The cave bear was a species of bear that lived in Europe and Asia during the Pleistocene and became extinct about 24,000 years ago during the Last Glacial Maximum. Both the word cave and the scientific name spelaeus are used because fossils of species were mostly found in caves. This reflects the views of experts that cave bears may have spent more time in caves than the brown bear, Cave bear skeletons were first described in 1774 by Johann Friederich Esper in his book Newly Discovered Zoolites of Unknown Four Footed Animals. While scientists at the time considered that the skeletons could belong to apes, felids, or even dragons or unicorns, twenty years later, Johann Christian Rosenmüller, an anatomist at the Leipzig University, gave the species its binomial name. The bones were so numerous that most researchers had little regard for them, during World War I, with the scarcity of phosphate dung, earth from the caves where cave bear bones occurred were used as a source of phosphates. When the dragon caves in Austrias Steiermark region were exploited for this purpose, only the skulls, many caves in Central Europe have skeletons of cave bears inside, for example the Heinrichshöhle in Hemer, the Dechenhöhle in Iserlohn, Germany.
A complete skeleton, five complete skulls, and 18 other boness were found inside Jaskinia Niedźwiedzia in 1966 in Poland, in Romania, in a cave called Bears Cave,140 cave bear skeletons were discovered in 1983. Both the cave bear and the bear are thought to be descended from the Plio-Pleistocene Etruscan bear that lived about 5.3 Mya to 10,000 years ago. The last common ancestor of cave bears and brown bears lived between 1.2 and 1.4 Mya. The immediate precursor of the bear was probably Ursus deningeri. Ursus spelaeus deningeroides, while other authorities consider both taxa to be variants of the same species. Cave bears found in different regions vary in age, thus facilitating investigations into evolutionary trends, the three anterior premolars were gradually reduced, possibly in response to a largely vegetarian diet. In a fourth of the found in the Conturines, the third premolar is still present. The last remaining premolar became conjugated with the molars, enlarging the crown and granting it more cusps.
This phenomenon, known as molarization, improved the mastication capacities of the molars and this allowed the cave bear to gain more energy for hibernation, while eating less than its ancestors. The cave bear had a broad, domed skull with a steep forehead. Its stout body had long thighs, massive shins and in-turning feet, Cave bears were comparable in size to the largest modern-day bears. The average weight for males was 400 to 500 kilograms, with a specimen weighing 817 kg or more
The Pliocene Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP. It is the second and youngest epoch of the Neogene Period in the Cenozoic Era, the Pliocene follows the Miocene Epoch and is followed by the Pleistocene Epoch.588 to 1.806 million years ago, and is now included in the Pleistocene. As with other geologic periods, the geological strata that define the start and end are well identified but the exact dates of the start. The boundaries defining the Pliocene are not set at an easily identified worldwide event, the upper boundary was set at the start of the Pleistocene glaciations. The Pliocene was named by Sir Charles Lyell, the name comes from the Greek words πλεῖον and καινός and means roughly continuation of the recent, referring to the essentially modern marine mollusc faunas. H. W. Fowler called the term a regrettable barbarism, in the official timescale of the ICS, the Pliocene is subdivided into two stages. From youngest to oldest they are, Piacenzian Zanclean The Piacenzian is sometimes referred to as the Late Pliocene, in the system of North American Land Mammal Ages include Hemphillian, and Blancan.
The Blancan extends forward into the Pleistocene, South American Land Mammal Ages include Montehermosan and Uquian. In the Paratethys area the Pliocene contains the Dacian and Romanian stages, as usual in stratigraphy, there are many other regional and local subdivisions in use. In Britain the Pliocene is divided into the stages, Waltonian, Pre-Ludhamian, Thurnian, Bramertonian or Antian, Pre-Pastonian or Baventian and Beestonian. The exact correlations between these stages and the ICS stages is still a matter of detail. The formation of an Arctic ice cap is signaled by a shift in oxygen isotope ratios and ice-rafted cobbles in the North Atlantic. Mid-latitude glaciation was probably underway before the end of the epoch, the global cooling that occurred during the Pliocene may have spurred on the disappearance of forests and the spread of grasslands and savannas. Continents continued to drift, moving from positions possibly as far as 250 km from their present locations to positions only 70 km from their current locations, africas collision with Europe formed the Mediterranean Sea, cutting off the remnants of the Tethys Ocean.
The border between the Miocene and the Pliocene is the time of the Messinian salinity crisis, Sea level changes exposed the land-bridge between Alaska and Asia. Pliocene marine rocks are exposed in the Mediterranean, India. Elsewhere, they are exposed largely near shores, the change to a cooler, seasonal climate had considerable impacts on Pliocene vegetation, reducing tropical species worldwide. Deciduous forests proliferated, coniferous forests and tundra covered much of the north, tropical forests were limited to a tight band around the equator, and in addition to dry savannahs, deserts appeared in Asia and Africa
The Villars Cave, in French Grotte de Villars or Grotte du Cluzeau, was occupied during the Lower Magdalenian by Cro-Magnon hunter-gatherers. The cave is part of the French commune of Villars in the northern Dordogne département, besides its enormous wealth in beautiful stalactites and similar calcite deposits it contains cave paintings and some engravings. The Villars Cave and the Rouffignac Cave are the biggest known cave systems in the Dordogne, the Villars Cave is situated 3.5 kilometres to the northeast of Villars and about 500 metres to the northnortheast of the hamlet Le Cluzeau. It can be accessed via the D82 from Villars to Saint-Saud-Lacoussière, after a right-turn at Le Cluzeau one crosses the hamlet, the cave was formed by karstic phenomena affecting the outcropping oolithic limestones of Upper Bajocian age. The Villars Cave was discovered in December 1953 by members of the Spéléo Club de Périgueux after their attention was drawn to a fox hole exuding steam and they enlarged the hole and thus found the entry to the enormous cave system.
In 1956 the first scratch marks of cave bears were noticed along the entry passage, yet the cave paintings were only recognized in 1957 by Pierre Vidal, a member of the speleology club. The art work was investigated and approved of by the expert archeologist Henri Breuil, in 1959 the cave was opened for the first time to the public. The show cave is about 600 metres long and consists of rooms connected by passageways. The cave system not open to the public continues on different levels for nearly another 13 kilometres, the Villars Cave is therefore together with the Rouffignac Cave the most extensive cave system known in the Dordogne. A steep stone staircase, not suitable for people in wheel-chairs, leads down to the new entry which is somewhat below, a 40 metre long, southsoutheast-striking entry passage leads to the crossing where three different passageways diverge from. The branch on the right follows a southeasterly direction and is 130 meters long and it is a combination of rooms and passageways, which begins with the salle de bénitiers, continues in the fairly narrow le passage and ends in the grand balcon with the grand stalagmite.
The salle de bénitiers prolongs to the northwest into the salle du chaos, the left branch leads to the northeast and northnortheast into the ornate part of the cave. It starts with the 10 metre long salle des cierges where the first paintings were noticed, followed by the 30 metre long salle des peintures with most of the art work, at its far northeastern end is the exit. The 50 metre long middle branch leads just before the room to the southeast. After the salle des griffades the passage swings into a southsoutheasterly direction, on the right hand side of the entry passage the scratch marks of cave bears can be seen. Also some painted dots and traits can be noticed either occurring individually or grouped in clusters and this first room along the right-hand passageway can be reached right after the crossing via a descending slope. It contains besides very beautiful stalactites and stalagmites two fairly big saucers which have given it its name, in the 30 metre long and 15 metre wide chaos room a partial collapse of the ceiling has happened so that big limestone blocks and slabs were covering the floor.
Subsequently the chaos was covered in thick and massive calcite concretions
A fractal is a mathematical set that exhibits a repeating pattern displayed at every scale. It is known as expanding symmetry or evolving symmetry, if the replication is exactly the same at every scale, it is called a self-similar pattern. An example of this is the Menger Sponge, Fractals can be nearly the same at different levels. This latter pattern is illustrated in small magnifications of the Mandelbrot set, Fractals include the idea of a detailed pattern that repeats itself. Fractals are different from other geometric figures because of the way in which they scale, doubling the edge lengths of a polygon multiplies its area by four, which is two raised to the power of two. Likewise, if the radius of a sphere is doubled, its volume scales by eight, but if a fractals one-dimensional lengths are all doubled, the spatial content of the fractal scales by a power that is not necessarily an integer. This power is called the dimension of the fractal. As mathematical equations, fractals are usually nowhere differentiable, the term fractal was first used by mathematician Benoît Mandelbrot in 1975.
Mandelbrot based it on the Latin frāctus meaning broken or fractured, there is some disagreement amongst authorities about how the concept of a fractal should be formally defined. Mandelbrot himself summarized it as beautiful, damn hard, increasingly useful, Fractals are not limited to geometric patterns, but can describe processes in time. Fractal patterns with various degrees of self-similarity have been rendered or studied in images and sounds and found in nature, art, Fractals are of particular relevance in the field of chaos theory, since the graphs of most chaotic processes are fractal. The word fractal often has different connotations for laypeople than for mathematicians, the mathematical concept is difficult to define formally even for mathematicians, but key features can be understood with little mathematical background. If this is done on fractals, however, no new detail appears, nothing changes, self-similarity itself is not necessarily counter-intuitive. The difference for fractals is that the pattern reproduced must be detailed, a regular line, for instance, is conventionally understood to be 1-dimensional, if such a curve is divided into pieces each 1/3 the length of the original, there are always 3 equal pieces.
In contrast, consider the Koch snowflake and it is 1-dimensional for the same reason as the ordinary line, but it has, in addition, a fractal dimension greater than 1 because of how its detail can be measured. This leads to understanding a third feature, that fractals as mathematical equations are nowhere differentiable, in a concrete sense, this means fractals cannot be measured in traditional ways. The history of fractals traces a path from chiefly theoretical studies to modern applications in computer graphics, according to Pickover, the mathematics behind fractals began to take shape in the 17th century when the mathematician and philosopher Gottfried Leibniz pondered recursive self-similarity. In his writings, Leibniz used the term fractional exponents, in the last part of that century, Felix Klein and Henri Poincaré introduced a category of fractal that has come to be called self-inverse fractals
A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus, proboscideans commonly equipped with long, curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair. They lived from the Pliocene epoch into the Holocene at about 4,500 years ago in Africa, Europe and they were members of the family Elephantidae, which contains the two genera of modern elephants and their ancestors. Mammoths stem from a species called M. africanavus, the African mammoth. These mammoths lived in northern Africa and disappeared about 3 or 4 million years ago, descendants of these mammoths moved north and eventually covered most of Eurasia. These were M. meridionalis, the southern mammoths, the earliest known proboscideans, the clade that contains the elephants, existed about 55 million years ago around the Tethys Sea area. The closest relatives of the Proboscidea are the sirenians and the hyraxes, the family Elephantidae is known to have existed six million years ago in Africa, and includes the living elephants and the mammoths.
Among many now extinct clades, the mastodon is only a distant relative of the mammoths, and part of the separate Mammutidae family, which diverged 25 million years before the mammoths evolved. At the same time, the crowns of the teeth became longer, the first known members of the genus Mammuthus are the African species M. subplanifrons from the Pliocene and M. africanavus from the Pleistocene. The former is thought to be the ancestor of forms, Mammoths entered Europe around 3 million years ago, the earliest known type has been named M. rumanus, which spread across Europe and China. Only its molars are known, which show it had 8–10 enamel ridges, a population evolved 12–14 ridges and split off from and replaced the earlier type, becoming M. meridionalis. In turn, this species was replaced by the mammoth, M. trogontherii, with 18–20 ridges. Mammoths derived from M. trogontherii evolved molars with 26 ridges 200,000 years ago in Siberia, the Columbian mammoth, M. columbi, evolved from a population of M.
trogontherii that had entered North America. A2011 genetic study showed that two examined specimens of the Columbian mammoth were grouped within a subclade of woolly mammoths and this suggests that the two populations interbred and produced fertile offspring. It suggested that a North American form known as M. jeffersonii may be a hybrid between the two species, variations in environment, climate change, and migration surely played roles in the evolutionary process of the mammoths. Take M. primigenius for example, Woolly mammoths lived in opened grassland biomes, the cool steppe-tundra of the Northern Hemisphere was the ideal place for mammoths to thrive because of the resources it supplied. With occasional warmings during the ice age, climate would change the landscape, the word mammoth was first used in Europe during the early 1600s, when referring to maimanto tusks discovered in Siberia. John Bell, who was on the Ob River in 1722 and they were called mammons horn and were often found in washed-out river banks.
Some local people claimed to have seen a living mammoth, but they came out at night
A microlith is a small stone tool usually made of flint or chert and typically a centimetre or so in length and half a centimetre wide. They were made by people from 35,000 years ago to about 3,000 years ago, in Europe, north Africa, across Asia and in Australia, and used in spear points and arrowheads. Microliths are produced either a small blade or a larger blade-like piece of flint by abrupt or truncated retouching. The microliths themselves are sufficiently worked so as to be distinguishable from workshop waste or accidents, two families of microliths are usually defined and geometric. An assemblage of microliths can be used to date an archeological site, laminar microliths are associated with the end of the Upper Paleolithic and the beginning of the Epipaleolithic era, geometric microliths are characteristic of the Mesolithic and the Neolithic. Geometric microliths may be triangular, trapezoid or lunate, microlith production generally declined following the introduction of agriculture but continued in cultures with a deeply rooted hunting tradition.
Regardless of type, microliths were used to form the points of hunting weapons, such as spears and arrows, and other artifacts and are found throughout Africa and Europe. They were utilised with wood, bone and fiber to form a tool or weapon. An average of six and eighteen microliths may often have been used in one spear or harpoon. Laminar microliths date from at least the Gravettian culture or possibly the start of the Upper Paleolithic era, noilles Burins and Microgravettes indicate that the production of microliths had already started in the Gravettian culture. This style of flint working flourished during the Magdalenian period and persisted in numerous Epipaleolithic traditions all around the Mediterranean basin. These microliths are slightly larger than the geometric microliths that followed and were made from the flakes of flint obtained ad hoc from a nucleus or from a depleted nucleus of flint. They were produced either by percussion or by the application of a variable pressure, there are three basic types of laminar microlith.
The truncated blade type can be divided into a number of depending on the position of the truncation and according to its form, for example. Raclette scrapers are notable for their form, being blades or flakes whose edges have been sharply retouched until they are semicircular or even shapeless. Raclettes are indefinite cultural indicators, as they appear from the Upper Paleolithic through to the Neolithic, backed edge blades have one of the edges, generally a side one, rounded or chamfered by abrupt retouching. There are fewer types of blades, and may be divided into those where the entire edge is rounded. They are fundamental in the processes, and from them
The woolly rhinoceros is an extinct species of rhinoceros that was common throughout Europe and northern Asia during the Pleistocene epoch and survived the last glacial period. The genus name Coelodonta means cavity tooth, the woolly rhinoceros was a member of the Pleistocene megafauna. As the last and most derived member of the Pleistocene rhinoceros lineage, stocky limbs and thick woolly pelage made it well suited to the steppe-tundra environment prevalent across the Palearctic ecozone during the Pleistocene glaciations. Like the vast majority of rhinoceroses, the plan of the woolly rhinoceros adhered to a conservative morphology. A study of 40, 000- to 70, 000-year-old DNA samples showed its closest extant relative is the Sumatran rhinoceros, the appearance of woolly rhinos is known from mummified individuals from Siberia as well as cave paintings. An adult woolly rhinoceros was typically around 3 to 3.8 metres in length, with a weight of around 1. The woolly rhinoceros could grow to be 2 m tall, the size was thus comparable to, or slightly larger than.
Two horns on the skull were made of keratin, the horn being 61 cm in length, with a smaller horn between its eyes. It had thick, long fur, small ears, thick legs, Cave paintings suggest a wide dark band between the front and hind legs, but the feature is not universal, and the identification of pictured rhinoceroses as woolly rhinoceros is uncertain. Its shape was only from prehistoric cave drawings until a completely preserved specimen was discovered in a tar pit in Starunia. The specimen, a female, is now on display in the Polish Academy of Sciences Museum of Natural History in Kraków. Several frozen specimens have found in Siberia, the latest in 2007. The woolly rhinoceros used its horns for defensive purposes and to attract mates, during Greenland Stadial 2 the North Sea retreated northward, as sea levels were up to 125 metres lower than today. The woolly rhinoceros roamed the exposed Doggerland and much of Northern Europe and was common in the cold, arid desert that is southern England and its geographical range expanded and contracted with the alternating cold and warm cycles, forcing populations to migrate as glaciers receded.
The woolly rhinoceros co-existed with woolly mammoths and several other larger mammals of the Pleistocene megafauna. A close relative, had a southern range. It is believed they migrated there to northern Asia and Europe when the Ice Age began. Females gave birth to one or two calves, controversy has long surrounded the precise dietary preference of Coelodonta as past investigations have found both grazing and browsing modes of life to be plausible
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
In prehistoric art, finger flutings are lines that fingers leave on a soft surface. Most are not obvious figures or symbols but, appear to observers as enigmatic lines. They are called tracés digitaux or finger tracings and meanders, the term finger fluting was coined by Robert Bednarik. Generally they are made in a substance called moonmilk, sometimes they are made through a thin clay film into moonmilk underneath or perhaps just into clay. As Henri Breuil has published, finger flutings have been recognized since the days of the 20th century in Europe as Paleolithic. Their recognition as having a similar antiquity outside of Europe lay chiefly in the hands of Sandor Gallus, many other sites both in Europe and Australia have been found, some of the more famous being Gargas and Baume Latronne caves in France and the cave of Altamira in Spain. Bednarik continues to publish sites that contain flutings, but current forward research into finger flutings is mainly being carried out by Kevin J. Sharpe and they have developed the following methods for this purpose.
Their cornerstones include multiple examinations of the flutings under investigation, experimentation and Van Gelder use a specific terminology for their studies and call upon three analyses. In terms of the methodology, having become familiar with a cluster. This provides the differentiation of clusters and units, and the sequence of the flutings. Though Marshack pioneered this technique, it has been modified in its application by others such as Bednarik, Francesco d’Errico and it forms the backbone of research into line markings such as flutings. One of their additions to this base and Van Gelder call a ‘Forensic Analysis. These appear distinctively different from one another and from the marks of the other fingers and they measure the width of the F2-F4 set of marks at their narrowest, calling this the 3-fingered width of the unit. The width data for the three fingers suggest the age category of the fluter, namely whether a child or older. Then the investigator records the relative height of F2 to F4 against F3 and this suggests the sex of the fluter.
Further, consistency of widths and profiles, and perhaps some other features among units suggest the same person fluted them and Van Gelder’s work has focused on flutings found in the French caves of Rouffignac, in the Dordogne, and Gargas in the Hautes Pyrenees. The lack of studies, let alone methods for doing them, means speculation as to the meaning of flutings runs unchecked. The corpus of Paleolithic flutings is too complex to fit into a single meaning paradigm, too much in prehistoric ‘art’ does not conform to what modern people might see as figures and symbols, flutings offering an example
A rock shelter is a shallow cave-like opening at the base of a bluff or cliff. In arid areas, wind erosion can be an important factor in rockhouse formation, erosion from moving water is seldom a significant factor. Many rock shelters are found under waterfalls, Rock shelter formation types Rock shelters are often important archaeologically. Because rock shelters form natural shelters from the weather, prehistoric humans often used them as living-places, and left behind debris, tools, in mountainous areas the shelters can be important for mountaineers. In western Connecticut and eastern New York, many shelters are known by the colloquialism leatherman caves. Sandstone can be used as shingles for roof tops when possible, the Cumberland stitchwort is an endangered species of plant which is found only in rock shelters in Kentucky and Tennessee. Gatecliff Rockshelter Kinlock Shelter Mesa Verde Overhang Roc-aux-Sorciers Shelter Rock Walnut Canyon