Champagne-Ardenne is a former administrative region of France, located in the northeast of the country, bordering Belgium. Corresponding to the historic province of Champagne, the region is known for its sparkling white wine of the same name; the administrative region was formed in 1956, consisting of the four departments Aube, Haute-Marne, Marne. On 1 January 2016, it merged with the neighboring regions of Alsace and Lorraine to form the new region Grand Est, thereby ceasing to exist as an independent entity, its rivers, most of which flow west, include the Seine, the Marne, the Aisne. The Meuse flows north. A4 connecting Paris and Strasbourg and serving the Reims metropolitan area A5 connecting Paris and Dijon and serving Troyes and Chaumont A26 connecting Calais and Troyes and serving Reims and Châlons-en-Champagne A34 connecting Reims and the Belgian border and serving Charleville-Mézières The rail network includes the Paris–Strasbourg line, which follows the Marne Valley and serves Épernay, Châlons-en-Champagne, Vitry-le-François.
The LGV Est TGV line connecting Paris and Strasbourg opened in 2007 and serves Reims with a train station in the commune of Bezannes. The region's canals include the Canal latéral à la Marne and Marne-Rhine Canal, the latter connecting to the Marne at Vitry-le-François; these are petit gabarit canals. The Vatry International Airport dedicated to air freight, has a runway 3,650 m long; the airport is in a sparsely populated area just 150 km from Paris. 61.4% of its land is dedicated to agriculture 1st in France for the production of barley and alfalfa 2nd in France for the production of beets and peas 3rd in France for the production of tender wheat and rapeseed. 282.37 km² of vineyards Champagne sales in 2001: 263 million bottles of which 37.6% were exported. 25% of French hosiery production 3rd metallurgic region in France Verreries Mécaniques de Champagne Produits Métallurgiques à Reims Vallou Champagne-Céréales France-Luzerne Béghin-Say The population of Champagne-Ardenne has been in steady decrease since 1982 due to a rural exodus.
With 1.3 million people and a density of 52/km², it is one of France's least populated regions. After a brief period of stabilization in the 1990s, the region's population is now among the fastest "dying" in Europe, with several municipalities losing people at a faster rate than a lot of Eastern European areas in the Haute-Marne department; the region is among the oldest in France, has a weak fertility rate, its immigrant population, while growing, is still minimal compared to the national average. Châlons-en-Champagne Charleville-Mézières Chaumont Épernay Reims Saint-Dizier Sedan Troyes Ardennes Champagne Riots Champagne Official website https://web.archive.org/web/20061013154125/http://www.cr-champagne-ardenne.fr/ Champagne-Ardenne at Curlie Champagne-Ardenne travel guide from Wikivoyage
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde
Saint-Guilhem-le-Désert is a commune in the Hérault department in the Occitanie region in southern France. Situated in the narrow valley of the Gellone river where it meets the steep-sided gorge of the Hérault River, Saint-Guilhem-le-Désert is a medieval village located on the Chemin de St-Jacques pilgrim route to Santiago de Compostella; the village has maintained its historic state. Because of its isolation, in 806 Saint Guilhem established the monastery of Gellone here. Saint-Guilhem-le-Désert is one of the Plus Beaux Villages de France, the Abbey of Gellone, along with the nearby Pont du Diable were designated UNESCO World Heritages sites in 1999. A part of the cloister of the monastery was moved to The Cloisters museum in New York City. A new sculpture museum, containing stone works from the abbey, was dedicated on June 26, 2009. In coordination with this event, a weekend of music and a colloquium was organized in large part by the Camerata Mediterranea. Communes of the Hérault department INSEE Official site Camerata Mediterranea and June, 2009 colloquium
Saint-Jacques Tower is a monument located in the 4th arrondissement of Paris, France, on Rue de Rivoli at Rue Nicolas Flamel. This 52-metre Flamboyant Gothic tower is all that remains of the former 16th-century Church of Saint-Jacques-de-la-Boucherie, demolished in 1797, during the French Revolution, leaving only the tower. What remains of the destroyed church of St. Jacques La Boucherie is now considered a national historic landmark; the closest métro station is Châtelet. The tower's rich decoration reflects the wealth of its patrons, the wholesale butchers of the nearby Les Halles market; the masons in charge were Julien Ménart and Jean de Revier. It was built in 1509 to 1523, during the reign of King Francis I. With a dedication to Saint James the Greater, the ancient church and its landmark tower welcomed pilgrims setting out on the road that led to Tours and headed for the Way of St James, which led to the major pilgrimage destination of Santiago de Compostela. A relic of the saint preserved in the church linked it the more and in modern times occasioned its listing in 1998 as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO among the sites and structures marking the chemins de Compostelle, the pilgrimage routes in France that led like tributaries of a great stream headed towards Santiago in the northwest of Spain.
The church, with the exception of the tower, was demolished in 1793. In 1824 it was being used as a shot tower to make small shot, it was repurchased by the City of Paris in 1836 and declared a Monument Historique in 1862. A statue of the saint was installed on the top of the tower during the 19th century. During the Second Empire, the architect Théodore Ballu restored the tower, placing it on a pedestal and designing a small city park around it; this coincided with the construction of the rue de Rivoli and the avenue Victoria nearby, requiring huge quantities of earth to be removed to ensure the rue de Rivoli a smooth flat path. The pedestal allowed the tower to retain its original elevation: nowadays, the change in ground level can best be appreciated in rue St-Bon, just northeast of the tower, where a staircase leads up to the original street level at rue de la Verrerie. A statue of Blaise Pascal is located at the base of the tower, commemorating the experiments on atmospheric pressure, though it is debated whether they were performed here or at the church of Saint-Jacques-du-Haut-Pas.
A meteorological laboratory is installed at the top of the tower. The tower inspired Alexandre Dumas to write the play La tour Saint-Jacques-de-la-boucherie in 1856. Nicolas Flamel, a patron of the church, was buried under its floor; the tower was surrounded by scaffolding and obscured by sheeting for some years as surveyors investigated the condition of the stone. Recent findings show that most of the stone and its ornamentation originates from the late-medieval era of the tower's construction, was not added by the 19th-century restorers; the survey indicates serious cracking. The top three quarters of sheeting were taken down in March 2008, revealing a renovated upper section of the tower. From October 2008 to February 2009, the scaffolds and sheeting were removed and the surrounding park's landscaping was being restored. On 18 April 2009, the park was re-opened to the public. Fontaine du Palmier Place du Chatelet Media related to Tour Saint-Jacques at Wikimedia Commons
Basilica of Notre-Dame du Port
The Basilica of Notre-Dame du Port is a Romanesque basilica a collegiate church, in the Port quarter of Clermont-Ferrand, between Place Delille and the cathedral. From the 10th century to the French Revolution it was served by a community of canons, regular until the 13th century, thereafter secular. According to tradition, the church was founded by the Bishop of Clermont, Saint Avitus, in the 6th century and was rebuilt in the 11th or 12th centuries after being burned down by the Normans; the establishment here of a community of canons took place no earlier than the middle of the 10th century, under bishop Étienne II of Clermont. The church was formally declared a basilica minor on 3 May 1886. In the 19th century the bell tower was added, the Romanesque roof tiles were replaced by lava slabs; these have since been removed again and the roof restored as near as possible to its original state. A major restoration programme took place in the church interior between 2007 and 2008, consisting of the cleaning of all the stonework, the removal of cement pointing from the restoration of the 19th century, the restoration of the pictures and the replacement of the lustres.
On Sunday 7 December 2008 the statue of Notre-Dame du Port was reinstalled in the church, having been kept safe in Clermont Cathedral during the restoration works, thus marking the reopening of the building to the public. In 1998 the Basilica of Notre-Dame du Port was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list as part of the Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France; the name "du Port" comes from the fact that the church was built in the "port" district, in Latin portus, here in the sense of "market" rather than "seaport". It should be noted however. Nor was the Port district, at least in the Middle Ages, a commercial one: the districts of Saint-Pierre and Saint-Genès were much more so; the basilica is one of the five Romanesque churches in Auvergne known as the "greater" churches, the others being the church of Saint-Austremoine in Issoire, the Basilica of Notre-Dame of Orcival, the church of Saint-Nectaire, the church of Saint-Saturnin. Built of arkose, a sort of sandstone, the building has an perfect harmony resulting from the application of the ratio of the Golden Number.
The church is built on a Latin cross ground plan with a nave of six bays between two low side aisles with simple vaults. There is a transept with a semi-circular chapel on each arm, a quire surrounded by an ambulatory from which open four radiating chapel, none of them on the main axis, thus forming a chevet, which with its fine mosaics is a notable example of the Romanesque art of Auvergne; the capitals, which are among the finest in Auvergne, principally depict scenes from the Bible, but some from the Psychomachia of Prudentius. Bréhier, nd: La sculpture romane en Haute-Auvergne. RHA, vol. 23 Collière, Guy, nd: Art roman en Basse-Auvergne: les églises majeures. Livret détaillé disponible dans certaines. Craplet, Bernard, 1992: Auvergne romane. Éditions Zodiaque, revised edition Fornas, 1997: Le symbolisme dans l'art roman. La Taillanderie Fornas, 1994: Eglises romanes de Basse-Auvergne. La Taillanderie Mourlevat: La géométrie du Nombre d’Or à Notre-Dame du Port, in Bulletin historique et scientifique de l’Auvergne, Jul-Sept 1978 Porcher, 1968: Bestiaire roman Auvergnat.
RHA, vol. 41 Photos of the church Photos of the church 3D anaglyptic stereophotography of the Rotbertus Capitals in the Basilique Notre-Dame du Port High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of the Basilica of Notre-Dame du Port | Art Atlas
The Notre-Dame-en-Vaux is a Roman Catholic church located in Châlons-en-Champagne and Verdun. The cathedral is a major masterpiece in Marne. Started around 1157, ended in 1217; the church was classified a historic monument in 1840. In 1998 it was registered on the World Heritage List by UNESCO under the title of "roads to St Jacques de Compostela in France". High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of Notre-Dame-en-Vaux | Art Atlas