Plasterwork refers to construction or ornamentation done with plaster, such as a layer of plaster on an interior or exterior wall structure, or plaster decorative moldings on ceilings or walls. This is sometimes called pargeting; the process of creating plasterwork, called plastering or rendering, has been used in building construction for centuries. For the art history of three-dimensional plaster, see stucco; the earliest plasters known to us were lime-based. Around 7500 BC, the people of'Ain Ghazal in Jordan used lime mixed with unheated crushed limestone to make plaster, used on a large scale for covering walls and hearths in their houses. Walls and floors were decorated with red, finger-painted patterns and designs. In ancient India and China, renders in clay and gypsum plasters were used to produce a smooth surface over rough stone or mud brick walls, while in early Egyptian tombs, walls were coated with lime and gypsum plaster and the finished surface was painted or decorated. Modelled stucco was employed throughout the Roman Empire.
The Romans used mixtures of lime and sand to build up preparatory layers over which finer applications of gypsum, lime and marble dust were made. Following the fall of the Roman Empire, the addition of marble dust to plaster to allow the production of fine detail and a hard, smooth finish in hand-modelled and moulded decoration was not used until the Renaissance. Around the 4th century BC, the Romans discovered the principles of the hydraulic set of lime, which by the addition of reactive forms of silica and alumina, such as volcanic earths, could solidify even under water. There was little use of hydraulic mortar after the Roman period until the 18th century. Plaster decoration was used in Europe in the Middle Ages where, from the mid-13th century, gypsum plaster was used for internal and external plaster. Hair was employed as reinforcement, with additives to assist set or plasticity including malt, beer and eggs. In the 14th century, decorative plasterwork called pargeting was being used in South-East England to decorate the exterior of timber-framed buildings.
This is a form of incised, moulded or modelled ornament, executed in lime putty or mixtures of lime and gypsum plaster. During this same period, terracotta was reintroduced into Europe and was used for the production of ornament. In the mid-15th century, Venetian skilled workers developed a new type of external facing, called marmorino made by applying lime directly onto masonry. In the 16th century, a new decorative type of decorative internal plasterwork, called scagliola, was invented by stuccoists working in Bavaria; this was composed of gypsum plaster, animal glue and pigments, used to imitate coloured marbles and pietre dure ornament. Sand or marble dust, lime, were sometimes added. In this same century, the sgraffito technique known as graffito or scratchwork was introduced into Germany by Italian artists, combining it with modelled stucco decoration; this technique was practised in antiquity and was described by Vasari as being a quick and durable method for decorating building facades.
Here, layers of contrasting lime plaster were applied and a design scratched through the upper layer to reveal the colour beneath. The 17th century saw the introduction of different types of internal plasterwork. Stucco marble was an artificial marble made using gypsum, pigments and glue. Stucco lustro was another a form of imitation marble where a thin layer of lime or gypsum plaster was applied over a scored support of lime, with pigments scattered on surface of the wet plaster; the 18th century gave rise to renewed interest in innovative external plasters. Oil mastics introduced in the UK in this period included a "Composition or stone paste" patented in 1765 by David Wark; this was a lime-based mix and included "oyls of tar and linseed" besides many other ingredients. Another "Composition or cement", including drying oil, was patented in 1773 by Rev. John Liardet. A similar product was patented in 1777 by John Johnson. Used by the architect Robert Adam who in turn commissioned George Jackson to produce reverse-cut boxwood moulds.
Jackson formed an independent company which still today produces composition pressings and retains a large boxwood mould collection. In 1774, in France, a mémoire was published on the composition of ancient mortars; this was translated into English as "A Practical Essay on a Cement, Artificial Stone, justly supposed to be that of the Greeks and Romans" and was published in the same year. Following this, as a backlash to the disappointment felt due to the repeated failure of oil mastics, in the second half of the 18th century water-based renders gained popularity once more. Mixes for renders were patented, including a "Water Cement, or Stucco" consisting of lime, bone ash and lime-water. Various experiments mixing different limes with volcanic earths took place in the 18th century. John Smeaton experimented with hydraulic limes and concluded that the best limes were those fired from limestones containing a considerable quantity of clay]ey material. In 1796, Revd James Parker patented Parker's "Roman Cement".
This was a hydraulic cement. It could be cast to form mouldings and other ornaments, it was however of an unattractive brown colour. Natural cements were used in stucco mixes during the 1820s; the popularisation of Portland cement changed the composition of stucco, as well as mortar, to a harder material. The dev
Harling (wall finish)
Harling is a rough-cast wall finish consisting of lime and aggregate, notable for its rough texture. Many castles in Scotland have walls finished with harling. It's used on contemporary buildings, where it protects against the wet Scottish climate and eliminates the need for paint. Harling as a process covers stonework using a plastering process involving a slurry of small pebbles or fine chips of stone. After a wall is complete and has been pointed and allowed to cure a base of lime render is applied to the bare stone. While this render is still wet a specially shaped trowel is used to throw the pebbles onto the lime surface, which are lightly pressed into it. Harl, being lime render, cures chemically rather than drying. After this setting process, the harl is sometimes lime washed in various colours using traditional techniques, it is not recommendable to replace more than around 20% of the lime content with cement. Cement-based render is stiff and prone to crack or detach from the wall when subjected to stress induced by expansion due to solar radiation and moisture.
It is less permeable to moisture and water vapour. Water entering through fine cracks in the surface does not diffuse and can penetrate into the softer stone, thus causing the deterioration which harling aims to prevent. For similar reasons modern barrier paints should not be used in place of traditional lime washes; the technique of harling features in a large number of famous Scottish buildings including: Clark Cottage on the island of Islay Crathes Castle in Aberdeenshire Craigievar Castle in Aberdeenshire Muchalls Castle in Aberdeenshire Myres Castle in Fife Stirling Castle in Stirling Stucco Roughcast Pargetting Scottish Lime Centre
A tile is a thin object square or rectangular in shape. Tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, metal, baked clay, or glass used for covering roofs, walls, or other objects such as tabletops. Alternatively, tile can sometimes refer to similar units made from lightweight materials such as perlite and mineral wool used for wall and ceiling applications. In another sense, a tile is a construction tile or similar object, such as rectangular counters used in playing games; the word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from the Latin word tegula, meaning a roof tile composed of fired clay. Tiles are used to form wall and floor coverings, can range from simple square tiles to complex or mosaics. Tiles are most made of ceramic glazed for internal uses and unglazed for roofing, but other materials are commonly used, such as glass, cork and other composite materials, stone. Tiling stone is marble, granite or slate. Thinner tiles can be used on walls than on floors, which require more durable surfaces that will resist impacts.
Decorative tilework or tile art should be distinguished from mosaic, where forms are made of great numbers of tiny irregularly positioned tesserae, each of a single color of glass or sometimes ceramic or stone. The earliest evidence of glazed brick is the discovery of glazed bricks in the Elamite Temple at Chogha Zanbil, dated to the 13th century BC. Glazed and colored bricks were used to make low reliefs in Ancient Mesopotamia, most famously the Ishtar Gate of Babylon, now reconstructed in Berlin, with sections elsewhere. Mesopotamian craftsmen were imported for the palaces of the Persian Empire such as Persepolis; the use of sun-dried bricks or adobe was the main method of building in Mesopotamia where river mud was found in abundance along the Tigris and Euphrates. Here the scarcity of stone may have been an incentive to develop the technology of making kiln-fired bricks to use as an alternative. To strengthen walls made from sun-dried bricks, fired bricks began to be used as an outer protective skin for more important buildings like temples, city walls and gates.
Making fired. Fired bricks are solid masses of clay heated in kilns to temperatures of between 950° and 1,150°C, a well-made fired brick is an durable object. Like sun-dried bricks they were made in wooden molds but for bricks with relief decorations special molds had to be made. Rooms with tiled floors made of clay decorated with geometric circular patterns have been discovered from the ancient remains of Kalibangan and AhladinoTiling was used in the second century by the Sinhalese kings of ancient Sri Lanka, using smoothed and polished stone laid on floors and in swimming pools. Historians consider the techniques and tools for tiling as well advanced, evidenced by the fine workmanship and close fit of the tiles. Tiling from this period can be seen in Ruwanwelisaya and Kuttam Pokuna in the city of Anuradhapura; the Achaemenid Empire decorated buildings with glazed brick tiles, including Darius the Great's palace at Susa, buildings at Persepolis. The succeeding Sassanid Empire used tiles patterned with geometric designs, plants and human beings, glazed up to a centimeter thick.
Early Islamic mosaics in Iran consist of geometric decorations in mosques and mausoleums, made of glazed brick. Typical turquoise tiling becomes popular in 10th-11th century and is used for Kufic inscriptions on mosque walls. Seyyed Mosque in Isfahan, Dome of Maraqeh and the Jame Mosque of Gonabad are among the finest examples; the dome of Jame' Atiq Mosque of Qazvin is dated to this period. The golden age of Persian tilework began during the reign the Timurid Empire. In the moraq technique, single-color tiles were cut into small geometric pieces and assembled by pouring liquid plaster between them. After hardening, these panels were assembled on the walls of buildings, but the mosaic was not limited to flat areas. Tiles were used to cover both the exterior surfaces of domes. Prominent Timurid examples of this technique include the Jame Mosque of Yazd, Goharshad Mosque, the Madrassa of Khan in Shiraz, the Molana Mosque. Other important tile techniques of this time include girih tiles, with their characteristic white girih, or straps.
Mihrabs, being the focal points of mosques, were the places where most sophisticated tilework was placed. The 14th-century mihrab at Madrasa Imami in Isfahan is an outstanding example of aesthetic union between the Islamic calligrapher's art and abstract ornament; the pointed arch, framing the mihrab's niche, bears an inscription in Kufic script used in 9th-century Qur'an. One of the best known architectural masterpieces of Iran is the Shah Mosque in Isfahan, from the 17th century, its dome is a prime example of tile mosaic and its winter praying hall houses one of the finest ensembles of cuerda seca tiles in the world. A wide variety of tiles had to be manufactured in order to cover complex forms of the hall with consistent mosaic patterns; the result was a technological triumph as well as a dazzling display of abstract ornament. During the Safavid period, mosaic ornaments were replaced by a haft rang technique. Pictures were painted on plain rectangle tiles and fired afterwards. Besides economic reasons, the seven colors method gave more freedom to artists and was less time-consuming.
It was popular until the Qajar period, when the palette of colors was extended by orange. The seven colors of Haft Rang tiles were black, ultramarine
Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral composed of oxides, hydroxide calcium oxide and/ or calcium hydroxide. It is the name for calcium oxide which occurs as a product of coal seam fires and in altered limestone xenoliths in volcanic ejecta; the word lime originates with its earliest use as building mortar and has the sense of sticking or adhering. These materials are still used in large quantities as building and engineering materials, as chemical feedstocks, for sugar refining, among other uses. Lime industries and the use of many of the resulting products date from prehistoric times in both the Old World and the New World. Lime is used extensively for wastewater treatment with ferrous sulfate; the rocks and minerals from which these materials are derived limestone or chalk, are composed of calcium carbonate. They may be crushed, or pulverized and chemically altered. Burning converts them into the caustic material quicklime and, through subsequent addition of water, into the less caustic slaked lime or hydrated lime, the process of, called slaking of lime.
Lime kilns are the kilns used for lime slaking. When the term is encountered in an agricultural context, it refers to agricultural lime, crushed limestone, not a product of a lime kiln. Otherwise it most means slaked lime, as the more dangerous form is described more as quicklime or burnt lime. In the lime industry, limestone is a general term for rocks that contain 80% or more of calcium or magnesium carbonates, including marble, chalk and marl. Further classification is by composition as high calcium, silicious, magnesian and other limestones. Uncommon sources of lime include coral, sea shells and ankerite. Limestone is extracted from mines. Part of the extracted stone, selected according to its chemical composition and optical granulometry, is calcinated at about 1,000 °C in different types of lime kilns to produce quicklime according to the reaction: CaCO 3 calcium carbonate → heat CaO calcium oxide + CO 2 carbon dioxide. Before use, quicklime is hydrated, combined with water, called slaking, so hydrated lime is known as slaked lime, is produced according to the reaction: CaO + H 2 O water ⟶ Ca 2 calcium hydroxide.
Dry slaking is when quicklime is slaked with just enough water to hydrate the quicklime, but remain as a powder and is referred to as hydrated lime. In wet slaking, a slight excess of water is added to hydrate the quicklime to a form referred to as lime putty; because lime has an adhesive property with bricks and stones, it is used as binding material in masonry works. It is used in whitewashing as wall coat to adhere the whitewash onto the wall; the process by which limestone is converted to quicklime by heating to slaked lime by hydration, reverts to calcium carbonate by carbonation is called the lime cycle. The conditions and compounds present during each step of the lime cycle have a strong influence of the end product, thus the complex and varied physical nature of lime products. An example is when slaked lime is mixed into a thick slurry with sand and water to form mortar for building purposes; when the masonry has been laid, the slaked lime in the mortar begins to react with carbon dioxide to form calcium carbonate according to the reaction: Ca2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O.
The carbon dioxide that takes part in this reaction is principally available in the air or dissolved in rainwater so pure lime mortar will not recarbonate under water or inside a thick masonry wall. The lime cycle for dolomitic and magnesium lime is not well understood but more complex because the magnesium compounds slake to periclase which slake more than calcium oxide and when hydrated produce several other compounds thus these limes contain inclusions of portlandite, brucite and other magnesium hydroxycarbonate compounds; these magnesium compounds have limited, contradictory research which questions whether they "...may be reactive with acid rain, which could lead to the formation of magnesium sulfate salts." Magnesium sulfate salts may damage the mortar when they dry and recrystalize due to expansion of the crystals as they form, known as sulfate attack. Lime used in building materials is broadly classified as "pure", "hydraulic", "poor" lime. Uses include lime mortar, lime plaster, lime render, lime-ash floors, tabby concrete, silicate mineral paint, limestone blocks which may be of many types.
The qualities of the many types of processed lime affect. The Romans used two types of lime mortar to make Roman concrete, which allowed them to revolutionize architectur
Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments. Gravel is classified by particle size range and includes size classes from granule- to boulder-sized fragments. In the Udden-Wentworth scale gravel is categorized into granular pebble gravel. ISO 14688 grades gravels as fine and coarse with ranges 2 mm to 6.3 mm to 20 mm to 63 mm. One cubic metre of gravel weighs about 1,800 kg. Gravel is an important commercial product, with a number of applications. Many roadways are surfaced with gravel in rural areas where there is little traffic. Globally, far more roads are surfaced with gravel than with tarmac. Both sand and small gravel are important for the manufacture of concrete. Large gravel deposits are a common geological feature, being formed as a result of the weathering and erosion of rocks; the action of rivers and waves tends to pile up gravel in large accumulations. This can sometimes result in gravel becoming compacted and lithified into the sedimentary rock called conglomerate. Where natural gravel deposits are insufficient for human purposes, gravel is produced by quarrying and crushing hard-wearing rocks, such as sandstone, limestone, or basalt.
Quarries where gravel is extracted are known as gravel pits. Southern England possesses large concentrations of them due to the widespread deposition of gravel in the region during the Ice Ages; as of 2006, the United States is consumer of gravel. The word gravel comes from the Breton language. In Breton, "grav" means coast. Adding the "-el" suffix in Breton denotes the component parts of something larger, thus "gravel" means the small stones which make up such a beach on the coast. Many dictionaries ignore the Breton language, citing Old French gravelle. Gravel has the meaning a mixture of different size pieces of stone mixed with sand and some clay. In American English, rocks broken into small pieces by a crusher are known as crushed stone. Types of gravel include: Bank gravel: deposited gravel intermixed with sand or clay found in and next to rivers and streams. Known as "bank run" or "river run". Bench gravel: a bed of gravel located on the side of a valley above the present stream bottom, indicating the former location of the stream bed when it was at a higher level.
Creek rock or river rock: this is rounded, semi-polished stones of a wide range of types, that are dredged or scooped from stream beds. It is often used as concrete aggregate and less as a paving surface. Crushed stone: rock crushed and graded by screens and mixed to a blend of stones and fines, it is used as a surfacing for roads and driveways, sometimes with tar applied over it. Crushed stone may be made from granite, limestone and other rocks. Known as "crusher run", DGA QP, shoulder stone. Fine gravel: gravel consisting of particles with a diameter of 2 to 8 mm. Stone dust: fine, gravel from the final stage of screen separation, such that the gravel is not separated out from fine dust particles. Lag gravel: a surface accumulation of coarse gravel produced by the removal of finer particles. Pay gravel: known as "pay dirt"; the metals are recovered through gold panning. Pea gravel: known as "pea shingle" is gravel that consists of small, rounded stones used in concrete surfaces. Used for walkways, driveways and as a substrate in home aquariums.
Piedmont gravel: a coarse gravel carried down from high places by mountain streams and deposited on flat ground, where the water runs more slowly. Plateau gravel: a layer of gravel on a plateau or other region above the height at which stream-terrace gravel is found. In locales where gravelly soil is predominant, plant life is more sparse; this outcome derives from the inferior ability of gravels to retain moisture, as well as the corresponding paucity of mineral nutrients, since finer soils that contain such minerals are present in smaller amounts. Construction aggregate Pebble Rock Media related to Gravel at Wikimedia Commons
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets and adheres to other materials to bind them together. Cement is used on its own, but rather to bind sand and gravel together. Cement mixed with fine aggregate produces mortar for masonry, or with sand and gravel, produces concrete. Cement is the most used material in existence and is only behind water as the planet's most-consumed resource. Cements used in construction are inorganic lime or calcium silicate based, can be characterized as either hydraulic or non-hydraulic, depending on the ability of the cement to set in the presence of water. Non-hydraulic cement does not set under water. Rather, it sets as it reacts with carbon dioxide in the air, it is resistant to attack by chemicals after setting. Hydraulic cements set and become adhesive due to a chemical reaction between the dry ingredients and water; the chemical reaction results in mineral hydrates that are not water-soluble and so are quite durable in water and safe from chemical attack.
This allows setting in wet conditions or under water and further protects the hardened material from chemical attack. The chemical process for hydraulic cement found by ancient Romans used volcanic ash with added lime; the word "cement" can be traced back to the Roman term opus caementicium, used to describe masonry resembling modern concrete, made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder. The volcanic ash and pulverized brick supplements that were added to the burnt lime, to obtain a hydraulic binder, were referred to as cementum, cimentum, cäment, cement. In modern times, organic polymers are sometimes used as cements in concrete. Non-hydraulic cement, such as slaked lime, hardens by carbonation in the presence of carbon dioxide, present in the air. First calcium oxide is produced from calcium carbonate by calcination at temperatures above 825 °C for about 10 hours at atmospheric pressure: CaCO3 → CaO + CO2The calcium oxide is spent mixing it with water to make slaked lime: CaO + H2O → Ca2Once the excess water is evaporated, the carbonation starts: Ca2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2OThis reaction takes time, because the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the air is low.
The carbonation reaction requires that the dry cement be exposed to air, so the slaked lime is a non-hydraulic cement and cannot be used under water. This process is called the lime cycle. Conversely, hydraulic cement hardens by hydration. Hydraulic cements are made of a mixture of silicates and oxides, the four main components being: Belite; the silicates are responsible for the cement's mechanical properties—the tricalcium aluminate and brownmillerite are essential for formation of the liquid phase during the kiln sintering. The chemistry of these reactions is not clear and is still the object of research; the earliest known occurrence of cement is from twelve million years ago. A deposit of cement was formed after an occurrence of oil shale located adjacent to a bed of limestone burned due to natural causes; these ancient deposits were investigated in the 1970s. Cement, chemically speaking, is a product that includes lime as the primary curing ingredient, but is far from the first material used for cementation.
The Babylonians and Assyrians used bitumen to bind together burnt alabaster slabs. In Egypt stone blocks were cemented together with a mortar made of sand and burnt gypsum, which contained calcium carbonate. Lime was used by the ancient Greeks. There is evidence that the Minoans of Crete used crushed potshards as an artificial pozzolan for hydraulic cement. Nobody knows who first discovered that a combination of hydrated non-hydraulic lime and a pozzolan produces a hydraulic mixture —but such concrete was used by the Ancient Macedonians, three centuries on a large scale by Roman engineers. There is... a kind of powder. It is found in the neighborhood of Baiae and in the country belonging to the towns round about Mt. Vesuvius; this substance when mixed with lime and rubble not only lends strength to buildings of other kinds, but when piers of it are constructed in the sea, they set hard under water. The Greeks used volcanic tuff from the island of Thera as their pozzolan and the Romans used crushed volcanic ash with lime.
This mixture could set under water. The material was called pozzolana from the town of Pozzuoli, west of Naples where volcanic ash was extracted. In the absence of pozzolanic ash, the Romans used powdered brick or pottery as a substitute and they may have used crushed tiles for this purpose before discovering natural sources near Rome; the huge dome of the Pantheon in Rome and the massive Baths of Caracalla are examples of ancient structures made from these concretes, many of which still stand. The vast system of Roman aqueducts made extensive use of hydraulic cement. Roman concrete was used on the outside of buildings; the normal technique was to use brick facing material as the formwork for an infill of mortar mixed with an aggregate of broken pieces of stone, potsherds, recycled chunks of concrete, or other building ru
Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs. It is commonplace in wooden buildings from the 19th century and earlier. If the structural frame of load-bearing timber is left exposed on the exterior of the building it may be referred to as half-timbered, in many cases the infill between timbers will be used for decorative effect; the country most known for this kind of architecture is Germany. Timber framed houses are spread all over the country except in the southeast; the method comes from working directly from trees rather than pre-cut dimensional lumber. Hewing this with broadaxes and draw knives and using hand-powered braces and augers and other woodworking tools, artisans or framers could assemble a building. Since this building method has been used for thousands of years in many parts of the world, many styles of historic framing have developed.
These styles are categorized by the type of foundation, walls and where the beams intersect, the use of curved timbers, the roof framing details. A simple timber frame made of straight vertical and horizontal pieces with a common rafter roof without purlins; the term box frame has been used for any kind of framing. The distinction presented here is. Purlins are found in plain timber frames. A cruck is a pair of curved timbers which form a bent or crossframe. More than 4,000 cruck frame buildings have been recorded in the UK. Several types of cruck frames are used. True cruck or full cruck: blades, straight or curved, extend from ground or foundation to the ridge acting as the principal rafters. A full cruck does not need a tie beam. Base cruck: tops of the blades are truncated by the first transverse member such as by a tie beam. Raised cruck: blades land on masonry wall, extend to the ridge. Middle cruck: blades land on masonry wall, are truncated by a collar. Upper cruck: blades land on a tie beam similar to knee rafters.
Jointed cruck: blades are made from pieces joined near eaves in a number of ways. See also: hammerbeam roof End cruck is not a style, but on the gable end of a building. Aisled frames have one or more rows of interior posts; these interior posts carry more structural load than the posts in the exterior walls. This is the same concept of the aisle in church buildings, sometimes called a hall church, where the center aisle is technically called a nave. However, a nave is called an aisle, three-aisled barns are common in the U. S. the Netherlands, Germany. Aisled buildings are wider than the simpler box-framed or cruck-framed buildings, have purlins supporting the rafters. In northern Germany, this construction is known as variations of a Ständerhaus. Half-timbering refers to a structure with a frame of load-bearing timber, creating spaces between the timbers called panels, which are filled-in with some kind of nonstructural material known as infill; the frame is left exposed on the exterior of the building.
The earliest known type of infill, called opus craticum by the Romans, was a wattle and daub type construction. Opus craticum is now confusingly applied to a Roman stone/mortar infill as well. Similar methods to wattle and daub were used and known by various names, such as clam staff and daub, cat-and-clay, or torchis, to name only three. Wattle and daub was the most common infill in ancient times; the sticks were not always technically wattlework, but individual sticks installed vertically, horizontally, or at an angle into holes or grooves in the framing. The coating of daub has many recipes, but was a mixture of clay and chalk with a binder such as grass or straw and water or urine; when the manufacturing of bricks increased, brick infill replaced the less durable infills and became more common. Stone laid in mortar as an infill was used in areas where mortar were available. Other infills include bousillage, fired brick, unfired brick such as adobe or mudbrick, stones sometimes called pierrotage, planks as in the German ständerbohlenbau, timbers as in ständerblockbau, or cob without any wooden support.
The wall surfaces on the interior were “ceiled” with wainscoting and plastered for warmth and appearance. Brick infill sometimes called nogging became the standard infill after the manufacturing of bricks made them more available and less expensive. Half-timbered walls may be covered by siding materials including plaster, tiles, or slate shingles; the infill may be covered by other materials, including weatherboarding or tiles. or left exposed. When left exposed, both the framing and infill were sometimes done in a decorative manner. Germany is famous for its decorative half-timbering and the figures sometimes have names and meanings; the decorative manner of half-timbering is promoted in Germany by the German Timber-Frame Road, several planned routes people can drive to see notable examples of Fachwerk buildings. Gallery of infill types: Gallery of some named figures and decorations: The collection of elements in half timbering are sometimes given specific names: The term half-timbering is not as old as the German name Fachwerk or the French name colombage, but it is the standard English name for this style.
One of the first people to publish the term "half-timbered" was Mary Martha Sherwood, who employed it in her book, T