Headquarters denotes the location where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated. In the United States, the corporate headquarters represents the entity at the center or the top of a corporation taking full responsibility for managing all business activities. In the United Kingdom, the term head office is most used for the HQs of large corporations; the term is used regarding military organizations. A headquarters is the entity at the top of a corporation that takes full responsibility for the overall success of the corporation, ensures corporate governance; the corporate headquarters is a key element of a corporate structure and covers different corporate functions such as strategic planning, corporate communications, legal, finance, human resources, information technology, procurement. This entity includes the chief executive officer as a key person and his or her support staff such as the CEO office and other CEO-related functions. Many companies have a registered office at a different address to their corporate office.
A headquarters includes the leader of business unit and his or her staff as well as all functions to manage the business unit and operational activities. The head of the business unit is responsible for overall result of the business unit. A headquarters sometimes functions at the top of regional unit, including all activities of the various business units, taking full responsibility for overall profitability and success of this regional unit. Military headquarters take many forms depending on the size and nature of the unit or formation they command, they are split into the forward and rear components, both within NATO nations, those following the organization and doctrine of the former Soviet Union. The forward or tactical HQs is a small group of staff and communicators. Mobile, they exist to allow the commander to go forward in an operation, command the key parts of it from a position where they can see the ground and influence their immediate subordinates; the main HQs is involved in both the planning and execution of operations.
There are a number of staff assembled here from various staff branches to advise the commander, to control the various aspects of planning and the conduct of discrete operations. A main HQ for a large formation will have a chief of staff; the rear or logistic HQs is some distance from the front line in conventional operations. Its function is to ensure the logistical support to front line troops, which it does by organizing the delivery of combat supplies and equipment to where they are needed, by organizing services such as combat medicine, equipment recovery, repair; the headquarters of the Catholic Church is Vatican City. The World Headquarters of Jehovah's Witnesses is relocated in Warwick, New York, from its former location, New York; the headquarters of the Russian Orthodox Church is in Moscow. The World Council of Churches, including Orthodox Churches, has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland; the headquarters of Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is located in Turkey. The headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is located in Salt Lake City, Utah.
The Anglican Communion Office is in London. In Japanese budō martial arts such as karate, aikido, etc. There is a headquarters for each organization or region; the Japanese word honbu is used for that outside Japan. Sometimes they refer to this headquarters as honbu dojo in which dojo is a facility provided for practicing discipline, the training ground. Sometimes honbu is written as hombu, the way it is pronounced, but according to the Hepburn transcription, the correct spelling should be honbu in which the'n' is a syllabic n. Isby, David C. Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army Jane's, London: 516 pp. Wanner, Herbert Global and regional corporate headquarters in: Kählin, Christian, H.: Switzerland Business & Investment Handbook. Wanner, Herbert.
Bearsden is a town in East Dunbartonshire, Scotland, on the northwestern fringe of Greater Glasgow. 6 miles from Glasgow City Centre, the town is a suburb, its housing development coincided with the 1863 introduction of a railway line. The town was named after Bearsden railway station, named after a nearby cottage. Bearsden was ranked the seventh-wealthiest area in Britain in a 2005 survey and has the least social housing of any town in Scotland; the Roman Antonine Wall runs through the town, the remains of a military bath house can be seen near the town centre. In 1649, the first New Kilpatrick parish church was built, which became the centre of administration for the area; the town's official Gaelic name Cille. By the early 20th century, a town had grown up with large townhouses occupied by wealthy commuter business workers. Further development of more affordable housing has increased the population of the town to 28,000. A burgh, the town now has local government being the responsibility of East Dunbartonshire Council, but until 2011, the council had some departmental offices at Boclair House in Bearsden.
The first known settlement on the site of present-day Bearsden was a 2.5 acres Roman fort in the second century AD. Between 142 and 144 AD, under Emperor Antoninus Pius, the Romans built a stone and turf fortification, called the Antonine Wall, between the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of Forth, they built the Military Way, a road that ran parallel, to the south of the wall. The fort was positioned at the intersection of the Military Way, the north-south road between Glasgow and Loch Lomond. A video reconstruction of the site has been produced. In 164 AD, after only 20 years, the Romans withdrew to Hadrian's Wall. Little of the fort remains today. However, close to the fort was a Roman bath-house, built in 142–143 AD; the bath-house's remains were discovered by builders digging foundations for a housing development in 1973. The site was donated to the government, today the remains lie, well-preserved, 150 metres from the town centre. Two further stretches of the Antonine Wall's stone base can be seen in the New Kilpatrick Cemetery on Boclair Road.
Prior to 1649, the area formed. One part was called West, or Old Kilpatrick, covered Dumbarton and areas of west Dunbartonshire, such as Clydebank; the remaining part was named East or New Kilpatrick, covering a much greater area than Bearsden, from the River Clyde at Whiteinch and Yoker to Duntocher and Baldernock. Modern Bearsden began in an agricultural area as a small hamlet called New Kirk close to New Kilpatrick Parish Church, first built in 1649. Close landmarks included Canniesburn Toll, a water mill at Garscube; the present-day church was built in 1807. The size and style of the community prior to urbanisation is recorded in Rambles Round Glasgow, first published in 1854; the author describes a route from Maryhill, crossing the River Kelvin at Garscube Mill to Canniesburn. At that point, the route takes the road to Drymen, rather than the alternative to Milngavie. Of particular note are the woods and gardens surrounding the fine houses of Killermont and Garscube, which are contrasted with a small shop at Canniesburn with nothing left for sale.
The kirk-toun is described as consisting of about a dozen cottages of idyllic rural beauty, isolated from the noise and dirt of Glasgow. The account includes one of the earliest references to "Bear's Den", although the location is not clear, a traditional belief is recorded that it was a Roman burial site; the New Kirk settlement grew from the middle of the nineteenth century when Glaswegian businessmen built houses at a commutable distance from the city. In 1863, the Glasgow and Milngavie Junction Railway opened, with a station near New Kirk called Bearsden; this was soon adopted as the name of the community. The opening of the railway led to considerable development of Bearsden, with many large Victorian houses built in what is now known as Old Bearsden Conservation Area; the Glasgow Reformatory for Girls at East Chapelton moved from Rottenrow to Bearsden in the late 1860s. Managed by Glasgow Corporation, the countryside location moved the girls away from any malign influences to be found in the city and allowed the institution to be self-supporting with livestock and a vegetable garden.
The girls washed those of local residents in the Reformatory's large laundry. In addition to girls who had fallen foul of the courts, others with problems such as malnourishment and learning difficulties were housed at Chapelton. In 1949, around 360 girls passed through the school annually and were taken to New Kilpatrick Parish church on Sundays; the school closed in the early 1970s and after a brief period as a hall of residence for the Nautical College, the building was demolished to make way for a shopping centre with an Asda supermarket. Buchanan Retreat was built in 1890 by the Buchanan sisters of Bellfield, near Kilmarnock, in Ayrshire, it was taken over by Bearsden Burgh in 1962 and, known as Boclair House, used as council offices. Latterly used by East Dunbartonshire council, it was placed on the market in 2012 following council cost-cutting measures and staff redistribution. In 2016 the building opened as Boclair House Hotel, a hotel, wedding venue, restaurant, which has since won several awards.
The Schaw Home was built in 1895 by Miss Marjory Shanks Schaw in memory of her brother and gifted to Glasgow
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, is used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime. The term is derived from the Latin fortis and facere. From early history to modern times, walls have been necessary for cities to survive in an ever-changing world of invasion and conquest; some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were the first small cities to be fortified. In ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, such as the ancient site of Mycenae. A Greek phrourion was a fortified collection of buildings used as a military garrison, is the equivalent of the Roman castellum or English fortress; these constructions served the purpose of a watch tower, to guard certain roads and lands that might threaten the kingdom. Though smaller than a real fortress, they acted as a border guard rather than a real strongpoint to watch and maintain the border; the art of setting out a military camp or constructing a fortification traditionally has been called "castrametation" since the time of the Roman legions.
Fortification is divided into two branches: permanent fortification and field fortification. There is an intermediate branch known as semi-permanent fortification. Castles are fortifications which are regarded as being distinct from the generic fort or fortress in that they are a residence of a monarch or noble and command a specific defensive territory. Roman forts and hill forts were the main antecedents of castles in Europe, which emerged in the 9th century in the Carolingian Empire; the Early Middle Ages saw the creation of some towns built around castles. Medieval-style fortifications were made obsolete by the arrival of cannons in the 14th century. Fortifications in the age of black powder evolved into much lower structures with greater use of ditches and earth ramparts that would absorb and disperse the energy of cannon fire. Walls exposed to direct cannon fire were vulnerable, so the walls were sunk into ditches fronted by earth slopes to improve protection; the arrival of explosive shells in the 19th century led to yet another stage in the evolution of fortification.
Star forts did not fare well against the effects of high explosive, the intricate arrangements of bastions, flanking batteries and the constructed lines of fire for the defending cannon could be disrupted by explosive shells. Steel-and-concrete fortifications were common during the early 20th centuries; however the advances in modern warfare since World War I have made large-scale fortifications obsolete in most situations. Demilitarized zones along borders are arguably another type of fortification, although a passive kind, providing a buffer between hostile militaries. Many US military installations are known as forts. Indeed, during the pioneering era of North America, many outposts on the frontiers non-military outposts, were referred to generically as forts. Larger military installations may be called fortresses; the word fortification can refer to the practice of improving an area's defence with defensive works. City walls are fortifications but are not called fortresses; the art of setting out a military camp or constructing a fortification traditionally has been called castrametation since the time of the Roman legions.
The art/science of laying siege to a fortification and of destroying it is called siegecraft or siege warfare and is formally known as poliorcetics. In some texts this latter term applies to the art of building a fortification. Fortification is divided into two branches: permanent fortification and field fortification. Permanent fortifications are erected at leisure, with all the resources that a state can supply of constructive and mechanical skill, are built of enduring materials. Field fortifications—for example breastworks—and known as fieldworks or earthworks, are extemporized by troops in the field assisted by such local labour and tools as may be procurable and with materials that do not require much preparation, such as earth and light timber, or sandbags. An example of field fortification was the construction of Fort Necessity by George Washington in 1754. There is an intermediate branch known as semi-permanent fortification; this is employed when in the course of a campaign it becomes desirable to protect some locality with the best imitation of permanent defences that can be made in a short time, ample resources and skilled civilian labour being available.
An example of this is the construction of Roman forts in England and in other Roman territories where camps were set up with the intention of staying for some time, but not permanently. Castles are fortifications which are regarded as being distinct from the generic fort or fortress in that it describes a residence of a monarch or noble and commands a specific defensive territory. An example of this is the massive medieval castle of Carcassonne. From early history to modern times, walls have been a necessity for many cities. In Bulgaria, near the town of Provadia a walled fortified settlement today called Solnitsata starting from 4700 BC had a diameter of about 300 feet, was home to 350 people living in two-storey houses, was encircled by a fortified wall; the huge walls around the settlement, which were built tall and with stone blocks which are 6 feet high and 4.5 feet thick, make it one of the earliest walled settlements in Europe but it is younger than the walled town of Sesklo in Greece from 6800 BC.
Uruk in ancient Su
Public baths originated from a communal need for cleanliness at a time when most people did not have access to private bathing facilities. The term "public" is not accurate, as some types of public baths are restricted depending on membership, religious affiliation, or other reasons; as societies have changed, the need for public baths has reduced: dwellings now have their own private bathroom. Public baths have become incorporated into the social system as meeting places; as the title suggests, public bathing does not refer only to bathing. In ancient times public bathing included saunas and relaxation therapies, comparable to today's spas; some of the earliest public baths are found in the ruins in of the Indus Valley Civilization. According to John Keay, the "Great Bath" of Mohenjo Daro in present-day Pakistan was the size of'a modest municipal swimming pool', complete with stairs leading down to the water at each one of its ends; the bath was used for public bathing. The Great Bath and the house of the priest suggest.
In The Book of the Bath, Françoise de Bonneville wrote, "The history of public baths begins in Greece in the sixth century B. C." where men and women washed in basins near places of exercise and intellectual. Gymnasia had indoor basins set overhead, the open maws of marble lions offering showers, circular pools with tiers of steps for lounging. Bathing was ritualized, becoming an art – of cleansing sands, hot water, hot air in dark vaulted "vapor baths", a cooling plunge, a rubdown with aromatic oils. Cities all over Ancient Greece honored sites where "young ephebes stood and splashed water over their bodies." The first public thermae of 19 BC had a rotunda 25 metres across, circled by small rooms, set in a park with artificial river and pool. By AD 300 the Baths of Diocletian would cover 140,000 square metres, its soaring granite and porphyry sheltering 3,000 bathers a day. Roman baths became "something like a cross between an aquacentre and a theme park", with pools, game rooms, gardens libraries and theatres.
One of the most famous public bath sites is Aquae Sulis in England. Dr. Garrett G Fagan, a professor at Pennsylvania State University, described public bathing as a "social event" for the Romans in his book Bathing in Public in the Roman World, he states that "In Western Europe only the Finns still practice a public bathing habit." Public baths were used throughout the Ottoman Empire. The baths had both a religious and popular origin, deriving from the Islamic ablution ritual and the use of steamrooms by the Turks; the Turkish bath, known as hammam, was considered a place for social gatherings in Turkish culture. The process of hammam is similar to that of Roman bathing; the origin of Japanese bathing is ritual purification with water. After Japan imported Buddhist culture, many temples had saunas, which were available for anyone to use for free. In the Heian period, houses of prominent families, such as the families of court nobles or samurai, had baths; the bath instead became leisure. Misogi became Gyōzui.
In the 17th century, the first European visitors to Japan recorded the habit of daily baths in sexually mixed groups. Before the mid-19th century, when Western influence increased, nude communal bathing for men and children at the local unisex public bath, or sentō, was a daily fact of life. In contemporary times, but not all administrative regions forbid nude mixed gender public baths. Public baths using water from onsen are popular. Towns with hot springs are destination resorts, which are visited daily by the locals and people from other, neighboring towns. Traditionally in Indonesia, bathing is always "public", in the sense that people might converge in riverbanks, pools or watersprings either for bathing or washing laundry. However, for modesty purposes, some sections of riverbanks apply sex segregation. Bathing naked is quite uncommon, as people might still use kain jarik wrapped around their body to cover their genitals during bathing. More modest bathing springs might use weaved bamboo partitions for privacy.
This is still rural areas in Indonesia. The 8th-century complex of Ratu Boko contains a petirtaan or bathing pools structure enclosed within walled compound; this suggests that other than bathing in riverbanks or springs, people of ancient Java of Medang Kingdom developed a bathing pool, although it was not "public", since the pool was believed to be reserved for royalties or people residing in this compound. The 14th-century Majapahit city of Trowulan, contains several bathing structures, such as Candi Tikus bathing pool, believed to be a royal bathing pool, Segaran reservoir or large public pool; the Hindu-majority island of Bali contains several public bathing pools, some dated from the 9th century such as Goa Gajah. A notable public bathing pool is Tirta Empul, which more linked to Balinese Hinduism cleansing ritual than recreation of sanitation purpose; the bubbling water of is the main source of Pakerisan river. Roman style public baths were introduced on a limited scale by returning crusaders in the 11th and 12th centuries, who had enjoyed warm baths in the Middle East.
These, however degenerated into brothels or at least the reputation as such and were closed down at various times. For instance, in England during the reign of Henry II, bath houses, called bagnios from the Italian word for bath, were set up in Southwark on the river Thames, they were all closed down by Henry VIII in 1546 due to t
The hectare is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100-metre sides, or 10,000 m2, is used in the measurement of land. There are 100 hectares in one square kilometre. An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres. In 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the "are" was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 "ares" or 1⁄100 km2; when the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units, the are was not included as a recognised unit. The hectare, remains as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI units, mentioned in Section 4.1 of the SI Brochure as a unit whose use is "expected to continue indefinitely". The name was coined from the Latin ārea; the metric system of measurement was first given a legal basis in 1795 by the French Revolutionary government. The law of 18 Germinal, Year III defined five units of measure: The metre for length The are for area The stère for volume of stacked firewood The litre for volumes of liquid The gram for massIn 1960, when the metric system was updated as the International System of Units, the are did not receive international recognition.
The International Committee for Weights and Measures makes no mention of the are in the current definition of the SI, but classifies the hectare as a "Non-SI unit accepted for use with the International System of Units". In 1972, the European Economic Community passed directive 71/354/EEC, which catalogued the units of measure that might be used within the Community; the units that were catalogued replicated the recommendations of the CGPM, supplemented by a few other units including the are whose use was limited to the measurement of land. The names centiare, deciare and hectare are derived by adding the standard metric prefixes to the original base unit of area, the are; the centiare is one square metre. The deciare is ten square metres; the are is a unit of area, used for measuring land area. It was defined by older forms of the metric system, but is now outside the modern International System of Units, it is still used in colloquial speech to measure real estate, in particular in Indonesia, in various European countries.
In Russian and other languages of the former Soviet Union, the are is called sotka. It is used to describe the size of suburban dacha or allotment garden plots or small city parks where the hectare would be too large; the decare is derived from deca and are, is equal to 10 ares or 1000 square metres. It is used in Norway and in the former Ottoman areas of the Middle East and the Balkans as a measure of land area. Instead of the name "decare", the names of traditional land measures are used, redefined as one decare: Stremma in Greece Dunam, donum, or dönüm in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey Mål is sometimes used for decare in Norway, from the old measure of about the same area; the hectare, although not a unit of SI, is the only named unit of area, accepted for use within the SI. In practice the hectare is derived from the SI, being equivalent to a square hectometre, it is used throughout the world for the measurement of large areas of land, it is the legal unit of measure in domains concerned with land ownership and management, including law, agriculture and town planning throughout the European Union.
The United Kingdom, United States, to some extent Canada use the acre instead. Some countries that underwent a general conversion from traditional measurements to metric measurements required a resurvey when units of measure in legal descriptions relating to land were converted to metric units. Others, such as South Africa, published conversion factors which were to be used "when preparing consolidation diagrams by compilation". In many countries, metrication clarified existing measures in terms of metric units; the following legacy units of area have been redefined as being equal to one hectare: Jerib in Iran Djerib in Turkey Gong Qing in Hong Kong / mainland China Manzana in Argentina Bunder in The Netherlands The most used units are in bold. One hectare is equivalent to: 1 square hectometre 15 mǔ or 0.15 qǐng 10 dunam or dönüm 10 stremmata 6.25 rai ≈ 1.008 chō ≈ 2.381 feddan Conversion of units Hecto- Hectometre Order of magnitude Official SI website: Table 6. Non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units
Balmuildy is the site of a Roman fort on the Antonine Wall in Scotland. It is one of only two forts on the Antonine Wall to have been found with stone ramparts. A digital reconstruction of the fort has been created; the fort is located in Glasgow, west of Bishopbriggs and east of Bearsden, south of the River Kelvin and north of the Forth and Clyde Canal. The fort was just south of the River Kelvin and north-west of Easter Balmuildy Farm which locates it within Glasgow City Council's borders, close to East Dunbartonshire to the east, its neighbouring forts are Bearsden to the west and Cadder to the east although there are intermediate fortlets at Summerston to the west and Wilderness Plantation to the east. See map below for details. Balmuildy Castro was constructed between 142 and 154 AD at the order of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius. Quintus Lollius Urbicus, governor of Roman Britain at the time supervised the effort, it was one of sixteen forts built to support the Antonine Wall, with small fortlets between them.
Antoninus Pius never visited Britain. Pressure from the Caledonians may have led Antoninus to send the empire's troops further north; the wall, Balmuildy, was abandoned only eight years after completion, the garrisons relocated back to Hadrian's Wall. In 208 Emperor Septimius ordered repairs; the occupation ended a few years and the wall was not occupied again. Most Roman forts along the wall held garrisons of around 500 men. Larger forts like Castlecary and Birrens had a nominal cohort of 1,000 men but sheltered women and children as well, although the troops were not allowed to marry, it is that there were large communities of civilians around the site. The site was excavated by Steuart Napier Miller who wrote about it in his 1922 volume: The Roman fort at Balmuildy on the Antonine Wall. Sir George Macdonald described the site in the 1934 in The Roman wall in Scotland; the related site of Summerston was written about by J. M. Davidson in 1937. An altar to Fortuna was found in one of the fort's bath houses similar to the one found at Castlecary.
There was an altar dedicated to Mars found along with some statues. A dedication to a building by the Second Legion was found although the stone had been repurposed by farmers. Fragments of another stone by the same legion were discovered. Part has been scanned and a video produced. All of these finds are now in the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow. Other discoveries include: a door hinge plate, a terracotta bath house drainpipe, a holdfast to stick tiles to the bath house wall, a perfume pot, an unguent pot, a Samian ware platter, a clay cheese press. An oil lamp and a surgical probe have been scanned to video