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Routing Information Protocol

The Routing Information Protocol is one of the oldest distance-vector routing protocols which employ the hop count as a routing metric. RIP prevents routing loops by implementing a limit on the number of hops allowed in a path from source to destination; the largest number of hops allowed for RIP is 15, which limits the size of networks that RIP can support. RIP implements the split horizon, route poisoning and holddown mechanisms to prevent incorrect routing information from being propagated. In RIPv1 routers broadcast updates with their routing table every 30 seconds. In the early deployments, routing tables were small enough; as networks grew in size, however, it became evident there could be a massive traffic burst every 30 seconds if the routers had been initialized at random times. In most networking environments, RIP is not the preferred choice for routing as its time to converge and scalability are poor compared to EIGRP, OSPF, or IS-IS. However, it is easy to configure, because RIP does not require any parameters, unlike other protocols.

RIP uses the User Datagram Protocol as its transport protocol, is assigned the reserved port number 520. Based on the Bellman–Ford algorithm and the Ford–Fulkerson algorithm distant-vector routing protocols started to be implemented from 1969 onwards in data networks such as the ARPANET and CYCLADES; the predecessor of RIP was the Gateway Information Protocol, developed by Xerox in the mid-1970s to route its experimental network. As part of the Xerox Network Systems protocol suite GWINFO transformed into the XNS Routing Information Protocol; this XNS RIP in turn became the basis for early routing protocols, such as Novell's IPX RIP, AppleTalk's Routing Table Maintenance Protocol, the IP RIP. The 1982 Berkley Software Distribution of the UNIX operating system implemented RIP in the routed daemon; the 4.2BSD release proved popular and became the basis for subsequent UNIX versions, which implemented RIP in the routed or gated daemon. RIP had been extensively deployed before the standard written by Charles Hedrick was passed as RIPv1 in 1988.

The routing metric used by RIP counts the number of routers that need to be passed to reach a destination IP network. The hop count 0 denotes a network, directly connected to the router. 16 hops denote a network, unreachable, according to the RIP hop limit. There are three standardised versions of the Routing Information Protocol: RIPv1 and RIPv2 for IPv4, RIPng for IPv6; the original specification of RIP, defined in RFC 1058, was published in 1988. When starting up, every 30 seconds thereafter, a router with RIPv1 implementation broadcasts to a request message through every RIPv1 enabled interface. Neighbouring routers receiving the request message respond with a RIPv1 segment, containing their routing table; the requesting router updates its own routing table, with the reachable IP network address, hop count and next hop, the router interface IP address from which the RIPv1 response was sent. As the requesting router receives updates from different neighbouring routers it will only update the reachable networks in its routing table, if it receives information about a reachable network it has not yet in its routing table or information that a network it has in its routing table is reachable with a lower hop count.

Therefore a RIPv1 router will in most cases only have one entry for a reachable network, the one with the lowest hop count. If a router receives information from two different neighbouring router that the same network is reachable with the same hop count but via two different routes, the network will be entered into the routing table two times with different next hop routers; the RIPv1 enabled router will perform what is known as equal-cost load balancing for IP packets. RIPv1 enabled routers not only request the routing tables of other routers every 30 seconds, they listen to incoming requests from neighbouring routers and send their own routing table in turn. RIPv1 routing tables are therefore updated every 25 to 35 seconds; the RIPv1 protocol adds a small random time variable to the update time, to avoid routing tables synchronising across a LAN. It was thought, as a result of random initialization, the routing updates would spread out in time, but this was not true in practice. Sally Floyd and Van Jacobson showed in 1994 that, without slight randomization of the update timer, the timers synchronized over time.

RIPv1 can be configured into silent mode, so that a router requests and processes neighbouring routing tables, keeps its routing table and hop count for reachable networks up to date, but does not needlessly sends its own routing table into the network. Silent mode is implemented to hosts. RIPv1 uses classful routing; the periodic routing updates do not carry subnet information, lacking support for variable length subnet masks. This limitation makes it impossible to have different-sized subnets inside of the same network class. In other words, all subnets in a network class must have the same size. There is no support for router authentication, making RIP vulnerable to various attacks. Due to the deficiencies of the original RIP specification, RIP version 2 was developed in 1993, published as RFC 1723 in 1994, declared Internet Standard 56 in 1998, it included the ability to carry subnet information. To maintain backward compatibility, the hop count limit of 15 remained. RIPv2 has facilities to interoperate with the earlier specification if all Must Be Zero protocol fields in the RIPv1 messages are properly specified.

In addition, a compatibility switch feature allows fine-grained interoperability adjustments. In an effort to avoid u

Stephen Hargarten

Stephen W. Hargarten is an American emergency physician, gun violence researcher, professor at the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. At the Medical College of Wisconsin, he is Chair of the Department of Emergency Medicine, Associate Dean for the Global Health Program, director of the Injury Research Center. Hargarten received his MD from the Medical College of Wisconsin and his MPH from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in 1984, he completed an internship at the Gorgas Hospital in Panama. Hargarten joined the faculty of the Medical College of Wisconsin in 1989. In January 2010, he was named associate dean of the Office of Global Health at the Medical College of Wisconsin. In 2014, he became the director of the Center for International Health, which the Medical College of Wisconsin describes as "a collaborative of several institutions, including the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and Marquette University", he has treated hundreds of gunshot victims during his medical career.

Hargarten has been called "one of the nation's leading gun violence experts". In 2007, he and Bella Dinh-Zarr presented a study in Washington, D. C. as part of the Global Traffic Safety Week analyzing data on non-disease deaths of Americans overseas from 2004 to 2006. Hargarten campaigned against a bullet, proposed by the Black Talon brand in the 1990s, that unfolded into a petal-like pattern after entering a victim, arguing that it could promote the spread of infections when surgeons tried to remove it from a wound. In the 1990s, he proposed three changes to reduce handgun deaths, according to the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, were: "urging the use of trigger locks, his efforts opposing the bullet included writing an editorial on the subject in the Journal of Trauma and encouraging other physicians to campaign against it as well. He has said that armed civilians trying to stop mass shootings are more to exacerbate the situation than mitigate it, because they are less to hit their targets than police.

Hargarten was elected to both the National Academy of Medicine and the Johns Hopkins Society of Scholars in 2011. Hargarten is the founding president of the Society for Advancement of Violence and Injury Research, a past president of the Association of Academic Chairs of Emergency Medicine, he serves on the Violence and Injury Prevention Mentoring Committee of the World Health Organization and on the board of directors of the Association for Safe International Road Travel

Calling Out the Chords, Vol. 1

Calling Out the Chords, Vol. 1 is a live album by Rheostatics, released on Zunior Records in 2005. It is a collection of live material recorded by soundman Steve Clarkson in 2004 at The Legendary Horseshoe Tavern in Toronto, Ontario during the Rheos' Fall National concert series. "California Dreamline/Horses" "Four Little Songs" "Easy to be with You" "Mumbletypeg" "In This Town" "Christopher" "We're All Living In a Chemical World" "I Am Drumstein" "Who is that Man and Why is He Laughing?" "Kevin's Waltz" "Weiners and Beans" "Legal Age Life at Variety Store"

Yucat√°n (film)

Yucatán is a 2018 Spanish comedy film co-written and directed by Daniel Monzón. The film is about a group of scammers who embark in a cruise ship in order to defraud and steal the money of an old baker who won millions of euros in the lottery and is travelling on the ship with his family. Yucatán was filmed onboard Pullmantur Cruises's MS Sovereign and on location in the ports where the ship docked during its route. Clayderman is a con man who, together with his wife Verónica, works onboard the MS Sovereign as a pianist, he uses his position as a crew member to commit petty crimes against the passengers. In Barcelona, Lucas discreetly enters the ship disguised as a crew member. At the same time and his family come onboard as regular passengers. Clayderman and Verónica have a past together when they used to "work" as a group, but they split up when both Clayderman and Lucas fell in love with Verónica; as soon as Clayderman finds out that Lucas is onboard, he is sure that his old friend is planning a new scam.

He starts to investigate and finds that Antonio, an old baker who won 161 million euros in the lottery, is onboard with his family. From this moment on, Clayderman and Verónica start a competition to see who can defraud and steal the old man's money first. Luis Tosar as Lucas Rodrigo de la Serna as Clayderman Joan Pera as Antonio Stephanie Cayo as Verónica Gloria Muñoz as Carmen Alicia Fernández as Leticia Adrián Núñez as Brendon Txell Aixendri as Alicia Most of Yucatán's scenes are set onboard Pullmantur Cruises's MS Sovereign cruise ship; the film was shot onboard the ship during a transatlantic crossing from Brazil to Spain. The actors and the crew embarked on April 10, 2016, in Recife and spent 22 days shooting the film, disembarking in Barcelona; the team was composed of about 100 people. While filming was taking place the ship was performing its regular route with passengers. Yucatán was released in Spain on August 31, 2018. In its opening weekend, the film grossed $1,240,253. In its second weekend, the film grossed $1,071,148 and dropped to the second position in the box office.

After seven weeks, Yucatán grossed more than $5.8 million only in the Spanish territory, becoming the seventh-highest-grossing film in Spain in 2018. Carlos Boyero of El País wrote: "I think I understand what Daniel Monzón has proposed, but the result seems devastating. Nothing works in this weary plot, null of grace, with interpretations that move between the inane and the grotesque". Xavi Sánchez Pons from the website "Sensacine" did not like the film either, giving it two out of five stars with the explanation: "In Yucatan, all of the comedic gags are forced and lack any kind of surprise effect". Sergio F. Pinilla of Cinemanía liked the film, giving it four out of five stars and commenting: "With non-stop fun, there's the glamour of the musical, the absurdity of romantic comedies, animated cartoon slapstick in Yucatán". Noel Murray of Los Angeles Times wrote: "From the exotic ports of call to the occasional musical numbers, “Yucatán” is a enjoyable ride. It's meant to be a throwback to glamorous old Hollywood movies.".

Jordan Hoffman of TV Guide wrote: "It's impossible not to be amused by this picture. Like the limitless buffet and late show with dancing girls, it's a simple pleasure, but one with guaranteed success." Sergi Sánchez of Fotogramas gives the film four out of five stars and comments: " has an infinite affection, not condescension, for his characters and a remarkable empathy for the lights and shadows of the human condition". Yucatán was nominated for one Gaudí Award in the category of "Best Production Manager". Yucatán on IMDb Yucatán at Rotten Tomatoes

Christine Taylor

Christine Joan Taylor-Stiller is an American actress. She is known for playing Marcia Brady in The Brady Bunch Movie and A Very Brady Sequel, as well as roles in The Wedding Singer and DodgeBall: A True Underdog Story. Taylor was born on July 30, 1971, in Allentown, Pennsylvania, to Joan, a homemaker, Albert E. "Skip" Taylor III, who owns a security company. She grew up in neighboring Wescosville, she has one brother. Taylor attended Allentown Central Catholic High School. Taylor began her acting career in 1989 on the Nickelodeon children's television series Hey Dude where she played the lifeguard Melody Hanson, she continued in that role through 1991 while making various guest appearances on other programs. In 1995, Taylor was cast as Marcia Brady in The Brady Bunch Movie and in A Very Brady Sequel. Following The Brady Bunch Movie, Taylor made several comedic guest appearances on the TV series Ellen, landing the lead role in the television series Party Girl, based on the 1995 film of the same name, more guest appearances on Seinfeld and Friends.

She played the racist school bully Laura Lizzie in the 1996 horror film The Craft, played Drew Barrymore's cousin, Holly Sullivan, in the 1998 comedy The Wedding Singer. In 2001, she starred alongside her husband Ben Stiller in Zoolander, she made television appearances as a guest star, in 2005, in two episodes of Arrested Development as "Sally Sitwell" and, in 2006, in an episode of NBC's My Name Is Earl. In July 2006, Taylor's ex-husband Ben Stiller announced plans to direct a CBS sitcom starring Taylor, but the series never aired, she has appeared with Mandy Moore in License to Wed.. In 2010, Taylor guest starred in Hannah Montana Forever. In 2010, she starred in the Hallmark Channel Christmas movie Farewell Mr. Kringle. In 2013, Taylor reprised her role as Sally Sitwell in two episodes of the revived Arrested Development. Taylor guest starred on Elementary in 2017. Taylor married actor Ben Stiller on May 13, 2000, they met while making the TV show Heat Jack. Stiller and Taylor appeared together in Zoolander, Dodgeball: A True Underdog Story, Tropic Thunder, Zoolander 2, the TV series Arrested Development and Curb Your Enthusiasm.

They have a daughter and a son. Both adopted a vegan diet for health reasons. After 17 years of marriage and Taylor separated in 2017. Christine Taylor on IMDb

List of Aeroflot destinations

The history of Aeroflot can be traced back to 9 February 1923, when the Council of Labour and Defence passed a resolution to create the Civil Air Fleet of the USSR, amalgamating all pioneer airlines to form Dobrolet on 25 March 1923. Operations started on 15 July 1923 linking Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod, becoming the first regular services of the country; the name Aeroflot was adopted in 1932 after the reorganisation of Dobrolet. By the end of the 1930s the carrier had the following routes in operation: Kharkov–Kiev, Kharkov–Odessa, Kiev–Odessa, Kiev–Rostov–Mineralnye Vody, Kiev–Simferopol, Moscow–Leningrad, Moscow–Minsk, Moscow–Odessa, Moscow–Sochi, Moscow–Kuybishev, Moscow–Baku–Tbilisi, Moscow–Simferopol, Moscow–Stalingrad–Astrakhan, Tbilisi–Sukhumi, Tbilisi–Yerevan, Kutasi–Mestia and Sukhumi–Sochi. Aeroflot's route network was 31,500 kilometres long by 1950. By April 1965, the carrier operated an extensive domestic and international network that included Accra, Bamako, Cairo, Copenhague, Djakarta, Helsinki, Karachi, London, Rabat, Rangoon and Vienna.

At March 1970, Aeroflot had amassed a route network, 600,000 kilometres long, a quarter of which covered international destinations. At this time, the carrier had agreements with 59 countries but it only served 54 of them, including 55 destinations. Once the world's largest carrier, Aeroflot did not restrict its operations to the transportation of passengers, but monopolised all civil aviation activities within the Soviet Union. Apart from passenger transportation that covered a domestic network of over 3,600 villages and cities, activities undertaken by the airline that were labelled as "non-transport tasks" included agricultural work, ice reconnaissance, anti-forest fire patrol, aeromedical services, among many others; the former monopolistic Aeroflot – Soviet Airlines entered a new era following the dissolution of the USSR, when it shrank as it was split into several regional companies throughout the Commonwealth of Independent States in mid–1992. It was reorganised and renamed Aeroflot – Russian International Airlines.

In mid-2000, the name of the company was changed to Aeroflot – Russian Airlines. At March 2000, Moscow Sheremetyevo was the carrier's main base. Following is a list of destinations the carrier flies to, as of February 2020, according to its passenger and cargo schedules. Terminated destinations once served by Aeroflot within the post–1992 era are included. Borodina, Polina. "Aeroflot transfers some flights from Moscow Sheremetyevo to Vnukovo". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Aeroflot Official English website Aeroflot Online schedule