John Galsworthy was an English novelist and playwright. Notable works include A Modern Comedy and End of the Chapter, he won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1932. Galsworthy was born at what is now known as Galsworthy House on Kingston Hill in Surrey, the son of John and Blanche Bailey Galsworthy, his family was prosperous and well established, with a large property in Kingston upon Thames, now the site of three schools: Marymount International School, Rokeby Preparatory School, Holy Cross Preparatory School. He attended New College, Oxford, he took a Second in Law at Oxford in 1889 trained as a barrister and was called to the bar in 1890. However, he was not keen to begin practising law and instead travelled abroad to look after the family's shipping business. During these travels he met Joseph Conrad the first mate of a sailing-ship moored in the harbour of Adelaide and the two future novelists became close friends. In 1895 Galsworthy began an affair with Ada Nemesis Pearson Cooper, the wife of his cousin Major Arthur Galsworthy.
After her divorce ten years they were married on 23 September 1905 and stayed together until his death in 1933. Before their marriage, they stayed clandestinely in a farmhouse called Wingstone in the village of Manaton on Dartmoor, Devon. In 1908 Galsworthy took a long lease on part of the building and it was their regular second home until 1923. From the Four Winds, a collection of short stories, was Galsworthy's first published work in 1897; these and several subsequent works were published under the pen name of John Sinjohn, it was not until The Island Pharisees that he began publishing under his own name owing to the recent death of his father. His first full-length novel, was published in an edition of 750 under the name of John Sinjohn—he refused to have it republished, his first play, The Silver Box,—in which the theft of a prostitute's purse by a rich'young man of good family' is placed beside the theft of a silver cigarette case from the rich man's father's house by'a poor devil', with different repercussions, though justice was done in each case—became a success, he followed it up with The Man of Property, the first book of a Forsyte trilogy.
Although he continued writing both plays and novels, it was as a playwright that he was appreciated at the time. Along with those of other writers of the period, such as George Bernard Shaw, his plays addressed the class system and other social issues, two of the best known being Strife and The Skin Game, he is now far better known for his novels The Forsyte Saga, his trilogy about the eponymous family and connected lives. These books, as with many of his other works, deal with social class, upper-middle class lives in particular. Although sympathetic to his characters, he highlights their insular and acquisitive attitudes and their suffocating moral codes, he is viewed as one of the first writers of the Edwardian era who challenged some of the ideals of society depicted in the preceding literature of Victorian England. The depiction of a woman in an unhappy marriage furnishes another recurring theme in his work; the character of Irene in The Forsyte Saga is drawn from Ada Pearson, though her previous marriage was not as miserable as that of the character.
Through his writings Galsworthy campaigned for a variety of causes, including prison reform, women's rights, animal welfare, against censorship. During the First World War he worked in a hospital in France as an orderly, after being passed over for military service, in 1917 turned down a knighthood, for which he was nominated by Prime Minister David Lloyd George, on the precept that a writer's reward comes from writing itself. In 1921 he was elected as the first president of the PEN International literary club and was appointed to the Order of Merit in 1929. Galsworthy was awarded the 1932 Nobel Prize for Literature, having been nominated that same year by Henrik Schück, a member of the Swedish Academy, he was too ill to attend the Nobel Prize presentation ceremony on December 10, 1932, died seven weeks later. Galsworthy lived for the final seven years of his life at Bury in West Sussex, he died from a brain tumour at Grove Lodge, Hampstead. In accordance with his will he was cremated at Woking, with his ashes being scattered over the South Downs from an aeroplane, but there are memorials to him in Highgate'New' Cemetery and in the cloisters of New College, cut by Eric Gill.
The popularity of his fiction waned after his death but the hugely successful television adaptation of The Forsyte Saga in 1967 renewed interest in his work. A number of John Galsworthy's letters and papers are held at the University of Birmingham Special Collections. In 2007, Kingston University opened a new building named in recognition of his local birth. Galsworthy Road in Kingston, the location of Kingston Hospital, is named for him. Galsworthy's sister Lilian was married to the German painter and lithographer Georg Sauter from 1894. With the beginning of World War I Sauter was interned as an enemy alien at Alexandra Palace and expelled, their son Rudolf Sauter was a painter and graphic artist, who among other things, illustrated the works of his uncle. The Forsyte Saga has been filmed several times: That Forsyte Woman, dir. by Compton Bennett, an MGM adaptation in which Errol Flynn played a rare villainous role as Soames. BBC television drama, directed by James Cellan Jones, David Giles, starring Eric Porter, Nyree Dawn Porte
A street light, light pole, street lamp, light standard, or lamp standard is a raised source of light on the edge of a road or path. When urban electric power distribution became ubiquitous in developed countries in the 20th century, lights for urban streets followed, or sometimes led. Many lamps have light-sensitive photocells that activate automatically when light is or is not needed: dusk, dawn, or the onset of dark weather; this function in older lighting systems could have been performed with the aid of a solar dial. Many street light systems are being connected underground instead of wiring from one utility post to another. Early lamps were used by Greek and Roman civilizations, where light served the purpose of security, both to protect the wanderer from tripping on the path over something or keeping the potential robbers at bay. At that time oil lamps were used predominantly as they provided a moderate flame; the Romans had a word'laternarius', a term for a slave responsible for lighting the oil lamps in front of their villas.
The use of street lighting was first recorded in the city of Antioch from the 4th century. It was recorded in the Caliphate of Córdoba from the 9th–10th centuries in Cordova. In the Middle Ages, so-called "link boys" escorted people from one place to another through the murky winding streets of medieval towns. Before incandescent lamps, candle lighting was employed in cities; the earliest lamps required that a lamplighter tour the town at dusk. According to some sources, illumination was ordered in London in 1417 by Sir Henry Barton, Mayor of London though there is no firm evidence of this. In 1524, Paris house owners were required to have lanterns with candles lit in front of their houses at night, but the law was ignored. Following the invention of lanterns with glass windows, which improved the quantity of light, in 1594 the police of Paris took charge of installing lanterns in each city neighborhood. Still, in 1662, it was a common practice for travelers to hire a lantern-bearer if they had to move at night through the dark, winding streets.
Lantern bearers were still common in Paris until 1789. In 1667, under King Louis XIV, the royal government began installing lanterns on all the streets. There were three thousand in place by 1669, twice as many by 1729. Lanterns with glass windows were suspended from a cord over the middle of the street at a height of twenty feet and were placed twenty yards apart. A much-improved oil lantern, called a réverbère, was introduced between 1745 and 1749; these lamps were attached to the top of lampposts. During the French Revolution, the revolutionaries found that the lampposts were a convenient place to hang aristocrats and other opponents; the first widespread system of street lighting used piped coal gas as fuel. Stephen Hales was the first person who procured a flammable fluid from the actual distillation of coal in 1726 and John Clayton, in 1735, called gas the "spirit" of coal and discovered its flammability by accident. William Murdoch was the first to use this gas for the practical application of lighting.
In the early 1790s, while overseeing the use of his company's steam engines in tin mining in Cornwall, Murdoch began experimenting with various types of gas settling on coal-gas as the most effective. He first lit his own house in Redruth, Cornwall in 1792. In 1798, he used gas to light the main building of the Soho Foundry and in 1802 lit the outside in a public display of gas lighting, the lights astonishing the local population. In Paris, gas lighting was first demonstrated in November 1800 at a private residence on the rue Saint-Dominique, was installed on a covered shopping street, the Passage des Panoramas, in 1817; the First gas lamps on the streets of Paris appeared in January 1829 on the place du Carrousel and the rue de Rivoli on rue de la Paix, place Vendôme, rue de Castiglione. A Parisian writer enthused in August, 1857: "That which most enchants the Parisians is the new lighting by gas of the boulevards... From the church of the Madeleine all the way to rue Montmartre, these two rows of lamps, shining with a clarity white and pure, have a marvelous effect."
The gaslights installed on the boulevards and city monuments in the 19th century gave the city the nickname "The City of Light." The first public street lighting with gas was demonstrated in Pall Mall, London on 28 January 1807 by Frederick Albert Winsor. In 1812, Parliament granted a charter to the London and Westminster Gas Light and Coke Company, the first gas company in the world came into being. Less than two years on 31 December 1813, the Westminster Bridge was lit by gas. Following this success, gas lighting spread to other countries; the use of gas lights in Rembrandt Peale's Museum in Baltimore in 1816 was a great success. Baltimore was the first American city with gas streetlights, provided by Peale's Gas Light Company of Baltimore; the first place outside London in England to have gas lighting, was Preston, Lancashire in 1816, this was due to the Preston Gaslight Company run by revolutionary Joseph Dunn, who found the most improved way of brighter gas lighting. Oil-gas appeared in the field as a rival of coal-gas.
In 1815, John Taylor patented an apparatus for the decomposition of "oil" and other animal substances. Public attention was attracted to "oil-gas" by the display of the patent apparatus at Apothecary's Hall, by Taylor & Martineau; the first modern street lamps to use kerosene were introduced in Lviv in what was the Austrian Empire in 1853. In Brest, street lighting with kerosene lamps reappeared in 2009 in the shoppi
John Stanley Melville Keay FRGS known as John Keay, is a British historian, radio presenter and lecturer specialising in popular histories of India, the Far East and China with a particular focus on their colonisation and exploration by Europeans. In particular, he is seen as a pre-eminent historian of British India, he is known both for stylistic flair and meticulous research into archival primary sources, including centuries-old unpublished sources. The author of over some twenty-five books, he writes for a number of prominent publications in Britain and Asia, he began his career with The Economist. He has received several major honours including the Sir Percy Sykes Memorial Medal; the Economist has called him "a gifted non-academic historian", the Yorkshire Post has called him "one of our most outstanding historians", The Independent has called his writing "exquisite" and The Guardian has described his historical analysis as "forensic" and his writing as "restrained yet powerful". He is a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.
Keay travels widely. John Keay was born on 18 September 1941 in Barnstaple, England, to parents of Scottish origin, his father Stanley Walter Keay was a master mariner and his mother Florence Jessie née Keeping was a housewife. He studied at Ampleforth College in York before going on to read Modern History at Magdalen College, where he earned high honours. Among his teachers at Oxford were the historian A. J. P. Taylor and the future playwright Alan Bennett. In 1965 he visited India for the first time, he went to Kashmir for a fortnight's trout-fishing and liked it so much that he returned the following year, this time for six months. It was during his second stay in Kashmir. From India, he sent unsolicited articles to many British magazines and newspapers and joined the staff of The Economist and returned to India as its political correspondent, he started contributing stories to BBC Radio. In 1971 he gave up his correspondent's job to write his first book, Into India, published in 1973. Keay followed it with two volumes about the European exploration of the Western Himalayas in the 19th century: When Men and Mountains Meet and The Gilgit Game.
These two books were combined into a single-volume paperback by John Murray. Alexander Gardner, the American adventurer and mercenary employed by the Sikh Empire, featured in Keay's 1977 and 1979 books, is the sole focus of his latest book, The Tartan Turban: In Search of Alexander Gardner, released in 2017. In the 1980s he worked for BBC Radio as a writer and presenter, made several documentary series for BBC Radio 3, he made programmes for BBC Radio 4. During this time he wrote India Discovered, the story of how British colonialists came to find out about the great artefacts of Indian culture and architecture. John Keay's major books have all received strong positive reviews in leading publications in the UK, US, Asia and elsewhere; the professional recognition he has received has included the following: Fellow, Royal Geographical Society, UK. Sir Percy Sykes Memorial Medal of the Royal Society for Asian Affairs, UK. Fellow, Royal Conservatoire of Scotland. Fellow, University of Dundee, Scotland.
His late first wife Julia Keay, née Atkins, was a successful writer and historian. She was the daughter of the politician Humphrey Atkins; the historian Anna Keay is the daughter and second child of Julia Keay. John Keay has three other children with Julia Keay: Alexander and Samuel; the architectural historian Simon Thurley is his son-in-law. John Keay is married since 2015 to Amanda Keay of a journalist. Among his relatives, Keay had an uncle, an Indian Civil Service officer in British India. Into India, ISBN 0-7195-2918-2 When Men and Mountains Meet: The Explorers of the Western Himalayas, 1820–75, ISBN 0-7195-3334-1 The Gilgit Game: The Explorers of the Western Himalayas, 1865–95, ISBN 0-7195-3569-7 India Discovered: The Achievement of the British Raj, ISBN 0-7112-0047-5 Eccentric Travellers, ISBN 0-7195-3868-8 Highland Drove, ISBN 0-7195-4105-0 Explorers Extraordinary, ISBN 0-7195-4249-9 The Royal Geographical Society History of World Exploration, ISBN 0-600-56819-9 The Honourable Company: A History of the English East India Company, ISBN 0-00-217515-0 The Robinson Book of Exploration, ISBN 1-85487-240-0 Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland, ISBN 0-00-255082-2 Indonesia: From Sabang to Merauke, ISBN 1-85283-545-1 Last Post: The End of Empire in the Far East, ISBN 0-7195-5346-6 India: A History.
New York City: Grove Press. 2000. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0; the Great Arc: The Dramatic Tale of How India Was Mapped and Everest Was Named, ISBN 0-00-257062-9 Sowing the Wind: The Seeds of Conflict in the Middle East, ISBN 0-7195-5583-3 The Spice Route: A History, ISBN 0-7195-6198-1 Mad About the Mekong: Exploration and Empire in South East Asia, ISBN 0-00-711113-4 China: A History, ISBN 978-0-00-722177-6 The London Encyclopaedia, Ben Weinreb & Christopher Hibbert, Julia & John Keay with original photography by Matthew Weinreb, Macmillan Publishers, 3rd Revised edition 2008, ISBN 978-1-4050-4924-5 The Tartan Turban: In Search of Alexander Gardner, (
The First Great Train Robbery
The First Great Train Robbery, released in the United States as The Great Train Robbery, is a 1978 British crime film directed by Michael Crichton, who wrote the screenplay based on his novel The Great Train Robbery. The film stars Sean Connery, Donald Sutherland, Lesley-Anne Down. In 1855 Edward Pierce, a charismatic member of London's high society, is secretly a master thief, he plans to steal a monthly shipment of gold from the London to Folkestone train, meant as payment for British troops fighting in the Crimean War. The gold is guarded in two heavy safes in the baggage car, each of which has two locks, requiring a total of four keys. Pierce recruits a pickpocket and screwsman. Pierce's mistress Miriam and his chauffeur Barlow join the plot, a train guard, Burgess, is bribed into participation; the executives of the bank who arrange the gold transport, the manager Mr. Henry Fowler and the president Mr. Edgar Trent, each possess a key. In order to hide the robbers' intentions, wax impressions are to be made of each of the keys.
Pierce ingratiates himself with Trent by feigning a shared interest in ratting. He begins courting Trent's spinster daughter and learns from her the location of her father's key. Pierce and Agar break into Trent's home at night, manage to locate the hidden key and make a wax impression before making a clean getaway despite a close call with the butler. Pierce targets Fowler through his weakness for prostitutes. Miriam reluctantly poses as "Madame Lucienne", a high-class courtesan in an exclusive bordello. Miriam asks him to undress, forcing him to remove the key worn round his neck. While Fowler is distracted by Miriam, Agar makes an impression of his key. Pierce stages a phony police raid to rescue Miriam, forcing Fowler to flee to avoid a scandal; the keys at the train station prove a much harder challenge. After a daytime diversionary tactic with a child pickpocket fails because Agar cannot wax them in the time available, Pierce decides to "crack the crib" at night; the whole operation is a matter of timing, because the officer guarding the railway office at night leaves his post only once, for seventy-five seconds.
Pierce plans to use "snakesman" Clean Willy to climb the station's wall, climb down into the station, enter the office via a small hatch in the office ceiling, open the office door and the key cabinet from within. Because Clean Willy is incarcerated at Newgate Prison and Agar first have to arrange for him to break out, using a public execution as a distraction. With Willy's help, the criminals succeed in taking wax impressions of the keys without detection. Clean Willy informs on Pierce; the police use Willy to lure Pierce into a trap, but the master cracksman eludes capture. Clean Willy is murdered by Barlow on Pierce's orders; the authorities, now aware that the robbery is imminent, increase security by having the baggage car padlocked from the outside until the train arrives at its destination and forbidding passengers to travel in the guard's van. Any container large enough to hold a man must be opened and inspected before it is loaded on the train. Pierce smuggles Agar into the baggage car disguised as a corpse in a coffin.
Pierce plans to reach the car across the coach roofs while the train is under way, but he and Miriam encounter Fowler, riding the train to Folkestone to watch over the shipment. After arranging for Miriam to travel in the same compartment as Fowler to divert his attention, Pierce crosses the roof of the train and unlocks the baggage van's door from the outside, he and Agar replace the gold with lead bars and toss the bags of gold off the train at a prearranged point. However, soot from the engine's smoke has stained Pierce's skin and clothes and he is forced to borrow Agar's suit, much too small for him; the jacket splits across the back. The police become suspicious and arrest him before he can rejoin his accomplices. Pierce is put on trial for the robbery; as he exits the courthouse, he receives the adulation of the crowds, who consider him a folk hero for his daring act. In the commotion, a disguised Miriam kisses him full on the mouth, in the process slipping a key to his handcuffs from her mouth to his.
Agar is present, disguised as a police van driver. As Pierce is about to be put into the wagon, he frees himself and he and Agar escape, to the jubilation of the crowd and the chagrin of the police. Film rights to the novel were bought in 1975 by Dino de Laurentiis. In 1977 it was announced the film would be made in Ireland by American International Pictures with Sean Connery and Jacqueline Bisset. Crichton deliberately varied the film from his book, he said "the book was straight, factual but the movie is going to be close to farce."Sean Connery turned down the film after reading the script, judging it "too heavy." He was asked to reconsider, read the original novel, met Crichton, changed his mind. Sean Connery performed most of his own stunts in the film, including the extended sequence on top of the moving train; the train was composed of J-15 class 0-6-0 No 184 of 1880, with its wheels and side rods covered and roof removed, leaving only spectacle plate for protection to give it a look more akin to the 1850s and coaches that were made for the film from modern railway flat wagons.
Connery was told that the train would travel at only 20 miles per hour
The Household Cavalry is made up of the two most senior regiments of the British Army, the Life Guards and the Blues and Royals. These regiments are divided between the Armoured Regiment stationed at Combermere Barracks in Windsor and the ceremonial mounted unit, the Household Cavalry Mounted Regiment, garrisoned at Hyde Park Barracks in London; the Household Cavalry is the Queen's official bodyguard. The British Household Cavalry is classed as a corps in its own right, consists of two regiments: the Life Guards and the Blues and Royals, they are the senior regular regiments in the British Army, with traditions dating from 1660, act as the Queen's personal bodyguard. They are guards regiments and, with the five foot guard regiments, help constitute the seven guards regiments of the Household Division; the Household Cavalry as a whole is split into two different units that fulfil distinct roles. These are both joint units. Like other Cavalry formations, the Household Cavalry is divided into squadrons.
The whole corps is under the command of the Commander Household Cavalry, who holds the Royal Household appointment of Silver Stick in Waiting. He is a Colonel, is assisted by a retired lieutenant colonel as Regimental Adjutant; the current Commander is Colonel S H Cowen RHG/D. The first unit is the Household Cavalry Regiment, it has an active operational role as a Formation Reconnaissance Regiment, serving in armoured fighting vehicles, which has seen them at the forefront of the nation's conflicts. The regiment serves as part of the Royal Armoured Corps, forms one of five formation reconnaissance regiments in the British Army's order of battle; the HCR has four operational squadrons, three of which are traditional medium reconnaissance squadrons equipped with the combat vehicle reconnaissance or CVR range of vehicles and the fourth is referred to as Command and Support Squadron and includes specialists, such as Forward Air Controllers. One of HCR's squadrons is assigned to the airborne role with 16 Air Assault Brigade as of 2003.
The Regiment is based at Combermere Barracks, one mile from Windsor Castle. The men of the Household Division have sometimes been required to undertake special tasks as the Sovereign’s personal troops; the Household Cavalry were called to Windsor Castle on 20 November 1992 to assist with salvage operations following the'Great Fire'. The second unit is the Household Cavalry Mounted Regiment, horsed and carries out mounted ceremonial duties on State and Royal occasions; these include the provision of a Sovereign's Escort, most seen on The Queen's Birthday Parade in June each year. Other occasions include state visits by visiting heads of state, or whenever required by the British monarch; the regiment mounts the guard at Horse Guards. HCMR consists of one squadron from The Life Guards, one from The Blues and Royals and a squadron called Headquarters Squadron, responsible for all administrative matters and includes the regimental headquarters, the Riding Staff, Farriers and Saddlers; the Regiment has been based at Hyde Park Barracks, since 1795.
This is three-quarters of a mile from Buckingham Palace. New troopers and officers are first assigned to London upon completion of horsemanship training and remain there for up to three years. Like the five Foot Guards regiments they rotate between ceremonial duties. Second Lieutenants in The Blues and Royals are known as Cornets; the rank names and insignia of non-commissioned officers in the Household Cavalry are unique in the British Army: Formerly, sergeant was an infantry rank: no cavalry regiment had sergeants. Only the Household Cavalry now maintains this tradition because sergeant derives from the Latin serviens and members of the Household Cavalry, once drawn from the gentry and aristocracy, could not abide such a title. However, this origin may be apocryphal, since serjeant was a title used by some offices of comparative seniority, such as Serjeants at Arms, Serjeants at Law. Recruits were required to have a high moral character. Before the Second World War, recruits were required to be at least 5 feet 10 inches tall, but could not exceed 6 feet 1 inch.
They enlisted for eight years with the colours and a further four years with the reserve. There is a farrier on call "round the clock, twenty-four hours a day, at Hyde Park Barracks". Farriers traditionally combined veterinary knowledge with blacksmiths' skills, they were responsible for fitting horseshoes to horses. They dealt with the "humane dispatch of wounded and sick horses", accomplished with the large spike on the end of their axes, they used the sharp blade of the axe to chop off the deceased animal's hoof, marked with its regimental number. This assisted in keeping track of animals killed in action. Although the axes are not used any more, army farriers still carry these axes, with their characteristic blade and spike, at ceremonial events such as Trooping the Colour. In the Blues and Royals, the farriers dress like their comrades in regimental uniform; the distinctive uniform and equipment of the farriers of the Life Guards—blue tunic, black plume and axe—is a historic reminder of the old British Army of the days of James Wolfe.
Every cavalry regiment in the Army, other than the
Rottenrow is a famous street in the city of Glasgow in Scotland. It is located at Townhead, in the northern periphery of the city centre, is located within the John Anderson Campus of the University of Strathclyde. Rottenrow dates back to the city's medieval beginnings, once connected the historic High Street to the northern reaches of what is now the Cowcaddens area; the origin of the street's name is subject to debate. Some believe that it is derived from the Gaelic phrase Rat-an-righ, which translates as "Road Of The Kings" - in relation to its close proximity to Glasgow Cathedral; however "Rotten Row" is a common street name in villages throughout England and Scotland. It describes a place where there was once a row of tumbledown cottages infested with rats and goes back to the 14th century or earlier; the street became dissected and realigned by the exponential growth of Glasgow's city centre during the Industrial Revolution, was home to a large amount of tenement housing, much of which had deteriorated into a slum by the middle of the 20th century.
Following the Bruce Report in 1945, Townhead was made one of many Comprehensive Development Areas, which saw all of the slums cleared and the area rezoned for educational use in preparation for the former Royal College of Science and Technology’s growth into a university. Rottenrow is best known however as the address of the Glasgow Royal Maternity Hospital, founded in 1834, became a world-renowned centre of excellence in gynaecology for over 100 years; the Maternity Hospital building had become inadequate by the end of the 20th century, had fallen into a state of serious disrepair. In 2001, the hospital moved into an extension to nearby Glasgow Royal Infirmary, the building was purchased by the University of Strathclyde and subsequently demolished; the site was redeveloped by the University into a public park designed by Gross Max landscape architects. Known as Rottenrow Gardens, the centrepiece of the park is George Wyllie's'Monument to Maternity', a sculpture depicting a giant metal nappy pin.
The front and side porticos and basement walls of the Maternity Hospital were preserved, incorporated into the design of the park. Rottenrow Gardens was opened on 25 June 2004 as part of the University's 40th anniversary celebrations by the Lord Provost of Glasgow, Councillor Liz Cameron; some elements of the park will be permanent, others being temporary in anticipation of future Strathclyde campus expansion and renewal
Hyde Park Corner
Hyde Park Corner is an area in London, located around a major road junction at the southeastern corner of Hyde Park, designed by Decimus Burton. Six streets converge at the junction: Park Lane, Constitution Hill, Grosvenor Place, Grosvenor Crescent and Knightsbridge. Hyde Park Corner tube station, a London Underground station served by the Piccadilly line, is located at the junction, as are a number of notable monuments. To the north of the junction is Apsley House, the home of the first Duke of Wellington. During the second half of the 1820s, the Commissioners of Woods and Forests and the King resolved that Hyde Park, the area around it, must be renovated to the extent of the splendor of rival European capital cities, that the essence of the new arrangement would be a triumphal approach to Buckingham Palace, completed; the committee of the project, led by the Prime Minister, Lord Liverpool, advised by Charles Arbuthnot, President of the Board of Commissioners of Woods and Forests, selected Decimus Burton as the project's architect: in 1828, when giving evidence to a Parliamentary Select Committee on the Government's spending on public works, Arbuthnot explained that he had nominated Burton'having seen in the Regent's Park, elsewhere, works which pleased my eye, from their architectural beauty and correctness'.
Burton intended to create an urban space dedicated to the celebration of the House of Hanover, national pride, the nation's heroes. The renovation of Hyde Park, Green Park, St James's Park, began, in 1825, with the demarcation of new drives and pathways, subsequent to which Burton designed new lodges and gates, viz. Cumberland Gate, Stanhope Gate, Grosvenor Gate, the Hyde Park Gate/Screen at Hyde Park Corner, the Prince of Wales's Gate, Knightsbridge, in the classical style. There were no authoritative precedents for such buildings, which required windows and chimney stacks, in the classical style, and, in the words of Guy Williams,'Burton's reticent treatment of the supernumerary features' and of the cast iron gates and railings, was'greatly admired'. At Hyde Park Corner, the King required that'some great ceremonial outwork that would be worthy of the new palace that lay to its rear', accepted Burton's consequent proposal for a sequence comprising a gateway and a classical screen, a triumphal arch, which would enable those approaching Buckingham Palace from the north to ride or drive first through the screen and through the arch, before turning left to descend Constitution Hill and enter the forecourt of Buckingham Palace through Nash's Marble Arch.
The screen became the Roman revival Hyde Park Gate/Screen at Hyde Park Corner, which delighted the King and his Committee, which architectural historian Guy Williams describes as'one of the most pleasing architectural works that have survived from the neo-classical age'. The triumphal arch became the Wellington Arch at Constitution Hill into Green Park, described as'one of London's best loved landmarks'. Burton's original design for the triumphal arch, modelled on the Arch of Titus at Rome, on which the central and side blocks of the Screen had been modelled, was more technically perfect, coherent with the Screen, than that of the arch, subsequently built: this original design, was rejected by the Committee - who had envisaged a design based on the Arch of Constantine - because it was not sufficiently ostentatious. Burton created a new design,'to pander to the majestic ego', much larger and modelled on a fragment found in the Ancient Roman forum, accepted on 14 January 1826, subsequently built as the present Wellington Arch.
The arch at Constitution Hill was left devoid of decorative sculpture as a result of the moratorium in 1828 on public building work, instead, despite the absolute objection of Burton, was mounted with an ungainly equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington by Matthew Cotes Wyatt, the son of the recently deceased James Wyatt, selected by statue's commissioner, one of its few subsequent advocates, Sir Frederick Trench. Matthew Cotes Wyatt was not competent: Guy Williams contends that he were'not noticeably talented', the Dictionary of National Biography that'thanks to royal and other influential patronage, Wyatt enjoyed a reputation and practice to which his mediocre abilities hardly entitled him'. Trench, his patrons the Duke and Duchess of Rutland, had told the public subscribers to the statue that the statue would be place on top of Burton's triumphal arch at Hyde Park Corner: Burton expressed his opposition to this proposal'as plainly and as vehemently as his nature allowed' over successive years, because the ungainly statue would'disfigure' his arch, for which it was much too large, the surrounding neighbourhood, because it would have to be placed, contrary to all classical precedent, instead of parallel with, the roadway under the arch.
Burton had envisaged that his arch would be topped with only a small quadriga whose horses would have been parallel with the road under the arch. Burton's objections were extensively endorsed by most of the aristocratic residents of London. A writer in The Builder asked Lord Canning, the First Commissioner for Woods and Forests, to ban the project: "We have learnt, can state positively, that Mr. Burton has the strongest objection possible against placing the group in question on the archway... and that he is taking no part whatever in the alteration proposed to be made in the upper part of the structur