Canterbury, New Zealand
Canterbury is a region of New Zealand, located in the central-eastern South Island. The region covers an area of 44,508 square kilometres, is home to a population of 624,000; the region in its current form was established in 1989 during nationwide local government reforms. The Kaikoura District joined the region in 1992 following the abolition of the Nelson-Marlborough Regional Council. Christchurch, the South Island's largest city and the country's third-largest urban area, is the seat of the region and home to 65 percent of the region's population. Other major towns and cities include Timaru, Ashburton and Rolleston. In 1848, Edward Gibbon Wakefield, a Briton, John Robert Godley, an Anglo-Irish aristocrat, founded the Canterbury Association to establish an Anglican colony in the South Island; the colony was based upon theories developed by Wakefield while in prison for eloping with a woman not-of-age. Due to ties to the University of Oxford, the Canterbury Association succeeded in raising sufficient funds and recruiting middle-class and upper-class settlers.
In April 1850, a preliminary group led by Godley landed at Port Cooper—modern-day Lyttelton Harbour—and established a port and shops in preparation for the main body of settlers. In December 1850, the first wave of 750 settlers arrived at Lyttelton in a fleet of four ships. Following 1850, the province's economy developed with the introduction of sheep farming; the Canterbury region's tussock plains in particular were suitable for extensive sheep farming. Since they were valued by settlers for their meat and wool, there were over half a million sheep in the region by the early 1850s. By the 1860s, this figure had risen to three million. During this period, the architect Benjamin Mountfort designed many civic and ecclesiastical buildings in the Gothic Revival style; the Canterbury Province was formed in 1853 following the passing of the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852. It was formed from part of New Munster Province and covered the middle part of the South Island, stretching from the east coast to the west coast.
The province was abolished, along with other provinces of New Zealand, when the Abolition of the Provinces Act came into force on 1 Nov 1876. The modern Canterbury Region has different boundaries in the north, where it includes some districts from the old Nelson Province; the area administered by the Canterbury Regional Council consists of all the river catchments on the east coast of the South Island from that of the Clarence River, north of Kaikoura, to that of the Waitaki River, in South Canterbury. It is New Zealand's largest region by area, with an area of 45,346 km2. Canterbury was traditionally bounded in the north by the Conway River, to the west by the Southern Alps, to the south by the Waitaki River; the area is divided into North Canterbury, Mid Canterbury, South Canterbury and Christchurch City. Canterbury is home to 624,000 people according to Statistics New Zealand's June 2018, 13 percent of New Zealand's population, it the second most populous region in New Zealand. The median age of Canterbury's population is two years above the New Zealand median.
Around 15.5 percent of the population is aged 65 or over while 18.7 percent is aged under 15. There are 97.5 males for every hundred females in Canterbury. At the 2013 Census of Population and Dwellings, 86.9 percent of Cantabrians identified as of European ethnicity, 8.1 percent as Māori, 6.9 percent as Asian, 2.5 percent as Pacific Peoples, 0.8 percent as Middle Eastern/Latin American/African, 2.0 percent as another ethnicity. Just under 20 percent of Canterbury's population was born overseas, compared to 25 percent for New Zealand as a whole; the British Isles remains the largest region of origin, accounting for 36.5 percent of the overseas-born population in Canterbury. Around a quarter of Canterbury's overseas-born population at the 2013 Census had been living in New Zealand for less than five years, 11 percent had been living in New Zealand for less than two years. Around 49.7 percent of Cantabrians affiliate with Christianity and 3.3 percent affiliate with non-Christian religions, while 44.5 percent are irreligious.
Anglicanism is the largest Christian denomination in Canterbury with 14.8 percent affiliating, while Catholicism is the second-largest with 12.7 percent affiliating. The Canterbury region's economy is diversified into agriculture, fishing, forestry and energy resources such as coal and hydroelectricity, its agriculture sector is diversified into dairy farming, sheep farming and horticulture viticulture. The strength of the region's agricultural economy is displayed every November at the Canterbury A&P Show; the show coincides with Cup Week. During the interwar period, agricultural productivity was boosted by the introduction of mechanization and the improvement of seed stocks. Canterbury is New Zealand's main producer of cereal crops such as wheat and oats; as of 2002, the region produced 60.7% of the nation's supply of wheat, 51.1% of its barley stocks and 43.7% of its supply of oats. The region's viticulture industry was established by French settlers in Akaroa. Since wine-growing is concentrated into two regions: Waipara and Burnham.
There have been vintages from plantings from Kurow further to the south. White wine has predominated in Canterbury from Riesling, Sauvignon blanc, Gewürztraminer
County Mayo is a county in Ireland. In the West of Ireland, in the province of Connacht, it is named after the village of Mayo, now known as Mayo Abbey. Mayo County Council is the local authority; the population was 130,507 at the 2016 census. The boundaries of the county, formed in 1585, reflect the Mac William Íochtar lordship at that time, it is bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean. Mayo is the third-largest of Ireland's 32 counties in area and 15th largest in terms of population, it is the second-largest of Connacht's five counties in both population. Mayo is located along the west coast of Ireland, 7,400 km in length. There is the east of the county; the west consists of poor subsoils and is covered with large areas of extensive Atlantic blanket bog, whereas the east is a limestone landscape. Agricultural land is therefore more productive in the east than in the west; the highest point in Mayo is Mweelrea, at 814 m The River Moy in the northeast of the county is renowned for its salmon fishing Ireland's largest island, Achill Island, lies off Mayo's west coast Mayo has Ireland's highest cliffs at Croaghaun, Achill Island, while the Benwee Head cliffs in Kilcommon Erris drop perpendicularly 900 feet into the Atlantic Ocean.
The northwest areas of County Mayo have some of the best renewable energy resources in Europe, if not the world, in terms of wind resources, ocean wave and hydroelectric resources Mayo County Council is the authority responsible for local government. As a county council, it is governed by the Local Government Act 2001; the County is divided into four municipal areas Castlebar, Ballina and West. The council is responsible for housing and community and transportation, urban planning and development and culture, environment. For the purpose of local elections the county is divided into its four municipal districts, replacing the former six local electoral areas: Ballina, Castlebar, Claremorris and Westport; the county town is at Áras an Contae in Castlebar, the main population centre located in the centre of the county. For national elections, half of the Claremorris Municipal District is in Galway West, stretches from Ashford Castle to Ireland West Airport; the Municipal Area populations are as follows: Ballina – 32,979 Castlebar – 34,000 Claremorris – 32,469 West Mayo – 31,190 There are nine historic baronies, four in the northern area and five in the south of the county: North Mayo Erris Burrishoole Gallen Tyrawley South Mayo Clanmorris, Costello etc.
Murrisk Kilmaine Carra Castlebar – 13,496 Ballina – 10,623 Westport – 5,894 Claremorris – 4,487 Ballinrobe – 3,685 Castlebar and Ballina are the two most populous towns in the county, 12,318 in Castlebar located at the centre of the county and 10,361 in Ballina located at the north-east of corner of the county. These are followed by Westport, which has 5,543 residents and Claremorris, with a population of 3,412 in the 2011 census returns. A survey of the terrestrial and freshwater algae of Clare Island was made between 1990 and 2005 and published in 2007. A record of Gunnera tinctoria is noted. Consultants working for the Corrib gas project have carried out extensive surveys of wildlife flora and fauna in Kilcommon Parish, Erris between 2002 and 2009; this information is published in the Corrib Gas Proposal Environmental impact statements 2009 and 2010. County Mayo has prehistory. At Belderrig on the north Mayo coast, there is evidence for Mesolithic communities around 4500 cal. BC. while throughout the county there is a wealth of archaeological remains from the Neolithic period in terms of megalithic tombs and ritual stone circles.
The first people who came to Ireland – to coastal areas as the interior was forested – arrived during the Middle Stone Age, as long as eleven thousand years ago. Artefacts of hunter/gatherers are sometimes found in middens, rubbish pits around hearths where people would have rested and cooked over large open fires. Once cliffs erode, midden-remains become exposed as blackened areas containing charred stones and shells, they are found a metre below the surface. Mesolithic people did not have major rituals associated with burial, unlike those of the Neolithic period; the Neolithic period followed the Mesolithic around 6,000 years ago. People began to farm the land, domesticate animals for food and milk, settle in one place for longer periods; the people had skills such as making pottery, building houses from wood and knapping. The first farmers cleared forestry to grow crops. In North Mayo, where the ground cover was fragile, thin soils washed away and blanket bog covered the land farmed by the Neolithic people.
Extensive pre-bog field systems have been discovered under
The Territory of Oklahoma was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 2, 1890, until November 16, 1907, when it was joined with the Indian Territory under a new constitution and admitted to the Union as the State of Oklahoma. The 1890 Oklahoma Organic Act organized the western half of Indian Territory and a strip of country known as No Man's Land into Oklahoma Territory. Reservations in the new territory were opened to settlement in land runs that year and in 1891 and 1893. Seven counties were defined upon the creation of the territory. Although they were designated by number, they would become Logan, Oklahoma, Kingfisher and Beaver counties; the Land Run of 1893 led to the addition of Kay, Woods, Garfield and Pawnee counties. The territory acquired an additional county through the resolution of a boundary dispute with the U. S. state of Texas, which today is split into Greer, Jackson and part of Beckham counties. Oklahoma Territory's history began with the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834 when the United States Congress set aside land for Native Americans.
At the time, the land was unorganized territory that consisted of the federal land "west of the Mississippi and not within the states of Missouri and Louisiana, or the territory of Arkansas..." By 1856, the territory had been reduced to the modern-day borders of the State of Oklahoma, except for the Oklahoma Panhandle and Old Greer County. These lands became known as Indian Territory, as they had been granted to certain Indian nations under the Indian Removal Act, in exchange for their historic territories east of the Mississippi River; until this point, Native Americans had used the land. In 1866, after the American Civil War, the federal government required new treaties with the tribes that had supported the Confederacy, forced them into land and other concessions; as a result of the Reconstruction Treaties, The Five Civilized Tribes were required to emancipate their slaves and offer them full citizenship in the tribes if they wanted to stay in the Nations. This forced many of the tribes in Indian Territory into making concessions.
U. S. officials forced the cession of some 2,000,000 acres of land in the center of the Indian Nation Territory. Elias C. Boudinot a railroad lobbyist, wrote an article, published in the Chicago Times on February 17, 1879, that popularized the term Unassigned Lands to refer to this tract. Soon the popular press began referring to the people agitating for its settlement as Boomers. To prevent settlement of the land by European-Americans, President Rutherford B. Hayes, issued a proclamation forbidding unlawful entry into Indian Territory in April 1879. Despite federal obstruction, popular demands for the land did not end. Captain David L. Payne was one of the main supporters of the opening of Oklahoma to white settlement. Payne traveled to Kansas, where he founded the Boomer "Colonial Association." Payne's organization of 10,000 members hoped to establish a white colony in the Unassigned Lands. The formation of the group prompted President Hayes to issue a proclamation ordering Payne not to enter Indian Territory on February 12, 1880.
In response and his group traveled to Camp Alice in the Unassigned Lands, east of Oklahoma City. There, they made plans for a city, which they named "Ewing." The Fourth Cavalry arrested them, escorted them back to Kansas. Payne was furious, as public law prohibited the military from interfering in civil matters; the federal government freed Payne and his party denying them access to the courts. Anxious to prove his case in court, Payne and a larger group returned to Ewing in July; the Army again escorted them back to Kansas. Again they were freed but this time the federal government charged Payne with trespassing under the Indian Intercourse Act. Judge Isaac Parker fined him the maximum amount of one thousand dollars. Since Payne had no money and no property, the government could not collect the fine; the ruling settled nothing on the question of the public domain lands, Payne continued his activities. Payne tried a third time to enter the Unassigned Lands. In December and his group moved along the northern border of Indian Territory.
They were followed by a unit of cavalry under the command of Colonel J. J. Copinger. Colonel Copinger warned Payne that if he crossed the border that they would be "forcibly resisted." As the number of Boomers grew as people joined Payne, they sent a messenger to President Hayes asking permission to enter Indian Territory. After weeks of no response, Payne led his followers to the Unassigned Lands. Once again, they were arrested and Payne was sent back to Fort Smith, he was sentenced to pay a $1,000 fine. Upon his release, he returned to Kansas. During Payne's last venture, this time into the Cherokee Outlet in 1884, the Army again arrested him, they took him several hundred miles under severe physical circumstances over a tortuous route to Ft. Smith; the public was outraged about his treatment by the military, the US government decided to try his case. Payne was turned over to the United States District Court at Kansas, he was indicted for the crime of bringing whiskey into a Federal offense. In the fall term, Judge Cassius G. Foster quashed the indictments and ruled that settling on the Unassigned Lands was not a criminal offense.
The Boomers celebrated. Payne planned another expedition, but he would not lead it. On November 28, 1884, i
Roland was a Frankish military leader under Charlemagne who became one of the principal figures in the literary cycle known as the Matter of France. The historical Roland was military governor of the Breton March, responsible for defending Francia's frontier against the Bretons, his only historical attestation is in Einhard's Vita Karoli Magni, which notes he was part of the Frankish rearguard killed by rebellious Basques in Iberia at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass. The story of Roland's death at Roncevaux Pass was embellished in medieval and Renaissance literature; the first and most famous of these epic treatments was the Old French Chanson de Roland of the 11th century. Two masterpieces of Italian Renaissance poetry, the Orlando Innamorato and Orlando Furioso, are further detached from history than the earlier Chansons to the Morgante by Luigi Pulci. Roland is poetically associated with his sword Durendal, his horse Veillantif, his oliphant horn; the only historical mention of the actual Roland is in the Vita Karoli Magni by Charlemagne's courtier and biographer Einhard.
Einhard refers to him as Hruodlandus Brittannici limitis praefectus, indicating that he presided over the Breton March, Francia's border territory against the Bretons. The passage, which appears in Chapter 9, mentions that Hroudlandus was among those killed in the Battle of Roncevaux Pass: While he was vigorously pursuing the Saxon war without a break, after he had placed garrisons at selected points along the border, marched into Spain with as large a force as he could mount, his army passed through the Pyrenees and received the surrender of all the towns and fortified places he encountered. He was returning with his army safe and intact, but high in the Pyrenees on that return trip he experienced the Basques; that place is so covered with thick forest that it is the perfect spot for an ambush. Army was forced by the narrow terrain to proceed in a long line and, high on the mountain, that the Basques set their ambush; the Basques had the advantage in this skirmish because of the lightness of their weapons and the nature of the terrain, whereas the Franks were disadvantaged by the heaviness of their arms and the unevenness of the land.
Eggihard, the overseer of the king's table, the count of the palace, Roland, the lord of the Breton March, along with many others died in that skirmish. But this deed could not be avenged at that time, because the enemy had so dispersed after the attack that there was no indication as to where they could be found. Roland was evidently the first official appointed to direct Frankish policy in Breton affairs, as local Franks under the Merovingian dynasty had not pursued any specific relationship with the Bretons, their frontier castle districts such as Vitré, Ille-et-Vilaine, south of Mont Saint-Michel, are now divided between Normandy and Brittany. The distinctive culture of this region preserves the present-day Gallo language and legends of local heroes such as Roland. Roland's successor in Brittania Nova was Guy of Nantes, who like Roland, was unable to exert Frankish expansion over Brittany and sustained a Breton presence in the Carolingian Empire. According to legend, Roland was laid to rest in the basilica at Blaye, near Bordeaux, on the site of the citadel.
Roland was a iconic figure in medieval Europe and its minstrel culture. Many tales made him a nephew of Charlemagne and turned his life into an epic tale of the noble Christian killed by Islamic forces, which forms part of the medieval Matter of France; the tale of Roland's death is retold in the 11th-century poem The Song of Roland, where he is equipped with the olifant and an unbreakable sword, enchanted by various Christian relics, named Durendal. The Song contains a romanticized account of the Battle of Roncevaux Pass and Roland's death, setting the tone for fantastical depiction of Charlemagne's court, it was adapted and modified throughout the Middle Ages, including an influential Latin prose version Historia Caroli Magni, which includes Roland's battle with a Saracen giant named Ferracutus, only vulnerable at his navel. The story was adapted in the anonymous Franco-Venetian epic L'Entrée d'Espagne and in the 14th-century Italian epic La Spagna, attributed to the Florentine Sostegno di Zanobi and composed between 1350 and 1360.
Other texts give further legendary accounts of Roland's life. His friendship with Olivier and his engagement with Olivier's sister Aude are told in Girart de Vienne by Bertrand de Bar-sur-Aube. Roland's youth and the acquisition of his horse Veillantif and sword are described in Aspremont. Roland appears in Quatre Fils Aymon, where he is contrasted with Renaud de Montauban against whom he fights. In Norway, the tales of Roland are part of the 13th-century Karlamagnús saga. In the Divine Comedy Dante sees Roland, named Orlando as it is usual in Italian literature, in the Heaven of Mars together with others who fought for the faith. Roland appears in Entrée d'Espagne, a 14th-century Franco-Venetian chanson de geste and La Spagna, a 14th-century Italian epic. From the 15th century onwards, he appears as a central character in a sequence of Italian verse romances as "Orlando", including Morgante by Luigi
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, Colorado on the northwest. It is the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States; the state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907, its residents are known as Oklahomans, its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. A major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, biotechnology.
Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, the U. S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California. Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans; the name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole.
Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, it was approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh. In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe'. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles, with 68,595 square miles of land and 1,304 square miles of water, it lies in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along a failed continental rift; the geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River. The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border; the Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, the actual 103rd meridian was 2.2 miles to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error; the placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian. Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary, its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level. Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state, its western and eastern halves, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many relic species. Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill.
The semi-arid high
Great Famine (Ireland)
The Great Famine, or the Great Hunger, was a period in Ireland between 1845 and 1849 of mass starvation and emigration. With the most affected areas in the west and south of Ireland, where the Irish language was spoken, the period was contemporaneously known in Irish as An Drochshaol, loosely translated as the "hard times"; the worst year of the period, that of "Black 47", is known in Irish as Bliain an Drochshaoil. During the famine, about one million people died and a million more emigrated from Ireland, causing the island's population to fall by between 20% and 25%; the proximate cause of the famine was a natural event, a potato blight, which infected potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, precipitating some 100,000 deaths in total in the worst affected areas and among similar tenant farmers of Europe. The food crisis influenced much of the unrest in the more widespread European Revolutions of 1848; the event is sometimes referred to as the Irish Potato Famine outside Ireland. The impact of the blight was exacerbated by political belief in laissez-faire economics.
The famine was a watershed in the history of Ireland, which from 1801 to 1922 was ruled directly by Westminster as part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Together with the Napoleonic Wars, the Great Famine in Ireland produced the greatest loss of life in 19th-century Europe; the famine and its effects permanently changed the island's demographic and cultural landscape, producing an estimated two million refugees and spurring a century-long population decline. For both the native Irish and those in the resulting diaspora, the famine entered folk memory; the strained relations between many Irish and the British Crown soured further both during and after the famine, heightening ethnic and sectarian tensions, boosting Irish nationalism and republicanism in Ireland and among Irish emigrants in the United States and elsewhere. The potato blight returned to Europe in 1879, but by that point the labourers of Ireland had, in the Legacy of the Great Irish Famine, begun the "Land War", described as one of the largest agrarian movements to take place in 19th-century Europe.
The movement, organized by the Land League, continued the political campaign for the Three Fs, issued in 1850 by the Tenant Right League and developed during the Great Famine. When the potato blight returned in 1879, the League boycotted "notorious landlords" and its members physically blocked evictions of farmers; as a result, the consequent reduction in homelessness and house demolition resulted in a drastic reduction in the number of deaths. Since the Acts of Union in January 1801, Ireland had been part of the United Kingdom. Executive power lay in the hands of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and Chief Secretary for Ireland, who were appointed by the British government. Ireland sent 105 members of parliament to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Irish representative peers elected 28 of their own number to sit for life in the House of Lords. Between 1832 and 1859, 70 % of Irish representatives were the sons of landowners. In the 40 years that followed the union, successive British governments grappled with the problems of governing a country which had, as Benjamin Disraeli put it in 1844, "a starving population, an absentee aristocracy, an alien established Protestant church, in addition the weakest executive in the world."
One historian calculated that, between 1801 and 1845, there had been 114 commissions and 61 special committees enquiring into the state of Ireland, that "without exception their findings prophesied disaster. Lectures printed in 1847 by John Hughes, Bishop of New York, are a contemporary exploration into the antecedent causes the political climate, in which the Irish famine occurred. During the Famine, Ireland produced enough food and wool to feed and clothe double its nine million people; when Ireland had suffered a famine in 1782–83, its ports were closed to keep Irish-grown food in Ireland to feed the Irish. Local food prices promptly dropped. Merchants lobbied against the export ban, but Grattan's Parliament, exercising the short-lived powers within the Constitution of 1782, overrode their protests. There was no such export ban in the 1840s; some historians have argued, because exports were not stopped, the famine was artificial and a consequence of the British government's failure to retain foodstuffs in the country.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, Irish Catholics were discriminated against. They constituted the vast majority of the population, but they had been prohibited by the penal laws from purchasing or leasing land, holding political office, living in or within 5 miles of a corporate town, obtaining education, entering a profession, doing many other things necessary for a person to succeed and prosper in society. By 1793, such laws had been reformed and the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829 allowed Irish Catholics to again sit in parliament. During the 18th century, the "middleman system" for managing landed. Rent collection was left in middlemen; this assured the landlord of a regular income, relieved them of direct responsibility, while leaving tenants open to exploitation by the middlemen. Catholics, the bulk of whom lived in conditions of poverty and insecurity despite Catholic emancipation in 1829, made up 80% of the population. At the top of the "social pyramid" was the "ascendancy class", the English and Anglo-Irish f