L'Ascension is a municipality in the Laurentides region of Quebec, part of the Antoine-Labelle Regional County Municipality. The area is known as La Vallée de la Rouge. Population trend: Population in 2011: 844 Population in 2006: 861 Population in 2001: 783 Population in 1996: 755 Population in 1991: 662Private dwellings occupied by usual residents: 410 Mother tongue: English as first language: 0% French as first language: 96.5% English and French as first language: 0% Other as first language: 3.5% Sainte Agathe Academy in Sainte-Agathe-des-Monts serves English-speaking students in this community for both elementary and secondary levels. List of municipalities in Quebec
Rafting and white water rafting are recreational outdoor activities which use an inflatable raft to navigate a river or other body of water. This is done on whitewater or different degrees of rough water. Dealing with risk and the need for teamwork is a part of the experience; this activity as an adventure sport has become popular since the 1950s, if not earlier, evolving from individuals paddling 10 feet to 14 feet rafts with double-bladed paddles or oars to multi-person rafts propelled by single-bladed paddles and steered by a person at the stern, or by the use of oars. Rafting on certain sections of rivers is considered an extreme sport, can be fatal, while other sections are not so extreme or difficult. Rafting is a competitive sport practiced around the world which culminates in a world rafting championship event between the participating nations; the International Rafting Federation referred to as the IRF, is the worldwide body which oversees all aspects of the sport. Whitewater rafting can be traced back to 1811 when the first recorded attempt to navigate the Snake River in Wyoming was planned.
With no training, experience, or proper equipment, the river was found to be too difficult and dangerous. Hence, it was given the nickname “Mad River.” The first commercial rafting trip took place. On June 9, 1940, Clyde Smith lead a successful trip through the Snake River Canyon. Otherwise known as the International Scale of River Difficulty, below are the six grades of difficulty in white water rafting, they range from simple to dangerous and potential death or serious injuries. Class 1: Very small rough areas, might require slight maneuvering. Class 2: Some rough water, maybe some rocks, might require some maneuvering. Class 3: Small waves, maybe a small drop, but no considerable danger. May require significant maneuvering. Class 4: Whitewater, medium waves, maybe rocks, maybe a considerable drop, sharp maneuvers may be needed. Class 5: Whitewater, large waves, large volume, possibility of large rocks and hazards, possibility of a large drop, requires precise maneuvering. Class 6: Class 6 rapids are considered to be so dangerous that they are unnavigable on a reliably safe basis.
Rafters can expect to encounter substantial whitewater, huge waves, huge rocks and hazards, and/or substantial drops that will impart severe impacts beyond the structural capacities and impact ratings of all rafting equipment. Traversing a Class 6 rapid has a increased likelihood of ending in serious injury or death compared to lesser classes; the overall risk level on a rafting trip using proper precautions is low. Thousands of people safely enjoy rafting trips every year. Like most outdoor sports, rafting in general has become safer over the years. Expertise in the sport has increased, equipment has become more specialized and improved in quality; as a result, the difficulty rating of most river runs has changed. A classic example is the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, which had a reputation far exceeding its actual safety statistics. Today the Grand Canyon sees hundreds of safe rafting trips by both do it yourself rafters and commercial river concessionaires. Rafting companies require customers to sign waiver forms indicating understanding and acceptance of potential serious risks.
Both do-it-yourself and commercial rafting trips begin with safety presentations to educate rafting participants about problems that may arise. Depending on the area, safety regulations covering rafting, both for the general do-it-yourself public as well as commercial operators, may exist in legislation; these range from the mandatory wearing of lifejackets, carrying certain equipment such as whistles and throwable flotation devices, to certification of commercial outfitters and their employees. It is advisable to discuss safety measures with a commercial rafting operator before signing on for that type of trip; the required equipment needed is essential information to be considered. Risks in white water rafting stem from improper behavior. Certain features on rivers are inherently unsafe and have remained so; these would include ‘keeper hydraulics’, ‘strainers’, undercut rocks, of course dangerously high waterfalls. In safe areas, moving water can always present risks—such as when a swimmer attempts to stand up on a rocky riverbed in strong current, risking foot entrapment.
Irresponsible behavior related to rafting while intoxicated has contributed to many accidents. Typical rafting injuries include trauma from striking an object, traumatic stress from the interaction of the paddler’s positioning and equipment and the force of the water, overuse injuries, submersion/environmental injuries, non-environmental injuries due to undisclosed medical conditions. Studies have shown that injury rates in rafting are low, though they may be skewed due to a large number of unreported incidents. Fatalities are rare in both do-it-yourself rafting. Meta-analyses have calculated. Like all outdoor activities, rafting must balance its use of nature with the conservation of rivers as a natural resource and habitat; because of these issues, some rivers now have regulations restricting the annual seasons and daily operating times or numbers of rafters. Conflicts have arisen when co
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; as of 2016, Ottawa had a city population of 964,743 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city has evolved into the political centre of Canada, its original boundaries were expanded through numerous annexations and were replaced by a new city incorporation and amalgamation in 2001 which increased its land area. The city name "Ottawa" was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River, the name of, derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning "to trade". Ottawa has the most educated population among Canadian cities and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, the National Gallery, numerous national museums. Ottawa has the highest standard of living in low unemployment.
With the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago, the Ottawa Valley became habitable. Local populations used the area for wild edible harvesting, fishing, trade and camps for over 6500 years; the Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads and stone tools. Three major rivers meet within Ottawa, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years; the Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning "Great River" or "Grand River". Étienne Brûlé regarded as the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls in the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, using the Ottawa River for centuries. Many missionaries would follow the early traders; the first maps of the area used the word Ottawa, derived from the Algonquin word adawe, to name the river. Philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from the present day city of Ottawa in Hull.
He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create an agricultural community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City. Bytown, Ottawa's original name, was founded as a community in 1826 when hundreds of land speculators were attracted to the south side of the river when news spread that British authorities were constructing the northerly end of the Rideau Canal military project at that location; the following year, the town was named after British military engineer Colonel John By, responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project. The canal's military purpose was to provide a secure route between Montreal and Kingston on Lake Ontario, bypassing a vulnerable stretch of the St. Lawrence River bordering the state of New York that had left re-supply ships bound for southwestern Ontario exposed to enemy fire during the War of 1812. Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of today's Parliament Hill.
He laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named "Upper Town" west of the canal and "Lower Town" east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes "Upper Town" was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas "Lower Town" was predominantly French and Catholic. Bytown's population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. Bytown encountered some impassioned and violent times in her early pioneer period that included Irish labour unrest that attributed to the Shiners' War from 1835 to 1845 and political dissension evident from the 1849 Stony Monday Riot. In 1855 Bytown was incorporated as a city. William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Year's Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic and political gesture, was presented with the responsibility of selecting a location for the permanent capital of the Province of Canada. In reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock.
The "Queen's choice" turned out to be the small frontier town of Ottawa for two main reasons: Firstly, Ottawa's isolated location in a back country surrounded by dense forest far from the Canada–US border and situated on a cliff face would make it more defensible from attack. Secondly, Ottawa was midway between Toronto and Kingston and Montreal and Quebec City. Additionally, despite Ottawa's regional isolation it had seasonal water transportation access to Montreal over the Ottawa River and to Kingston via the Rideau Waterway. By 1854 it had a modern all season Bytown and Prescott Railway that carried passengers and supplies the 82-kilometres to Prescott on the Saint Lawrence River and beyond. Ottawa's small size, it was thought, would make it less prone to rampaging politically motivated mobs, as had happened in the previous Canadian capitals; the government owned the land that would become Parliament Hill which they thought would be an ideal location for the Parliament Buildings. Ottawa was th
Arundel is a township municipality in Quebec, located 18 kilometres south of Mont Tremblant. Arundel was settled by Scottish and Irish immigrants in the mid-19th century who established subsistence farming operations and worked the forests in winter. Today most of the land is reserved for agricultural use despite strong growth in the region. Much of Arundel borders the Rouge River. Population trend: Population in 2011: 604 Population in 2006: 601 Population in 2001: 555 Population in 1996: 533 Population in 1991: 555Private dwellings occupied by usual residents: 290 Mother tongue: French as first language: 44% English as first language: 54% Other as first language: 2% Sir Wilfrid Laurier School Board is the English-language school board of the town. Schools serving the town: Arundel Elementary School Sainte Agathe Academy in Sainte-Agathe-des-Monts Canton Arundel Website Tweedsmuir Village History Laurentian regional website Historic Knox Church Rouge River Valley
A river is a natural flowing watercourse freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, as a means of disposing of waste.
A river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, ends at a mouth or mouths. The water in a river is confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel; this distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred in urban areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become developed by housing and industry. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, can create canyons or gorges; the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i.e. against the direction of flow. The term downriver describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the current flows; the term left bank refers to the left bank in the direction of right bank to the right. The river channel contains a single stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water, producing a braided river.
Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide, such as the South Island of New Zealand. They occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are quite rare, they have multiple sinuous channels carrying large volumes of sediment. There are rare cases of river bifurcation in which a river divides and the resultant flows ending in different seas. An example is the bifurcation of Nerodime River in Kosovo. A river flowing in its channel is a source of energy which acts on the river channel to change its shape and form. In 1757, the German hydrologist Albert Brahms empirically observed that the submerged weight of objects that may be carried away by a river is proportional to the sixth power of the river flow speed; this formulation is sometimes called Airy's law. Thus, if the speed of flow is doubled, the flow would dislodge objects with 64 times as much submerged weight. In mountainous torrential zones this can be seen as erosion channels through hard rocks and the creation of sands and gravels from the destruction of larger rocks.
A river valley, created from a U-shaped glaciated valley, can easily be identified by the V-shaped channel that it has carved. In the middle reaches where a river flows over flatter land, meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and deposition on the inside of bends. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths. Rivers whose mouths are in saline tidal waters may form estuaries. Throughout the course of the river, the total volume of water transported downstream will be a combination of the free water flow together with a substantial volume flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain. For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may exceed the visible flow. Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caverns; such rivers are found in regions with limestone geologic formations.
Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets, permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can flow uphill. An intermittent river only flows and can be dry for several years at a time; these rivers are found in regions with limited or variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a permeable river bed. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter; such rivers are fed from chalk aquifers which recharge from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne. In humid regions, the location where flow begins in the smallest tributary streams moves upstream in response to precipitation and downstream in its absence or when active summer vegetation diverts water for evapotrans
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is
Grenville-sur-la-Rouge is a municipality in the Argenteuil Regional County Municipality in the Laurentides region of Quebec, Canada. It is a predominantly Francophone community situated along the southern border of Quebec between Montreal and Ottawa. Grenville-sur-la-Rouge covers a rectangular area along the shore of the Ottawa River and extends northward into the foothills of the Laurentian Mountains; the neighbouring village of Grenville is located on the Ottawa River. Most of the population of just over 2,700 live in a rural setting. Although the area has been settled for over 200 years, Grenville-sur-la-Rouge is a new creation, it was formed in 2002 by the merger of the village municipality of Calumet with the township municipality of Grenville. Each of the two components and Grenville, acquired the status of boroughs within the new municipality; the territory of Grenville-sur-la-Rouge includes several smaller neighbourhoods and communities, including Avoca, Bell Falls, Grenville Bay, Kilmar and Pointe-au-Chêne.
The name "Grenville" comes from William Wyndham Grenville, a British statesman who served as British prime minister. While Canada was still under British rule, a canal was built by the military to bypass a series of rapids in the Ottawa River; the canal and the settlement that arose in the region were named in Lord Grenville's honour. The name "Rouge" derives from the municipality's location on the Rouge River, which runs from north to south through the centre of the municipality. In English, Grenville-sur-la-Rouge means "Grenville-on-the-Rouge". Many of the properties along the primary and secondary roads are established farms operated by third and fourth generation families. Forests cover a significant percentage of region and supports a limited amount of logging for regional pulp and paper mills, such as the Fraser Papers mill in Thurso, Quebec. Tourism is an important part of the local economy, with several whitewater adventure companies being established along the Rouge River. First commercialized in the late 1970s, the Rouge River has become Quebec's most popular whitewater rafting location and is considered one of the best in North America.
Local owners have turned century-old homes into Bed & Breakfasts, which are popular in the fall. The 2001 Statistics Canada census reports that the majority of Grenville-sur-la-Rouge's residents earn income from non-resource based sectors. Route 148 and Route 344 are east-west highways that traverse the southern region of the municipality. Autoroute 50, an east-west highway, is in the southern region with three interchanges in Grenville-sur-la-Rouge. Route 344 passes through the Village of Grenville where one can cross over the Long-Sault Bridge to Hawkesbury, Ontario; the Long-Sault Bridge is the only bridge that crosses the Ottawa River between Montreal. The primary north-south access roads are the Rouge River Road, the Scotch Road, Avoca Road; these secondary roads provide access to the communities of Avoca and Bell Falls. Local government councillors; the current mayor is Tom Arnold. Population: Population in 2011: 2746 Population in 2006: 2721 Population in 2001: 2663 Private dwellings: 1248 Languages: English as first language: 34% French as first language: 64% English and French as first language: 0.5% Other as first language: 1.5%The following statistics are derived from the pre-amalgamation data collected by Statistics Canada in its 2001 census.
Data reported is the combined data of the Village of Calumet. Population density: 8.5 people per square km Language First Learned / Still Understood: French 56.4% English 39.1% Both English/French 2.4% Other 2.1% Religious affiliation Catholic 62.9% Protestant 26.2% Christian Orthodox 0.7% Other religions 0.4% No religious affiliation 9.7% Experienced labour force Agriculture and other resource-based industries 5.9% Manufacturing and construction industries 37.0% Wholesale and retail trade 14.7% Finance and real estate 5.5% Health and education 9.7% Business services 10.9% Other services 16.4% In the late 1960s, Alfred Joseph Casson of Group of Seven fame, spent some time in what is now known as Grenville-sur-la-Rouge capturing the beautiful scenery on the lower Ottawa Valley. Paul Duval, in his biography of Casson wrote: Examples of Casson's painting from the region include: Rain at Grenville, Quebec Grenville, Quebec Hill Country, Quebec... sold for $69,000 CAD Morning Mist Rouge River Farm Near Grenville, Quebec... sold for $106,000 CAD in 2005 The Commission scolaire de la Rivière-du-Nord operates French-language public schools.
École polyvalente Lavigne in LachuteThe Sir Wilfrid Laurier School Board operates English-language public schools: Grenville Elementary School in Grenville serves most of the city, except what is east of Route 327 and Lac Keatley Laurentian Elementary School in Lachute serves a portion Laurentian Regional High School in Lachute List of municipalities in Quebec Argenteuil Regional County Grenville Canal The Barony of Grenville