the refinement of the detail in the image. Cheaper images, like advertisements, relied on an initial black print, on which colours were overprinted.
To make an expensive reproduction print as what was once referred to as a "chromo", a lithographer, with a finished painting in front of him created and corrected the many stones using proofs to look as much as possible like the painting, sometimes using dozens of layers. Chromolithography is a chemical process; the process is based on the rejection of grease by water. The image is applied to stone, grained zinc or aluminium surfaces, with a grease-based crayon or ink. Limestone and zinc are two used materials in the production of chromolithographs, as aluminium corrodes easily. After the image is drawn onto one of these surfaces, the image is gummed-up with a gum arabic solution and weak nitric acid to desensitize the surface. Before printing, the image is proved before inking up the image with oil based transfer or printing ink; the inked image under pressure is transposed onto a sheet of paper using a flat-bed press. This describes the direct form of printing; the offset indirect method uses a rubber-covered cylinder that transfers the image from printing surface to the paper.
Colours may be overprinted by using additional stones or plates to achieve a closer reproduction of the original. Accurate registration for multi-coloured work is achieved by the use of a key outline image and registration bars which are applied to each stone or plate before drawing the solid or tone image. Ben-Day medium uses a raised gelatin stipple image to give tone gradation. An air-brush sprays ink to give soft edges; these are just two methods used to achieve gradations of tone. The use of twelve overprinted colours would not be considered unusual; each sheet of paper will therefore pass through the printing press as many times as there are colours in the final print. In order that each colour is placed in the right position, each stone or plate must be precisely'registered,' or lined up, on the paper using a system of register marks. Chromolithographs are considered to be reproductions that are smaller than double demi, are of finer quality than lithographic drawings which are concerned with large posters.
Autolithographs are prints where the artist draws and prints his or her own limited number of reproductions. This is the true lithographic art form. Alois Senefelder, the inventor of lithography, introduced the subject of colored lithography in his 1818 Vollstaendiges Lehrbuch der Steindruckerey, where he told of his plans to print using colour and explained the colours he wished to be able to print someday. Although Senefelder recorded plans for chromolithography, printers in other countries, such as France and England, were trying to find a new way to print in colour. Godefroy Engelmann of Mulhouse in France was awarded a patent on chromolithography in July 1837, but there are disputes over whether chromolithography was in use before this date, as some sources say, pointing to areas of printing such as the production of playing cards; the first American chromolithograph—a portrait of Reverend F. W. P. Greenwood—was created by William Sharp in 1840. Many of the chromolithographs were purchased in urban areas.
The paintings were used as decoration in American parlours as well as for decoration within middle-class homes. They were prominent after the Civil War because of their low production costs and ability to be mass-produced, because the methods allowed pictures to look more like hand-painted oil paintings. Production costs were only low if the chromolithographs were cheaply produced, but top-quality chromos were costly to produce because of the necessary months of work and the thousands of dollars worth of equipment that had to be used. Although chromos could be mass-produced, it took about three months to draw colours onto the stones and another five months to print a thousand copies. Chromolithographs became so popular in American culture that the era has been labeled as "chromo civilization". Over time, during the Victorian era, chromolithographs populated children's and fine arts publications, as well as advertising art, in trade cards and posters, they were once used for advertisements, popular prints, medical or scientific books.
Though chromolithographs served many uses within society at the time, many were opposed to the idea of them because of their perceived lack of authenticity. The new forms of art were sometimes tagged as "
Nuremberg is the second-largest city of the German federal state of Bavaria after its capital Munich, its 511,628 inhabitants make it the 14th largest city in Germany. On the Pegnitz River and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it lies in the Bavarian administrative region of Middle Franconia, is the largest city and the unofficial capital of Franconia. Nuremberg forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring cities of Fürth and Schwabach with a total population of 787,976, while the larger Nuremberg Metropolitan Region has 3.5 million inhabitants. The city lies about 170 kilometres north of Munich, it is the largest city in the East Franconian dialect area. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, with 39,780 students Bavaria's third and Germany's 11th largest university with campuses in Erlangen and Nuremberg and a university hospital in Erlangen. Nuremberg Airport is the second-busiest airport of Bavaria after Munich Airport, the tenth-busiest airport of Germany.
Staatstheater Nürnberg is one of the five Bavarian state theatres, showing operas, operettas and ballets, plays, as well as concerts. Its orchestra, Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg, is Bavaria's second-largest opera orchestra after the Bavarian State Opera's Bavarian State Orchestra in Munich. Nuremberg is the birthplace of Johann Pachelbel. Nuremberg was the site of major Nazi rallies, it provided the site for the Nuremberg trials, which held to account many major Nazi officials; the first documentary mention of the city, in 1050, mentions Nuremberg as the location of an Imperial castle between the East Franks and the Bavarian March of the Nordgau. From 1050 to 1571 the city expanded and rose in importance due to its location on key trade-routes. King Conrad III established the Burgraviate of Nuremberg, with the first burgraves coming from the Austrian House of Raab. With the extinction of their male line around 1190, the last Raabs count's son-in-law, Frederick I from the House of Hohenzollern, inherited the burgraviate in 1192.
From the late 12th century to the Interregnum, the power of the burgraves diminished as the Hohenstaufen emperors transferred most non-military powers to a castellan, with the city administration and the municipal courts handed over to an Imperial mayor from 1173/74. The strained relations between the burgraves and the castellans, with gradual transferral of powers to the latter in the late 14th and early 15th centuries broke out into open enmity, which influenced the history of the city. Nuremberg is referred to as the "unofficial capital" of the Holy Roman Empire because the Imperial Diet and courts met at Nuremberg Castle; the Diets of Nuremberg played an important role in the administration of the empire. The increasing demands of the Imperial court and the increasing importance of the city attracted increased trade and commerce in Nuremberg. In 1219 Emperor Frederick II granted the Großen Freiheitsbrief, including town rights, Imperial immediacy, the privilege to mint coins, an independent customs policy - wholly removing the city from the purview of the burgraves.
Nuremberg soon became, with Augsburg, one of the two great trade-centers on the route from Italy to Northern Europe. In 1298 the Jews of the town were falsely accused of having desecrated the host, 698 of them were killed in one of the many Rintfleisch massacres. Behind the massacre of 1298 was the desire to combine the northern and southern parts of the city, which were divided by the Pegnitz; the Jews of the German lands suffered many massacres during the plague years of the mid-14th century. In 1349 Nuremberg's Jews suffered a pogrom, they were burned at the stake or expelled, a marketplace was built over the former Jewish quarter. The plague returned to the city in 1405, 1435, 1437, 1482, 1494, 1520 and 1534; the largest growth of Nuremberg occurred in the 14th century. Charles IV's Golden Bull of 1356, naming Nuremberg as the city where newly elected kings of Germany must hold their first Imperial Diet, made Nuremberg one of the three most important cities of the Empire. Charles was the patron of the Frauenkirche, built between 1352 and 1362, where the Imperial court worshipped during its stays in Nuremberg.
The royal and Imperial connection grew stronger in 1423 when the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg granted the Imperial regalia to be kept permanently in Nuremberg, where they remained until 1796, when the advance of French troops required their removal to Regensburg and thence to Vienna. In 1349 the members of the guilds unsuccessfully rebelled against the patricians in a Handwerkeraufstand, supported by merchants and some by councillors, leading to a ban on any self-organisation of the artisans in the city, abolishing the guilds that were customary elsewhere in Europe.