Military Order of William
The Military William Order, or often named Military Order of William, is the oldest and highest honour of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Orders motto is Voor Moed, Beleid en Trouw, the chivalric order was established on 30 April 1815 by King William I and was presented for feats of excellent bravery on the battlefield and as a meritorious decoration to senior military officers. To date the Order is extremely rarely awarded and only for excellent bravery in battle, in the spring of 1940 it was decided that civilians would receive the Military Order of William for heroic acts in the resistance. After the liberation of the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies, several men, the Grand Cross was awarded to Prince William of Orange, the Duke of Wellington, Fürst Blücher von Wahlstatt, Graf von Bülow von Dennewitz and Graf von Gneisenau. Until 1940, a total of 5,874 persons had been awarded the Military Order of William, in 1940, the Order was awarded to soldiers who had served with extreme valour in the defence of Netherlands from the 10 May attack by Nazi-Germany.
Of the 3,500 servicemen who served in the Netherlands United Nations Detachment in Korea, since 1940,199 names have been added to the register of the Military Order of William. The latest conflict that has been cause for the honour to be awarded is the war in Afghanistan. Kroon was honoured for bravery and devotion to duty during his service in Afghanistan from March to August,2006. By 1945, the classes of the Military William Order were in existence. The Grand Cross could be awarded as a presentation to heads of state which had displayed feats of loyalty to the Netherlands during wartime. Only US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the British King George VI were conferred such an honour, in the 19th century, the Grand Cross was often conferred on foreign monarchs as a mere mark of respect. The 4th Class could be awarded as a presentation to military commands which had displayed feats of gallantry during wartime. The badge of the Order is a white-enamelled Maltese Cross, in silver for the 4th Class and in gilt for higher classes, the obverse bears a golden firesteel at the centre, and the motto Voor Moed – Beleid – Trouw on the arms of the Maltese Cross.
The reverse central disc bears a crowned monogram W surrounded by a laurel wreath, the badge hangs from a royal crown. The star of the Grand Cross is a silver, 8-pointed star with straight rays, the breast cross of the Commander is completely identical to the obverse of the badge of the Order. The ribbon of the Order is orange with blue stripes near the border, to be awarded the Military William Order a military unit must distinguish itself in battle to such a degree as would warrant the personal presentation of the Military William Order. The units Regimental Colour are decorated with the badge of the 4th Class itself, the version of the Military William Order for unit members is known as the Orange Lanyard. Only those who served in a unit at the particular time of action are entitled to wear the Orange Lanyard
90th Regiment of Foot (Perthshire Volunteers)
The 90th Perthshire Light Infantry was a Scottish light infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1794. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 26th Regiment of Foot to form the Cameronians in 1881, the regiment was raised in Scotland by Thomas Graham as the 90th Regiment of Foot, in response to the threat posed by the French Revolution, on 10 February 1794. Graham was given permission to uniform and drill his regiment as an infantry battalion. It embarked as part of the Quiberon Expedition and took part in the capture of the Île dYeu in September 1795, the following year the regiment was dispatched to support the French Royalist Lieutenant-general François de Charette in his struggle with the Republicans. It took part in the Capture of Minorca in November 1798 and it saw action at the Battle of Abukir on 8 March 1801 and the Battle of Mandora on 13 March 1801 before returning to Malta in September 1801 and sailing for England in February 1802. The regiment became the 90th Regiment of Foot on absorbing the Perthshire Volunteers in 1802, a second battalion was raised in September 1804 but never left the United Kingdom.
The 1st Battalion embarked for the West Indies in January 1805 and was garrisoned on Saint Vincent and it saw action at the invasion of Martinique in January 1809 and at the invasion of Guadeloupe in January 1810. The battalion sailed for Canada in May 1814 and was garrisoned in Quebec during the War of 1812, the regiment became the 90th Regiment of Foot in May 1815. The 1st Battalion arrived for Ostend in August 1815 for service as part of the Army of Occupation of France and it absorbed the 2nd Battalion in 1817. The regiment sailed for Malta in October 1820 and on to the Ionian Islands in October 1821 before returning home in 1830. It embarked for Ceylon in October 1835 and, after ten years on the island and it embarked for England in January 1847. It sailed to Balaklava in December 1854 and saw action at the Siege of Sevastopol in winter 1854, the regiment returned to England in June 1856 but embarked for India in February 1857 to help suppress the Indian Rebellion. It took part in the relief of Lucknow in November 1857, the regiment embarked for home in September 1869.
The regiment embarked for the Cape Colony in January 1878 and fought in the Ninth Xhosa War that year and it saw action at the Battle of Kambula in March 1879 and the Battle of Ulundi in July 1879 during the Anglo-Zulu War. The regiment embarked for India again in October 1879, on 1 July 1881 the Childers Reforms came into effect and the regiment amalgamated with the 26th Regiment of Foot to form the Cameronians. Thomas Graham, 1st Baron Lynedoch, GCB, GCMG1823, Gen. Hon Robert Meade 1823–1837, sir Ralph Darling, GCH 1837–1841, Lt-Gen. Sir Henry Sheehy Keating, KCB 1841–1853, sir Alexander Leith, KCB 1853–1857, Lt-Gen. Records of the 90th Regiment, with roll of officers from 1795 to 1880
Chester is a walled city in Cheshire, England, on the River Dee, close to the border with Wales. With a population of 81,340 in 2014, it is the most populous settlement of Cheshire West and Chester, Chester was granted city status in 1541. Chester was founded as a castrum or Roman fort with the name Deva Victrix in the reign of the Emperor Vespasian in 79 AD, one of the main army camps in Roman Britain, Deva became a major civilian settlement. Chester was one of the last cities in England to fall to the Normans, william the Conqueror ordered the construction of a castle, to dominate the town and the nearby Welsh border. Chester is one of the best preserved walled cities in Britain and it has a number of medieval buildings, but some of the black-and-white buildings within the city centre are Victorian restorations. Apart from a 100-metre section, the listed Grade I walls are almost complete, the Roman Legio II Adiutrix during the reign of the Emperor Vespasian founded Chester in AD79, as a castrum or Roman fort with the name Deva Victrix.
The victrix part of the name was taken from the title of the Legio XX Valeria Victrix which was based at Deva, Central Chesters four main roads, Northgate and Bridgegate, follow routes laid out at this time. A civilian settlement grew around the base, probably originating from trade with the fortress. The civilian amphitheatre, which was built in the 1st century and it is the largest known military amphitheatre in Britain, and is a Scheduled Monument. The Minerva Shrine in the Roman quarry is the rock cut Roman shrine still in situ in Britain. The fortress was garrisoned by the legion until at least the late 4th century, after the Roman troops withdrew, the Romano-British established a number of petty kingdoms. Chester is thought to have part of Powys. Deverdoeu was a Welsh name for Chester as late as the 12th century, attested in the 9th century History of the Britons traditionally attributed to Nennius, is Cair Legion, this developed into Caerlleon and the modern Welsh Caer. King Arthur is said to have fought his ninth battle at the city of the legions and St Augustine came to the city to try to unite the church, and held his synod with the Welsh Bishops.
In 616, Æthelfrith of Northumbria defeated a Welsh army at the brutal and decisive Battle of Chester and her name is still remembered in St Werburghs Street which passes alongside the cathedral, and near the city walls. It was Alfreds daughter Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians, that built the new Saxon burh, a new Church dedicated to St Peter alone was founded in AD907 by the Lady Æthelfleda at what was to become the Cross. Taking the helm of a barge, he was rowed the short distance up the River Dee from Edgars Field to the great Minster Church of St John the Baptist by six tributary kings called reguli. In 1071 he made Hugh dAvranches, who built Chester Castle, from the 14th century to the 18th century the citys prominent position in North West England meant that it was commonly known as Westchester
Hawkstone Hall is a 43,400 square feet early 18th-century country mansion near Hodnet, England which was more recently occupied as the pastoral centre of a religious organisation. It is a Grade I listed building, the manor was acquired by Sir Rowland Hill in 1556 and remained the seat of the family for some 350 years. The house was built between 1700 and 1725 by Richard Hill of Hawkstone, second of the Hill baronets, of Hawkstone, brothers Rowland and Robert Hill, who fought at the 1815 Battle of Waterloo were both born at the Hall. George Whiteley had the hall renovated and the wings reduced in length by William Tomkinsons of Liverpool, brother in law of Henry Price. The chapel wing was reconstructed as a room with dance floor. The hall was acquired after Lord Marchamleys death by the Roman Catholic Redemptorist Order in 1926 and, the Order added a chapel in 1932 and further extended the Hall in 1962, converting the north-east service wing into a residential wing. The seminary relocated in 1973, and since 1975 the Hall has been a Pastoral and Renewal Centre, in July 2014, the order put the hall up for sale.
A sale was proposed to a buyer for £4m in July 2015. However in January 2016 the sale fell through and plans went ahead for it to be mothballed from April 2016
Siege of Badajoz (1812)
In the Siege of Badajoz, called the Third Siege of Badajoz, an Anglo-Portuguese Army, under General Arthur Wellesley, besieged Badajoz and forced the surrender of the French garrison. Enraged at the number of casualties they suffered in seizing the city. Threatening their officers and ignoring their commands to desist, and even killing several and it took three days before the men were brought back into order. Badajoz was garrisoned by some 5,000 French soldiers under General Philippon, the town commander, on 19 March the French made a strong sally with 1,500 men and 40 cavalry which surprised the working parties and caused losses of 150 officers and men before being repulsed. Amongst the wounded was Lt. Col. Fletcher, chief Engineer, by 25 March batteries were firing on the outwork, Fort Picurina, which that night was stormed by 500 men and seized by redcoats from General Thomas Pictons 3rd Division. Casualties were high with 50 killed and 250 wounded, but the fort was captured, the capture of the bastion allowed more extensive siege earthworks to be dug and with the arrival of heavy 18 lb and 24 lb howitzers, breaching batteries were established.
On 31 March the allies began a bombardment of the towns defences. Soon a maze of trenches were creeping up to the stone walls as the cannons continued to blast away at the stonework. On 2 April an attempt was made to destroy a barrier that had been erected amongst the arches of the bridge to cause flooding that was hampering the siege, the explosion of 450lbs of powder was only partly successful. By April 5 two breaches had been made in the wall and the soldiers readied themselves to storm Badajoz. The order to attack was delayed for 24 hours to allow another breach to be made in the wall. News began to filter to the allies that Marshal Soult was marching to relieve the town, the French garrison were well aware of what was to come, and mined the large breaches in the walls in preparation for the imminent assault. The first men to assault the breaches were the men of the Forlorn Hope, just as the main Forlorn Hope were beginning their attack, a French sentry was alerted and raised the alarm. Within seconds the ramparts were filled with French soldiers, who poured a hail of musket fire into the troops at the base of the breach.
The furious barrage devastated the British soldiers at the wall and the breach soon began to fill with dead and wounded, despite the carnage the redcoats bravely continued to surge forward in great numbers, only to be mown down by endless volleys and shrapnel from grenades and bombs. The French could see they were holding the assault and the British were becoming stupefied and incapable of more exertion. In just under two hours, some 2,000 men had killed or badly wounded at the main breach. He ordered the gates to be blown and the 3rd Division should support the assaults on the breaches with a flank attack
Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the rank of sergeant major general. In the Commonwealth, major general is equivalent to the rank of rear admiral. In some countries, including much of Eastern Europe, major general is the lowest of the officer ranks. In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the general was called a Generalmajor. Todays Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term, see Rank insignias of the Austro-Hungarian armed forces General de Brigade is the lowest rank amongst general officers in the Brazilian Army. AGeneral de Brigada wears two-stars as this is the level for general officers in the Brazilian Army. In tha Brazilian Air Force, the two-star, three-star and four-star rank are known as Brigadeiro, Major-Brigadeiro, see Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier for more information. In the Canadian Armed Forces, the rank of major-general is both a Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force rank equivalent to the Royal Canadian Navys rank of rear-admiral, a major-general is a general officer, the equivalent of a naval flag officer.
The major-general rank is senior to the ranks of brigadier-general and commodore, prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal, instead. In the Canadian Army, the insignia is a wide braid on the cuff. It is worn on the straps of the service dress tunic. On the visor of the cap are two rows of gold oak leaves. Major-generals are initially addressed as general and name, as are all general officers, major-generals are normally entitled to staff cars. In the Estonian military, the general rank is called kindralmajor. The Finnish military equivalent is kenraalimajuri in Finnish, and generalmajor in Swedish and Danish, the French equivalent to the rank of major general is général de division. In the French military, major général is not a rank but an appointment conferred on some generals, usually of général de corps darmée rank, the position of major général can be considered the equivalent of a deputy chief of staff. In the French Army, Major General is a position and the general is normally of the rank of corps general
The wars resulted from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and the Revolutionary Wars, which had raged on for years before concluding with the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. Napoleon became the First Consul of France in 1799, Emperor five years later, inheriting the political and military struggles of the Revolution, he created a state with stable finances, a strong central bureaucracy, and a well-trained army. The British frequently financed the European coalitions intended to thwart French ambitions, by 1805, they had managed to convince the Austrians and the Russians to wage another war against France. At sea, the Royal Navy destroyed a combined Franco-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in October 1805, Prussian worries about increasing French power led to the formation of the Fourth Coalition in 1806. France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July, although Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire, it did not bring a lasting peace for Europe.
Hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, Napoleon invaded Iberia, the Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, the Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia. Unwilling to bear the consequences of reduced trade, the Russians routinely violated the Continental System. The French launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the collapse and retreat of the Grand Army along with the destruction of Russian lands. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France, a lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813. The Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814 and he was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power.
However, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again, the Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June. The Congress of Vienna, which started in 1814 and concluded in 1815, established the new borders of Europe and laid out the terms, Napoleon seized power in 1799, creating a de facto military dictatorship. The Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleons assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs, for its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers. The British quickly enforced a blockade of France to starve it of resources. Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, and sought to eliminate Britains Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him, the so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France
53rd (Shropshire) Regiment of Foot
For other units with the same regimental number, see 53rd Regiment of Foot The 53rd Regiment of Foot was a British Army regiment, raised in 1755. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 85th Regiment of Foot to form the Kings Shropshire Light Infantry in 1881, the regiment was raised in Northern England by Colonel William Whitmore as the 55th Regiment of Foot for service in the Seven Years War. It was re-ranked as the 53rd Regiment of Foot, following the disbandment of the existing 50th and 51st regiments, the regiment embarked for Gibraltar in 1756 and, after returning home, moved to Ireland in 1768. The regiment left for North America in spring 1776 and arrived at Quebec City in May 1776 to help raise the siege of the city by Continental Army troops during the American Revolutionary War. It served under Sir Guy Carleton at the Battle of Trois-Rivières in June 1776 and its flank companies were with General John Burgoyne during the ill-fated Saratoga campaign. Men from the eight companies served under Major Christopher Carleton of the 29th Regiment of Foot during Carletons Raid in 1778.
Lieutenant Richard Houghton of the 53rd led the Royalton raid in 1780 burning three towns in eastern Vermont, in 1782 the regiment adopted a county designation and became the 53rd Regiment of Foot. The regiment returned to England in 1789, in March 1793 the regiment embarked for Flanders for service in the French Revolutionary Wars. The regiment saw action at the Battle of Famars in May 1793, the Siege of Valenciennes in June 1793 and it took part in the Siege of Nieuwpoort in October 1793, the Siege of Landrecies in April 1794 and the Battle of Tournay in May 1794. The regiment returned to England in spring 1795 but embarked for the West Indies in November 1795 where it took part in the capture of Saint Lucia in May 1796. It helped suppress an insurrection by caribs on Saint Vincent in June 1796, expeditions to Trinidad and Puerto Rico followed in February 1797, the regiment returned home in 1802. A second battalion was raised in 1803 to increase the strength of the regiment, the 1st battalion left for India in April 1805 where it undertook a punitive expedition to the Fortress of Callinger in Allahabad Province in February 1812.
It helped secure a victory at the Battle of Nalapani in October 1814 during the Anglo-Nepalese War. The 1st battalion took part in engagements against Pindari forces in 1817 during the Third Anglo-Maratha War, meanwhile the 2nd battalion embarked for Portugal for service in the Peninsular War in March 1809. It took part in the Second Battle of Porto in May 1809, the battalion returned home in July 1814. In August 1815 the 2nd battalion accompanied Napoleon into his exile on the island of Saint Helena and it returned home in September 1817 and was disbanded at Canterbury in October 1817. It took part in the Siege of Cawnpore in June 1857, the Relief of Lucknow in November 1857, the regiment earned five Victoria Crosses during the rebellion. It returned to England in 1860,21 at Copthorne Barracks in Shrewsbury
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
His defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 put him in the top rank of Britains military heroes. Wellesley was born in Dublin, belonging to the Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland and he was commissioned as an ensign in the British Army in 1787, serving in Ireland as aide-de-camp to two successive Lords Lieutenant of Ireland. He was elected as a Member of Parliament in the Irish House of Commons and he was a colonel by 1796, and saw action in the Netherlands and in India, where he fought in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War at the Battle of Seringapatam. He was appointed governor of Seringapatam and Mysore in 1799 and, as a newly appointed major-general, following Napoleons exile in 1814, he served as the ambassador to France and was granted a dukedom. During the Hundred Days in 1815, he commanded the army which defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. Wellesleys battle record is exemplary, he participated in some 60 battles during the course of his military career. Wellington is famous for his defensive style of warfare, resulting in several victories against numerically superior forces while minimising his own losses.
He is regarded as one of the greatest defensive commanders of all time, after ending his active military career, Wellington returned to politics. He was twice British prime minister as part of the Tory party, from 1828 to 1830 and he oversaw the passage of the Catholic Relief Act 1829, but opposed the Reform Act 1832. He continued as one of the figures in the House of Lords until his retirement. As such, he belonged to the Protestant Ascendancy and his biographers mostly follow the contemporary newspaper evidence in saying that he was born 1 May 1769, the day that he was baptised. He was most likely born at his parents townhouse,24 Upper Merrion Street, but his mother Anne, Countess of Mornington, recalled in 1815 that he had been born at 6 Merrion Street, Dublin. He spent most of his childhood at his familys two homes, the first a house in Dublin and the second Dangan Castle,3 miles north of Summerhill on the Trim Road in County Meath. In 1781, Arthurs father died and his eldest brother Richard inherited his fathers earldom and he went to the diocesan school in Trim when at Dangan, Mr Whytes Academy when in Dublin, and Browns School in Chelsea when in London.
He enrolled at Eton, where he studied from 1781 to 1784, Eton had no playing fields at the time. In 1785, a lack of success at Eton, combined with a shortage of funds due to his fathers death, forced the young Wellesley. Until his early twenties, Arthur showed little sign of distinction and his mother grew concerned at his idleness, stating. A year later, Arthur enrolled in the French Royal Academy of Equitation in Angers, where he progressed significantly, becoming a good horseman and learning French, upon returning to England in late 1786, he astonished his mother with his improvement
Second Battle of Porto
Soults late attempts to muster a defence were in vain. The French quickly abandoned the city in a disorderly retreat and this battle ended the second French invasion of Portugal. Soult soon found his route to the east blocked and was forced to destroy his guns. Wellesley pursued the French army, but Soults army escaped annihilation by fleeing through the mountains, in the First Battle of Porto, the French under General Soult defeated the Portuguese under Generals Lima Barreto and Parreiras outside the city of Porto. After winning the battle, Soult stormed the city, in addition to 8,000 military casualties, large numbers of civilians died. While Soult was in Porto, a detached force operated to the east under the leadership of Major-General Louis Loison, this force included General of Division Henri Delabordes infantry division and Lorges cavalry division. A Portuguese force under Major General Francisco Silveira captured the French garrison of Chaves, from 18 April to 3 May, the Portuguese held Loison on the west bank of the Tâmega River.
On the latter day, French engineers succeeded in disarming the explosives-rigged bridge so that Delabordes infantry could cross it, by May, the French Marshal feared he was outnumbered by the English. Soult stayed up late on 11 May drawing-up his plans for retreat, General of Division Julien Augustin Joseph Mermets division had already been sent off with the baggage and the artillery park. Soult retained a total of 10,000 infantry and 1,200 cavalry, Delabordes division included three battalions each of the 17th Light, 70th Line, and 86th Line Infantry Regiments. General of Division Pierre Hugues Victoire Merles division was composed of four each of the 2nd and 4th Light Infantry Regiments. General of Division Jean Baptiste Marie Franceschi-Delonnes cavalry was made up of the 1st Hussar Regiment, 8th Dragoon Regiment, after coming up from Lisbon, the Anglo-Portuguese fought a skirmish with the French at the Battle of Grijó on 11 May. Arriving at the Douro, Wellesley was unable to cross the river because Soults army had destroyed or moved all the boats to the northern bank.
One had 9 pounders, two had 6 pounders and one had 3 pounders, historian Michael Glover stated that the order of battle was somewhat different. 1st Guards Brigade, BG Henry F. MG Alex Randoll Mackenzies British 2nd brigade, on the morning of 12 May, Col John Waters was reconnoitring the river east of Porto. He was approached by a Portuguese barber who led him to a point on the bank hidden by brush where there was a skiff, when informed of this opportunity, Wellesley told them to let the men across. Immediately, a company of the 3rd Foot crossed the river, by the time the French realized that Wellesleys forces were on the north bank, the entire battalion of the Buffs of Hills brigade had already been sent into the seminary. Soult, who was asleep at the time, remained unaware of these developments, General of Brigade Maximilien Foy, who was the first to see the British crossing, requisitioned three battalions of the 17th Light Infantry and led an attack on the seminary around 11,30 am
Badajoz is the capital of the Province of Badajoz in the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain. It is situated close to the Portuguese border, on the bank of the river Guadiana. The population in 2011 was 151,565, conquered by the Moors in the 8th century, Badajoz became a Moorish kingdom, the Taifa of Badajoz. Spanish history is reflected in the town. Badajoz is the see of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mérida-Badajoz, prior to the merger of the Diocese of Mérida and the Diocese of Badajoz, Badajoz was the see of the Diocese of Badajoz from the bishoprics inception in 1255. The architecture of Badajoz is indicative of its tempestuous history, even the Badajoz Cathedral, built in 1238, resembles a fortress, Badajoz is home to the CD Badajoz and AD Cerro de Reyes football clubs and the AB Pacense basketball club. It is served by Badajoz Railway Station and Badajoz Airport, Archaeological finds unearthed in the Badajoz area have been dated to the Bronze Age. Megalithic tombs are dated as far back as 4000 BC, while many of the steles found are from the Late Bronze Age, other finds include weapons such as axes and swords, everyday items of pottery and utensils, and various items of jewellery such as bracelets.
Archaeological excavations have revealed remnants from the Lower Paleolithic period, artifacts have been found at the Roman town of Colonia Civitas Pacensis in the Badajoz area, although a significant number of larger artifacts were found in Mérida. Badajoz attained importance during the reign of Moorish rulers such as the Umayyad caliphs of Córdoba, from the 8th century, the Umayyad dynasty controlled the region until the early 11th century. The official foundation of Badajoz was laid by the Muladi nobleman Ibn Marwan, around 875, under Ibn Marwan, the city was the seat of an effective autonomous rebel state which was quenched only in the 10th century. In 1021, it became the capital of a small Muslim kingdom, Badajoz was known as Baṭalyaws during Muslim rule. The invasion of Badajoz by Christian rulers in 1086 under Alfonso VI of Castile, in addition to an invasion by the Almoravids of Morocco in 1067, Badajoz was invaded by the Almohads in 1147. Badajoz was captured by Alfonso IX of León on 19 March 1230, shortly after its conquest, in the time of Alfonso X the Wise of Castile, a bishopric see was established and work was initiated on the Cathedral of San Juan Bautista.
In 1336, during the reign of Alfonso XI of Castile and their victory forced the king of Portugal to desert the city and it fell into neglect. They temporarily lost Barcarrota after a tiff with the Portuguese but soon regained control, fernán Sánchezs grandson of the same name, son of Garci Sánchez de Badajoz, was both lord of Barcarrota and Mayor of Badajoz in 1434. The first hospital was founded in the town by Bishop Fray Pedro de Silva in 1485 and those affected by the plague epidemic were treated here in 1506. With reason to assert their rights to the Portuguese Crown, Philip II of Spain briefly moved his court to Badajoz in August 1580, queen Anne of Austria died in the city two months later, and on 5 December 1580, Philip moved out of the city