click links in text for more info

Dietary biology of the golden eagle

The golden eagle is one of the most powerful predators in the avian world. One author described it as "the pre-eminent diurnal predator of medium-sized birds and mammals in open country throughout the Northern Hemisphere". Golden eagles hunt during daylight hours, but were recorded hunting from one hour before sunrise to one hour after sunset during the breeding season in southwestern Idaho; the hunting success rate of golden eagles was calculated in Idaho, showing that, out of 115 hunting attempts, 20% were successful in procuring prey. A fully-grown golden eagle requires about 230 to 250 g of food per day. In the life of most eagles, there are cycles of feast and famine, eagles have been known to go without food for up to a week. Following these periods without food, they will gorge on up to 900 g at one sitting; the powerful talons of the golden eagle ensure. The talons of this species exert 440 pounds per square inch of pressure, around 15 times more pressure than is exerted by the human hand, although some claim that the largest individual females may reach a pressure of 750 psi.

Few other large raptors have been tested in their foot strength, though the huge harpy eagle, when tested, exerted a psi 40 kg greater than the tested golden eagle. It has been claimed. However, other sources claim that a hare, marmot or deer calf weighing 4 kg is a struggle for a large female to carry and that prey much over 2 kg would require favorably high wind conditions. At least seven main hunting techniques are known to be utilized by the species, with many individual variations and the ability in most mature eagles to vary back and forth between methods depending on the circumstance; the first described is "high soar with glide attack", where the golden eagle soars at least 50 m above the earth. Once it spies a prey item, the eagle closes its wings and enters a long, low-angled glide which can carry it over distances of 1 km with the speed increasing as the wings close more. Just prior to impact, the wings are opened, the tail fanned and feet thrust forward to grab the prey, creating a booming sound, causing by the wings whipping against the wind, in the instant before the strike that sounds like a clap of thunder.

This technique is used for solitary or dispersed prey found in openings, such as hares or ptarmigans. A variation of the high soar where a lofty perch is used instead of soaring flight has been observed; the next major hunting methods is the "high soar with vertical stoop", used to attack birds in flight. Since they are outpaced and out-maneuvered by swift-flying birds, they can only attack slower-flying species such as geese and cranes; the golden eagle requires a height advantage over their prey for this observed technique to succeed. In one observed case, some Canada geese in Montana were able to avoid predation by a golden eagle hunting them in this way by collectively gaining flying height. In another observation, a golden eagle was successful in knocking a ptarmigan out of a flying covey in Scotland; the next hunting method is the "contour flight with short glide attack", considered the most utilized hunting method for golden eagles. This consists of a low-level quartering flight at only 5 to 15 m above the ground so they do not break the sky-line when observed from the ground and they can hug the contours of the earth below.

This method is useful for hunting colonial prey such as ground squirrels, densely populated leporids or birds found in concentrations, such as breeding grouse or seabirds. The individual prey item is selected in a manner of seconds before the strike. If the first attempt fails, the eagle may attempt to ambush the prey again; the next hunting method is the "glide attack with tail-chase", which commences with a low-angled stoop some distance from the quarry. The prey is chased whether a hare running evasively or a grouse in flight; the key to success is the prey's inability to find cover. In one case, a flying greater sage-grouse was caught by a pair of eagles using this technique; the next major hunting method is "low flight with slow descent attack". In this, the golden eagle quarters low below the earth and gradually swoops down on the prey; this is used for slow-moving prey, such as tortoises and hedgehogs, or any prey item with a general absence of escape behavior. This includes any dangerous prey items, such as rattlesnakes and foxes.

When hunting mammalian carnivores, the eagle may hover for some time over the potential prey and not press the attack unless the mammal looks down. The next is the "low flight with sustained grip attack", used for hunting ungulates. Here, the golden eagle flies over a herd of ungulates which in turn huddle or break into a run; the eagle selects it prey and lands on prey's back or neck, talons gripping attempting to pierce vital organs or cause shock via a crushing grip to bone and cartilage. The hunting eagle rides its prey for several minutes with wings outstretched and flapping to maintain balance until the prey collapses, either as result of exhaustion, shock or internal injury; the final major hunting method is the "walk and grab attack", in which the eagle walks on the ground and attempts to pull its prey out of cover. This has been used for pulling jackrabbits out

Evil Dead (musical)

Evil Dead: The Musical is a rock musical stage play based on the film series. First performed on stage in 2003 at the Tranzac club in Toronto, the show became a hit and moved on to an off-Broadway run in 2006 at the New World Stages, it has been a hit in Korea. And in Toronto, it was the longest running show in over 20 years. Over 500 productions of the show have been mounted all over the world, and one critic for The New York Times hailed the musical as "the next The Rocky Horror Show". Five college students spend the weekend in an abandoned cabin in the woods, accidentally unleashing an evil terror. In this comedic take on the 1980s horror franchise and demons sing and dance to songs written for the musical. And, as in the films, Ash is there to dish out his various one-liners and fight the neverending demons; the musical takes creative liberty with the plot line of the movies, mixing together the characters and concepts of all three, as well as changing sequences for the sake of the stage and comedic intent.

After an initial 10 show run in August 2003, the same team remounted the show in Toronto that October for an additional 3 weeks. The show was presented in July 2004 at the 22nd Just for Laughs Comedy Festival in Montreal. During the Northeast Blackout of 2003, the intransigent cast and crew performed the show on the front lawn of the Tranzac club in Toronto; the band played. As the evening wore on, flashlights and car headlights were used to illuminate the actors; the New York off-Broadway production started previews on October 2, 2006. The Official Opening Night performance was November 1, 2006 and it ran, performing 8 times per week at the New World Stages, until February 17, 2007; this production featured numerous Tony Award winners on the crew. The cast album debuted at #4 on the Billboard Show Charts. Evil Dead returned to Toronto, again starring Ryan Ward as Ash, at the Diesel Playhouse starting May 1, 2007. While the initial run was only to last until the end of June 2007, it was extended to August 4, 2007, September 8, 2007, June 26, 2008 and until September 6, 2008.

It celebrated its 300th performance on June 26, 2008, which marked it as the longest running Canadian production in Toronto in 20 years. It praised by the Toronto Star. Over 500 productions of Evil Dead: The Musical have since been staged by professional and school theatre groups throughout North America and around the world in cities including Seoul and Madrid. From October 13–31, 2011, Off-Strip Productions and RagTag Entertainment teamed up to present the Sin City premiere of the show, it was helmed by Sirc Michaels. The show received rave reviews from critics and fans alike, as such the production was brought back to Las Vegas for another successful run in January 2012. Evil Dead is returning to Las Vegas in 2019 with an all HD version of the tour. Evil Dead: The Musical opened in Oshawa, ON, Canada on February 1st, 2019; the production had had a successful initial run in October 2017. The new production was produced by the Mansfield's Cabaret in downtown Oshawa. After 13 weeks, becoming Oshawa's longest-running musical to play the city, the production closed on April 27th, 2019.

A new production will open at the Mansfield's Cabaret on April 2020 for 32 weeks. Evil Dead: The Musical will have a limited run in Fort McMurray, AB, Canada from December 12-14, 2019; the show will be produced by Theatre. The Virginia-based, experience themed theatre company first began productions of Evil Dead in 2013. Bringing Broadway actors into the forests of Virginia, this unique production has garnered critical acclaim and a massive audience following. Complete with a 150-seat splatter zone, a realized replica cabin, live band, active vehicles, zip lines and Broadway quality special effects, this realized production has opened the door for an arts revolution in the Appomattox area, it played its final performance on August 2017 after five successful runs. On June 22, 2012, Sirc Michaels Productions brought the show to the Las Vegas Strip as a resident, open-ended production at the V Theater; the production is now the longest running production in the history of the show. Due to the nature of the show, including the addition of 100 seat splatter zone, audience interaction, multi-media elements, state of the art effects and sound, the name was altered to include "Ultimate 4D Experience" to reflect production and design elements that separate the production from other stagings of the show.

The show moved to the Tommy Wind Theater on December 1, 2015 and to the Windows Showroom at Bally's on September 15, 2017. The first North American Tour was cast out of Chicago, Illinois, it spent four weeks rehearsing there before it opened in Wisconsin. It will tour to Austin, Texas before returning to Chicago for a three-week engagement at the Broadway Playhouse; the cities on the tour schedule include Sandusky, Fort Wayne, Nashville, Greenvale, Schenectady, Toronto, Tampa, Fort Lauderdale, York and Dayton. This production was directed by Christopher Bond, it was choreographed by Stacey Rene Assistant Choreographed by Corinne Giannotta. Musical Directed by Aaron Eyre and fight choreography by Kevin Robinson; this production was stage managed by Phoebe Harper. The cast is as follows: Ash: David Sajewich Che

Holland W. Hobbiss

Holland William Hobbiss, was an English architect in the Birmingham area. He traded under the names Holland W. Hobbiss and Partners and Holland W. Hobbiss and M. A. H. Hobbiss. Hobbiss was born in Birmingham on 8 February 1880, the eldest son of Henry Hobbiss, a school master and a lecturer in a teaching college, his wife, Alice. In 1914 Hobbiss won a national competition for his design of agricultural workers cottages in Essex. During the First World War, he served as a 2nd Lieutenant in the Royal Garrison Artillery. Between 1956-1958 Hobbiss was elected and sat as president of the Royal Birmingham Society of Artists, his signature brick pattern was English garden wall bond with three rows of stretchers between each row of headers. A number of his buildings were decorated by the sculptor William Bloye, he died in Birmingham in 1970. He designed: St Mark's Church House, Washwood Heath, 1909–10 Fox and Goose pub, Washwood Heath, 1913 The Bear Public House, Stratford Road, Sparkhill The Antelope, Stratford Road, Sparkhill 1922 Listed Grade II in 1991 St Giles, Church Road, Rowley Regis, 1923 with A. S. Dixon.

The Guild of Students, University of Birmingham, 1928-30. Extended 1948-51 and 1960. Queens College, Somerset Road, Edgbaston. Residential block and lodge 1929-30, chapel 1938-47 Pitmaston the Ideal Benefit Society Building, Goodby Road, Edgbaston, 1930-1. Listed Grade II in 2002 Christ Church, Burney Lane, Ward End, 1935 Listed Grade II in 2009 St Francis' Hall, University of Birmingham, 1936. Extended 1968-9. Crematorium and chapel at Lodge Hill Cemetery in Selly Oak, 1936–37 Three Tuns Hotel, Lichfield Street, opened 1937 Holy Cross church, Brigfield Road, Billesley Common, 1937 King Edward's School, 1937-47, he rebuilt and clad with brick the upper corridor of the New Street King Edward's school as the current chapel, 1952-3. Chapel listed Grade II listed King Edward VI High School for Girls, 1937-47. St Edmund, Reddings Lane, Tyseley, 1939-40 St Mary and St John, Alum Rock Road, 1934-5 Chemical Engineering Building, University of Birmingham, 1960 Edgbaston High School for Girls, 1960 Foundation of the Schools of King Edward VI, Foundation Offices.

The Copcut Elm, Salwarpe, 1937He designed a number of unnamed houses in Amesbury Road and Russell Road in Moseley. He completed the west end of St Gregory the Great's Church, Small Heath in 1926-1928 Listed Grade II listed in 1994 Pevsner Architectural Guides - Birmingham, Andy Foster, 2005, ISBN 0-300-10731-5

Association départementale Isère Drac Romanche

The Isère-Drac-Romanche Departmental Association is a public administrative establishment in France formed by the Conseil d'État in 1936. Its purpose is to maintain the system of flood-risk protection in the plains of the Isère, Romanche rivers by preserving the integrity of embankments and their associated works; the organization performs all research and labor necessary for their preservation and keeps the system under constant surveillance in order to guarantee its efficiency in protecting the land and property at stake behind the embankments. The Isère-Drac-Romanche Departmental Association performs important reinforcement work, employing techniques proper to civil engineering and biological engineering; as part of the Isère Amont and Romanche development projects, this mission now falls to SYMBHI, the Mixed Syndicate of the Hydraulic Basins of the Isère River. As new works are built, the Isère-Drac-Romanche Departmental Association will assume their management. In other locations, like the regions of the downstream Isère, the Drac, the Eau d'Olle, the association continues to perform research and work as needed.

Major projects completed by the Isère-Drac-Romanche Departmental Association 2004: the Charlet river bend at Gières 2004: the Grangeage river bend at Meylan 2005: the Quai Charpenay at La Tronche 2006: the Gières loop 2007: the Croix du Plan embankment at Bourg d'Oisans 2008: the barrier strip at the Romanche - Eau d’Olle confluence 2009: a metal-frame riverbank 2009: the secured embankment at Fontaine 2010: the embankment at Lumbin The Isère-Drac-Romanche Departmental Association includes delegates from the Conseil Général de l’Isère as well as from the 68 communes and 14 landowners' unions within the protected zone

C. E. Ruthenberg

Charles Emil Ruthenberg was an American Marxist politician and a founder and head of the Communist Party USA. Charles Emil Ruthenberg was born July 9, 1882, in Cleveland, the son of Wilhelmina and August Charles Ruthenberg. Ruthenberg's parents were ethnic Germans and Lutherans who emigrated from Prussia in 1888. In America, young "Charlie's" father first worked in America on the docks of the Cuyahoga River as a longshoreman. In years the elder Ruthenberg went into business for himself with a son-in-law, tending bar at a saloon frequented evenings by those who worked on the docks. C. E. Ruthenberg graduated from the parochial Lutheran school in June 1896, he went to work in a bookstore, attending Berkey and Dyke's Business College in the evenings for a ten-month course in bookkeeping and typing. Ruthenberg married Rosaline "Rose" Nickel of German descent, in June 1904; the couple had a son named Daniel in 1905, the only child the pair would have. Ruthenberg worked as the bookkeeper and sales manager for the Selmar Hess Publishing Company in this period, overseeing more than 30 salesmen throughout the Middle West.

Ruthenberg's first political attraction was to the Single Taxer Tom Johnson, a "reform" mayor of Cleveland from 1901 to 1909. Ruthenberg was drawn to more radical politics, in mid-1908 began calling himself a socialist. Ruthenberg joined the Socialist Party of America in January 1909, attended an English language branch of Local Cuyahoga County. Ruthenberg was an organizer for and secretary of Local Cuyahoga County from 1909 to 1919. In addition he was on the Ohio State Executive Committee of the SPA from 1911 to 1916, where he edited the newspapers The Cleveland Socialist and Socialist News. Ruthenberg contributed material to the official organ of the Socialist Party of Ohio, The Ohio Socialist, he was elected to the National Committee of the Socialist Party in 1915 but was defeated by Arthur LeSueur at the annual meeting for election to the party's governing National Executive Committee. During this time Ruthenberg traveled to many cities throughout the American Northeast and Midwest, speaking to labor groups, trade union organizations, anti-war groups, building a network of contacts.

Ruthenberg was associated with the far left so-called "Impossibilist" wing of the SPA, which had little hope for the efficacy of ameliorative reform, seeking instead revolutionary socialist transformation. Ruthenberg was a frequent candidate on the ticket of the Socialist Party, his first electoral failure came in 1910, when he ran for Ohio's state treasurer on the Socialist ticket. In 1911 he ran for mayor of Cleveland, in 1912 for Governor of Ohio, for U. S. Senate in 1914. In 1915 he ran again for mayor of Cleveland and in 1916 he ran for United States Congressman. In 1917 he made his third run for mayor of Cleveland, followed by his second run for Congress in 1918, his final fourth and final run for mayor of Cleveland came in 1919. Ruthenberg was a delegate to the seminal 1917 Emergency National Convention of the SPA. There he was elected to the Committee on War and Militarism and was one of three primary authors of the aggressively antimilitarist St. Louis program, along with Morris Hillquit and Algernon Lee.

After American entry into World War I, Ruthenberg continued to publicly attack the imperialist conflict and America's participation in it. He was charged with violating the Espionage Act, accused of obstructing the draft in connection with a speech given at a rally on May 17, 1917. Charged at the same time were Alfred Wagenknecht and Charles Baker, they were tried together in July 1917 and sentenced to one year in the Ohio State Penitentiary, a decision upheld by the U. S. Supreme Court on January 15, 1918. Informed of this decision, issued a statement declaring The Supreme Court has decided we must spend a year in jail; the crime for which we are convicted is truth telling. We believe in certain principles; the charge is and excuse.... The important fact is that the ruling class feared our message to the workers and tried to silence that message; that fact should make a hundred willing workers take up the work we lay down.... Ruthenberg and Baker served 11 months of their sentence and were released on December 8, 1918.

Freed from prison in December 1918, Ruthenberg dove in with both feet to the burgeoning left wing movement rocking the Socialist Party. May Day of 1919 was an event of great fear. A gigantic assembly was planned in Cleveland, in which four parades of marchers, many waving red flags, would come together in the public square to hear speeches and rally for freedom for Eugene V. Debs and Tom Mooney and the adoption of the 6 hour day and the $1 minimum wage; as many as 20,000 people are said to have participated in the march, with 20 to 30,000 more people lining the streets to watch. Ruthenberg described the events that followed: When the head of the line was within a block of the Public Square the first trouble occurred. An officer in the uniform of the Red Cross jumped from a "Victory" Loan truck and endeavored to take a red flag which a soldier in uniform was carrying at the head of the procession. A scuffle followed in which other soldiers from some businessmen joined. During the scuffle one of these businessmen drew a revolver and wildly threatened the workers in the procession.

In five minutes, the struggle was over. The lieutenant and his supporters were driven back to the sidewalk, the head of the line reformed, with the red flag still flying, marched on to the Public Square. Suddenly