Wilderness or wildland is a natural environment on Earth that has not been modified by human activity. It may be defined as: "The most intact, undisturbed wild natural areas left on our planet—those last wild places that humans do not control and have not developed with roads, pipelines or other industrial infrastructure." The term has traditionally referred to terrestrial environments, though growing attention is being placed on marine wilderness. Recent maps of wilderness suggest it covers one quarter of Earth's terrestrial surface, but is being degraded by human activity. Less wilderness remains in the ocean, with only 13.2% free from intense human activity. Some governments establish them by law or administrative acts in land tracts that have not been modified by human action in great measure; the main feature of them is that human motorized activity is restricted. These actions seek not only to preserve what exists, but to promote and advance a natural expression and development. Wilderness areas can be found in preserves, conservation preserves, National Forests, National Parks and in urban areas along rivers, gulches or otherwise undeveloped areas.
These areas are considered important for the survival of certain species, ecological studies, conservation and recreation. Wilderness is valued for cultural, spiritual and aesthetic reasons; some nature writers believe wilderness areas are vital for creativity. They may preserve historic genetic traits and provide habitat for wild flora and fauna that may be difficult to recreate in zoos, arboretums or laboratories; the word wilderness derives from the notion of "wildness"—in other words, that, not controlled by humans. The mere presence or activity of people does not disqualify an area from being "wilderness." Many ecosystems that are, or have been, inhabited or influenced by activities of people may still be considered "wild." This way of looking at wilderness includes areas within which natural processes operate without human interference. The WILD Foundation states that wilderness areas have two dimensions: they must be biologically intact and protected; the World Conservation Union classifies wilderness at Ia and Ib.
Activities on the margins of specific wilderness areas, such as fire suppression and the interruption of animal migration affect the interior of wildernesses. In wealthier, industrialized nations, it has a specific legal meaning as well: as land where development is prohibited by law. Many nations have designated wilderness, including the United States, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa. Many new parks are being planned and passed by various Parliaments and Legislatures at the urging of dedicated individuals around the globe who believe that "in the end, inspired people empowered by effective legislation will ensure that the spirit and services of wilderness will thrive and permeate our society, preserving a world that we are proud to hand over to those who come after us." Looked at through the lens of the visual arts and wildness have been important subjects in various epochs of world history. An early tradition of landscape art occurred in the Tang Dynasty; the tradition of representing nature as it is became one of the aims of Chinese painting and was a significant influence in Asian art.
Artists in the tradition of Shan shui, learned to depict mountains and rivers "from the perspective of nature as a whole and on the basis of their understanding of the laws of nature… as if seen through the eyes of a bird." In the 13th century, Shih Erh Chi recommended avoiding painting "scenes lacking any places made inaccessible by nature."For most of human history, the greater part of the Earth's terrain was wilderness, human attention was concentrated in settled areas. The first known laws to protect parts of nature date back to the Babylonian Empire and Chinese Empire. Ashoka, the Great Mauryan King, defined the first laws in the world to protect flora and fauna in Edicts of Ashoka around 3rd Century B. C. In the Middle Ages, the Kings of England initiated one of the world’s first conscious efforts to protect natural areas, they were motivated by a desire to be able to hunt wild animals in private hunting preserves rather than a desire to protect wilderness. In order to have animals to hunt they would have to protect wildlife from subsistence hunting and the land from villagers gathering firewood.
Similar measures were introduced in other European countries. The idea of wilderness having intrinsic value emerged in the Western world in the 19th century. British artists John Constable and J. M. W. Turner turned their attention to capturing the beauty of the natural world in their paintings. Prior to that, paintings had been of religious scenes or of human beings. William Wordsworth’s poetry described the wonder of the natural world, viewed as a threatening place; the valuing of nature became an aspect of Western culture. By the mid-19th century, in Germany, "Scientific Conservation," as it was called, advocated "the efficient utilization of natural resources through the application of science and technology." Concepts of forest management based on the German approach were applied in other parts of the world, but with varying degrees of success. Over the course of the 19th century wilderness became viewed not as a place to fear but a place to enjoy and protect, hence came the conservation movement in the latter half of the 19th century.
Rivers were rafted and mountains were climbed for the sake of recreation, not to determine th
Greater Toronto Area
The Greater Toronto Area is the most populous metropolitan area in Canada. It consists of 25 incorporated municipalities within the central city of Toronto and the four regional municipalities which surround it: Durham, Halton and York. According to the 2016 census, the Greater Toronto Area has a population of 6,417,516; the regional span of the Greater Toronto Area is sometimes combined with the city of Hamilton, located west of Halton Region, to form the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area. The Greater Toronto Area anchors a much larger urban agglomeration known as the Golden Horseshoe; the term "Greater Toronto" was first used in writing as early as the 1900s, although at the time, the term only referred to the old City of Toronto and its immediate townships and villages, which became Metropolitan Toronto in 1954 and became the current city of Toronto in 1998. The use of the term involving the four regional municipalities came into formal use in the mid-1980s, after it was used in a discussed report on municipal governance restructuring in the region and was made official as a provincial planning area.
However, it did not come into everyday usage until the mid- to late 1990s. In 2006, the term began to be supplanted in the field of spatial planning as provincial policy began to refer to either the "Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area" or the still-broader "Greater Golden Horseshoe"; the latter includes communities like Barrie, Kitchener-Waterloo and the Niagara Region. The GTA continues, however, to be in official use elsewhere in the Government of Ontario, such as the Ministry of Finance; some municipalities considered part of the GTA are not within the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, whose land area and population is thus smaller than the land area and population of the GTA planning area. For example, Oshawa is the centre of its own CMA, yet deemed part of the Greater Toronto Area, while other municipalities, such as New Tecumseth in southern Simcoe County and Mono Township in Dufferin County are included in the Toronto CMA but not in the GTA; these different border configurations result in the GTA's population being higher than the Toronto CMA by nearly one-half million people leading to confusion amongst people when trying to sort out Toronto's urban population.
Other nearby urban areas, such as Hamilton, Barrie, or St. Catharines-Niagara and Kitchener-Waterloo, are not part of the GTA or the Toronto CMA, but form their own CMAs near the GTA. All the aforementioned places are part of the Greater Golden Horseshoe metropolitan region, an urban agglomeration, the fourth most populous in North America; when the Hamilton and Toronto CMAs are agglomerated with Brock and Scugog, they have a population of 6,170,072. It is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis, containing an estimated 59 million people in 2011; the term "Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area" refers to the GTA, the City of Hamilton. The term has been adopted by several organizations for the purposes of regional planning; the GTHA and the Regional Municipality of Niagara form the inner ring of the larger Greater Golden Horseshoe region. The Greater Toronto Area was home to a number of First Nations groups who lived on the shore of Lake Ontario long before the first Europeans arrived in the region. At various times the Neutral, Seneca and Huron nations were living in the vicinity.
The Mississaugas arrived in the late seventeenth or early eighteenth century, driving out the occupying Iroquois. While it is unclear as to, the first European to reach the Toronto area, there is no question it occurred in the 17th century; the area would become crucial for its series of trails and water routes that led from northern and western Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. Known as the "Toronto Passage", it followed the Humber River, as an important overland shortcut between Lake Ontario, Lake Simcoe and the upper Great Lakes. For this reason area became a hot spot for French fur traders; the French would establish two trading forts, Magasin Royal in the 1720s, although abandoned within the decade and Fort Rouillé in the 1750s, which would be burnt down and abandoned in 1759 by the French garrison, who were retreating from invading British forces. The first large influx of European settlers to settle the region were the United Empire Loyalists arriving after the American Revolution, when various individuals petitioned the Crown for land in and around the Toronto area.
In 1787, the British negotiated the purchase of more than a quarter million acres of land in the area of Toronto with the Mississaugas of New Credit. York County, would be created by Governor John Graves Simcoe in 1792, which would at its largest size, comprise all of what is now Halton Region, Peel Region, York Region and parts of Durham Region; the Town of York would be attacked by American forces in the War of 1812 in what is now known as the Battle of York, in 1813. In 1816, Wentworth County and Halton County were created from York County. York County would serve as the setting for the beginnings of the Upper Canada Rebellion with William Lyon Mackenzie's armed march from Holland Landing towards York Township on Yonge Street leading up to the battle at Montgomery's Tavern. In 1851, Ontario County and Peel County were separated from York; the idea towards a streamlined local government to control local infrastructure was made as early as 1907 by member of federal Parliament, founder of the Toronto Globe, William Findlay Maclean, who called for the expansion of the government of the former City of Toronto in order to c
Rouge National Urban Park
Rouge National Urban Park is a national urban park in Ontario, Canada. Most of the park is located in Toronto's suburban district of Scarborough, while parts of the park are in the bordering cities of Markham and Pickering. Since 2011, Parks Canada has been working to nationalize and nearly double the size of the original Rouge Park. Parks Canada is planning to add more trails and orientation centres and improved signage and interpretive panels and displays throughout the park. Parks Canada introduced new educational programs to the park, including Learn-to-Camp, Learn-to-Hike, fire side chats, other complimentary programming. Once established, the park will span 79.1 square kilometres. Parks Canada manages 46 square kilometres of this area. Water from glaciers melting 12,000 years ago formed ancestral Lake Ontario, which covered this entire area. A large ice lobe 20 metres thick, blocked the lake from draining eastward, leaving water levels high as the lake drained south to what is now the Mississippi River.
The ice lobe retreated, draining the lake to the St Lawrence River and forming the Great Lakes as we see them today. Glaciation occurred; the small decrease to the former temperatures caused big changes to the landscape. Changes in average annual temperatures now may seem small, but they could cause major changes to the natural environment in the near future. Outcrops of rock formed during the last glacial period found in Rouge National Urban Park are important to geologists studying seismic activity, in particular the risk of earthquakes in the GTA. Faults are visible indicating significant earthquake activity between 13,000 years ago; the human history of Rouge National Urban Park goes back over 10,000 years. Palaeolithic nomadic hunters, Iroquoian farmers, early European explorers, the multicultural suburban population that one can see around the park today are all part of this history. Since humans began living in the area of the present Great Lakes-St Lawrence Lowlands in Ontario, many groups of people made the lands and waters now protected in Rouge Park their home.
The river and its valleys, uplands and wetlands, along with the animal and plant species that lived here, sustained small nomadic groups, on larger, permanent settlements long before the rapid urbanization of the 20th century altered the landscape dramatically. Inspired by the scenery of the Rouge, F. H. Varley, one of the renowned Group of Seven painters, captured the banks of the Rouge River in Markham on canvas during the 1950s as a lasting memory of their beauty; this was an original portage route along the Rouge River to the Holland River, linking Lake Ontario to Lake Simcoe. This route was created by Indigenous Peoples, used by early European traders and settlers; the Rouge River route is not marked by a federal historical marker, but the western branch of the route, following the Humber River, has one acknowledging both forks of the route. The Toronto Carrying-Place Trail was designated a National Historic Event on the advice of the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board in 1969.
Bead Hill is an archaeological site of an intact 17th century Seneca village and was designated a National Historic Site in 1991. The site includes the remains of an Archaic campsite, dating about 3,000 years old. Minimal excavations have been carried out, the site includes a protected midden, thought to contain a wealth of material; because of its sensitive archaeological nature, it is not open to the public nor identified in the park. Its National Historic Site designation was prompted by imminent development plans that could have encroached on the area; the original Rouge Park was established in 1995 by the Province of Ontario in partnership with cities of Toronto and Pickering and the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority. The original park consisted of 40 square kilometres of parkland in Toronto and Pickering. Parks Canada first committed to work towards the creation of Rouge National Urban Park in 2011, following a review of the former regional Rouge Park's governance and finance, which recommended the creation of a national urban park.
In laying the groundwork for the park's establishment, Parks Canada has consulted and collaborated with over 20,000 Canadians and 200 organizations, including Indigenous People, all levels of government, community groups, conservationists and residents. The most well-known part of the original Rouge Park, near the Toronto Zoo and Rouge Beach areas, remain open and are managed on an interim basis by the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority in partnership with Parks Canada and municipalities; as Rouge National Urban Park becomes operational, former Rouge Park lands will transfer to Parks Canada and become part of the much larger Rouge National Urban Park. Most remaining'Rouge Park' lands were expected to transfer to Parks Canada in 2017. Once established, Rouge National Urban Park will be the largest urban protected area in North America, it stretches from Lake Ontario in the south, north to the post-glacial Oak Ridges Moraine in the north. April 1, 2015, Transport Canada transferred the first lands that would make up Rouge National Urban Park to Parks Canada - 19.1 km2 in the north end of the park in the City of Markham.
On May 15, 2015 the Rouge National Urban Park Act came into force, formally establishing Rouge National Urban Park. The park is open with free admission to visitors 365 days per year. There are over 12 kilometres of rustic hiking trails in the Toronto and Markham areas of the park, though Parks Canada has pl
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is surrounded on the north and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, on the south and east by the American state of New York, whose water boundaries meet in the middle of the lake. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. Many of Ontario's most populous cities, including Toronto, Canada's most populous city, Hamilton, are on the lake's northern or western shores. In the Huron language, the name Ontarí'io means "Lake of Shining Waters", its primary inlet is the Niagara River from Lake Erie. The last in the Great Lakes chain, Lake Ontario serves as the outlet to the Atlantic Ocean via the Saint Lawrence River, it is the only Great Lake not to border the state of Michigan. Lake Ontario is the easternmost of the Great Lakes and the smallest in surface area, although it exceeds Lake Erie in volume, it is the 13th largest lake in the world. When its islands are included, the lake's shoreline is 712 miles long.
As the last lake in the Great Lakes' hydrologic chain, Lake Ontario has the lowest mean surface elevation of the lakes at 243 feet above sea level. Its maximum length is 193 statute miles and its maximum width is 53 statute miles; the lake's average depth is 47 fathoms 1 foot, with a maximum depth of 133 fathoms 4 feet. The lake's primary source is the Niagara River, draining Lake Erie, with the St. Lawrence River serving as the outlet; the drainage basin covers 24,720 square miles. As with all the Great Lakes, water levels change both among years; these water level fluctuations are an integral part of lake ecology, produce and maintain extensive wetlands. The lake has an important freshwater fishery, although it has been negatively affected by factors including over-fishing, water pollution and invasive species. Baymouth bars built by prevailing winds and currents have created a significant number of lagoons and sheltered harbors near Prince Edward County and the easternmost shores; the best-known example is Toronto Bay, chosen as the site of the Upper Canada capital for its strategic harbour.
Other prominent examples include Hamilton Harbour, Irondequoit Bay, Presqu'ile Bay, Sodus Bay. The bars themselves are the sites of long beaches, such as Sandbanks Provincial Park and Sandy Island Beach State Park; these sand bars are associated with large wetlands, which support large numbers of plant and animal species, as well as providing important rest areas for migratory birds. Presqu'ile, on the north shore of Lake Ontario, is significant in this regard. One unique feature of the lake is the Z-shaped Bay of Quinte which separates Prince Edward County from the Ontario mainland, save for a 2-mile isthmus near Trenton. Major rivers draining into Lake Ontario include the Niagara River, Don River, Humber River, Trent River, Cataraqui River, Genesee River, Oswego River, Black River, Little Salmon River, the Salmon River; the lake basin was carved out of soft, weak Silurian-age rocks by the Wisconsin ice sheet during the last ice age. The action of the ice occurred along the pre-glacial Ontarian River valley which had the same orientation as today's basin.
Material, pushed southward by the ice sheet left landforms such as drumlins and moraines, both on the modern land surface and the lake bottom, reorganizing the region's entire drainage system. As the ice sheet retreated toward the north, it still dammed the St. Lawrence valley outlet, so the lake surface was at a higher level; this stage is known as Lake Iroquois. During that time the lake drained through present-day Syracuse, New York into the Mohawk River, thence to the Hudson River and the Atlantic; the shoreline created during this stage can be recognized by the beaches and wave-cut hills 10 to 25 miles from the present shoreline. When the ice receded from the St. Lawrence valley, the outlet was below sea level, for a short time the lake became a bay of the Atlantic Ocean, in association with the Champlain Sea; the land rebounded from the release of the weight of about 6,500 feet of ice, stacked on it. It is still rebounding about 12 inches per century in the St. Lawrence area. Since the ice receded from the area last, the most rapid rebound still occurs there.
This means the lake bed is tilting southward, inundating the south shore and turning river valleys into bays. Both north and south shores experience shoreline erosion, but the tilting amplifies this effect on the south shore, causing loss to property owners; the name Ontario is derived from the Huron word Ontarí'io, which means "great lake". The lake was a border between the Huron people and the Iroquois Confederacy in the pre-Columbian era. In the 1600s, the Iroquois drove out the Huron from southern Ontario and settled the northern shores of Lake Ontario; when the Iroquois withdrew and the Anishnabeg / Ojibwa / Mississaugas moved in from the north to southern Ontario, they retained the Iroquois name. It is believed the first European to reach the lake was Étienne Brûlé in 1615; as was their practice, the French explorers introduced other names for the lake. In 1632 and 1656, the lake was referred to as Lac de St. Louis or Lake St. Louis by Samuel de Champlain and cartographer Nicolas Sanson In
The Tabacco people, Tobacco nation, the Petun, or Tionontati in their Iroquoian language, were a historical First Nations band government related to the Huron Confederacy. Their homeland was located along the southwest edge of Georgian Bay of Lake Huron, in the area to the west of the Huron territory in Southern Ontario of present-day Canada. One of the smaller Iroquoian tribes when they became known to Europeans, they had eight to ten villages around the 1610s, may have numbered several thousand prior to European contact; the French missionaries of the early 1600s named them the Tobacco Nation because they grew large quantities of tobacco, which they traded extensively. Following decimation by Eurasian infectious diseases after 1634, such as smallpox, to which Native Americans had no immunity, both the Huron-Wendat and Petun societies were in a weakened state through the late 1630s-1640s. Although they each spoke Iroquoian languages, they were independent of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based south of the Great Lakes in present-day New York.
The powerful Iroquois sent raiding parties against the smaller tribes in 1648–1649 as part of the Beaver Wars associated with the lucrative fur trade, destroyed them. Some remnant Petun joined with refugee Huron to become the Huron–Petun Nation, who were known as the Wyandot. French traders called these First Nations people the Pétun from an old French word for tobacco, because of their industrious cultivation of that plant; the word Pétun was derived from the early French-Brazilian trade and comes from the Guarani indigenous language. The word became obsolete in the French language. In the Iroquoian Mohawk language, the name for tobacco is O-ye-aug-wa. French colonial traders in the Ohio Valley transliterated the Mohawk name as Guyandotte, their spelling of how it sounded in their language. European-American settlers in the valley adopted this name, they named the Guyandotte River in south-western West Virginia for the Wendat people, who had migrated to the area during the Beaver Wars of the late seventeenth century.
Under settler pressure, the Wendat were forced to move further west to Ohio territory. In the 1830s during the period of Indian Removal, most removed to Indian Territory in present-day Kansas and Oklahoma. Two tribes are federally recognized in the United States: the Wyandotte Nation and the Wyandot Nation of Kansas; the Jesuit Relations of 1652 describes the practice of tattooing among the Petun and the Neutrals: And this in some nations is so common that in the one which we called the Tobacco, in that which – on account of enjoying peace with the Hurons and with the Iroquois – was called Neutral, I know not whether a single individual was found, not painted in this manner, on some part of the body. The Petun nation shared a similar dialect with the Huron Nation and many of the same cultural customs, they had an alliance with the Neutral Nation and with the Ottawa, or Odawa, an Algonquian-speaking nation. By 1648 this nation, along with the Huron, Erie and Wenro nations, were under attack by warriors of the Iroquois Confederacy.
All were destroyed in 1650 or 1651. Members who survived were absorbed by other nations; some of the Petun joined with the Huron to create the Petun-Huron nation. After years of wandering and living in various areas of the Great Lakes, this group was living near Detroit by 1701 and claimed land north of the Ohio River, they began to trade in Pennsylvania, where they were called a corruption of Wendat. In 1843, they were all resettled in Wyandotte County, Kansas and in 1867, the American government gave them land in Indian Territory, now northeastern Oklahoma. St. Lawrence Iroquoians Mohawk Onondaga Oneida Cayuga Seneca Chonnonton Erie Susquehannock Petun Wenro Huron Cherokee Meherrin Nottoway Tuscarora, left the Carolinas after the wars, migrated to New York by 1722