Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Southwest Center City, Philadelphia
Southwest Center City is a neighborhood in South Philadelphia bordering Center City, Pennsylvania, United States. The neighborhood is bordered on the north by Bainbridge Street, on the south by Washington Avenue, on the west by the Schuylkill River, on the east by Broad Street, it is an area adjacent to the Fitler Square and Rittenhouse Square neighborhoods to the north and Point Breeze to the south. It is home to several community service organizations, many churches, a few retail establishments, some light industry; the neighborhood has many nicknames. Since the 1980s, it has been referred to as Graduate Hospital, after the medical facility on the northern edge of the neighborhood; this name has become historical in nature since the hospital closed in 2007. Despite this, it is sometimes shortened to G-Ho; the area is variously referred to as South of South, SoSo, Naval Square, or Schuylkill-Southwest. A small corner of this area is sometimes known as Devil's Pocket; the neighborhood consists of nineteenth and twentieth-century rowhomes interspersed with corner stores, 22 churches and a few larger architectural landmarks.
On the eastern half of the neighborhood is the Scottish Rite affordable housing complex which consists of two multi-story apartment buildings that cater to elderly and low income individuals. The former buildings of Graduate Hospital lie on South Street, the northern border of the neighborhood. Along Grays Ferry Avenue is the former Philadelphia Naval Asylum or Naval Home, designed in 1826 by William Strickland; this National Historic Landmark, first constructed in 1833, closed in 1976, is now being developed into condos. The Schuylkill Arsenal was built at the edge of this neighborhood, but has since been demolished. Prior to the Act of Consolidation, 1854, this neighborhood was part of Moyamensing Township. Moyamensing was chartered by the Dutch governor Alexander d'Hinoyossa, in 1684, William Penn confirmed the title; the neighborhood began taking shape after the Civil War. In 1870, it was predominantly an Irish American community, it continued to experience significant in-migration from the south prior to, after World War II.
It remained a solid working-class neighborhood for most of the first half of the twentieth century. In the 1960s a crosstown expressway running along South Street was planned; this would have created a barrier between the neighborhoods to the south. The result was widespread abandonment of properties in SWCC and the decay of the South Street business corridor; the loss of jobs and residents caused the neighborhood to decline as buildings were abandoned and left to deteriorate. The Marian Anderson House, Franklin Hose Company No. 28, William S. Peirce School, Philadelphia and Baltimore Railroad Freight Shed, Royal Theater, St. Anthony de Padua Parish School, Edwin M. Stanton School, Tindley Temple United Methodist Church are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In recent years the area has experienced gentrification. Hundreds of single family homes and condominium units have been refurbished; as a result of the neighborhood's proximity to Center City and increasing desirability, a variety of new businesses catering to the gentrified population have opened.
Despite the improvements, the neighborhood still contains some abandoned and dilapidated housing towards the south. The Grammy Award winning musician and local resident Kenneth Gamble founded Universal Companies in Southwest Center City to revitalize the neighborhood. Universal Community Homes, a division of the company, began the Universal Court housing project in the neighborhood in the 1990s; some tension existed between the company and the local South of South Neighborhood Association, but this was soon resolved as the project was deemed a success. Universal Companies has since opened several small neighborhood businesses, low-income housing, a charter school; every year since 1975, the area hosts Philadelphia's Odunde festival, a one-day festival and a street market catered to African-American interests and the African diaspora. It is derived in celebration of the new year, it is centered at the intersection of Grays Ferry South Street. A local pub, Grace Tavern, was ranked #1 on Philadelphia Weekly's list of the Top 50 Bars.
Neighborhood photo essay Neighborhood video tour Odunde Festival History of Philadelphia Naval Home Community events calendar
Jewelers' Row, Philadelphia
Jewelers' Row, located in the Center City section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is composed of more than 300 retailers and craftsmen located on Sansom Street between Seventh and Eighth Streets, on Eighth Street between Chestnut and Walnut Streets. It is the oldest diamond district in America, second in size only to the one in New York City. Many of the area's retail and appraisal businesses have been owned by the same families for five generations. Jeweler’s Row was designed by builder and architect Thomas Carstairs circa 1799 through 1820, for developer William Sansom, as part of the first speculative housing developments in the United States, introduction of the Row house in the United States. Carstairs Row was built on the southern part of the site occupied by "Morris' Folly" – Robert Morris’ unfinished mansion designed by Pierre Charles L'Enfant. Sansom bought the property and unfinished house of Robert Morris, on Walnut St. between 7th and 8th Sts. He bisected the land with a new east-west eponymous street.
Carstairs erected 22 look-alike dwellings. Prior to this time houses had been individually, it can be contrasted with Elfreth's Alley where all the house are of varying heights and widths, with different street lines and brickwork. The grid pattern laid down by William Penn and continued by subsequent planners and surveyors influenced the row house form of architecture; the block of row houses is an important example of Philadelphia’s architectural and developmental history. Sansom erected the buildings on what was the outskirts of Philadelphia. To attract tenants he paved Sansom Street at his own expense, he hired Benjamin Latrobe to design another row on the 700 block of Walnut Street. A prominent feature of the street is the repetitive flat expanse of the buildings, which made it ideal for commercial conversion. In 2016, real estate company Toll Brothers obtained a zoning and demolition permit to construct a twenty-nine story tower of condominiums on the 700 block of Sansom Street. Five buildings from 702 to 710 Sansom would be demolished.
This decision has been met with fierce local opposition, with signs denouncing the project appearing in the windows of several buildings on Sansom Street, as well as criticism from Philadelphia Inquirer architecture columnist Inga Saffron. Alterations in the late 19th and early 20th centuries changed most of the row – only 700, 730 and 732 Sansom retained their original experience. 710 Sansom, built in 1870, is a three-story commercial building with stone lintels. Its Victorian style is typical of the buildings that became the center for jewelry and diamond merchants who developed Jewelers’ Row in the mid-19th century. 722 Sansom was built in the 1860s and was redesigned in the early 1900s when steel became available. 724 Sansom, built in 1875, has a cast iron first floor. After the homes were sold for commercial interests, several engravers of plates for books moved in. At 732, the engraver for Edgar Allan Poe worked, his customer, ate dinner in the house on several occasions. Independence National Historical Park Goldsmith Silversmith Bench Jeweler Notes Center City District and Central Philadelphia Development Corporation
Wissahickon Creek is a tributary of the Schuylkill River in Montgomery and Philadelphia Counties, Pennsylvania in the United States. Wissahickon Creek rises in Montgomery County, runs 23 miles passing through and dividing Northwest Philadelphia before emptying into the Schuylkill River at Philadelphia, its watershed covers about 64 square miles. Much of the creek now runs through or next to parkland, with the last few miles running through a deep gorge; the beauty of this area attracted the attention of literary personages like Edgar Allan Poe and John Greenleaf Whittier. The gorge area is now part of the Fairmount Park system in Philadelphia, the Wissahickon Valley is known as one of 600 National Natural Landmarks of the United States; the name of the creek comes from the Lenape word wiessahitkonk, for "catfish creek" or "stream of yellowish color". On the earliest map of this region of Pennsylvania, by Thomas Holme, the stream is called Whitpaine's creek, after one of the original settlers Richard Whitpaine, who owned several large tracts on the creek.
Whitpaine was an early land owner in the days of William Penn. Industry sprang up along the Wissahickon not long after European settlement, with America's first paper mill set up on one of the Wissahickon's tributaries. A few of the dams built for the mills remain visible today. Though at first tame, in its last 7 miles, the Wissahickon stream drops over 100 feet in altitude, its dramatic geography and dense forest attract thousands of walkers and bikers. The most popular trail for exploring the lower Wissahickon valley is Forbidden Drive, a gravel road that follows the Wissahickon Creek from Lincoln Drive to the County Line, it received its familiar name in the 1920s. Bicyclists and equestrians may use Forbidden Drive without a permit. Other trails in the area are more restricted, with some prohibiting cyclists or equestrians, the others requiring a permit for bicyclists and equestrians. All users of the park are asked to stay on marked trails to protect against erosion. A paved path on the west bank connects the junction of Forbidden Drive and Lincoln Drive south to Ridge Avenue at the confluence of the Wissahickon and Schuylkill River.
This path is a popular access point for cyclists coming off the River Drive bike paths to Center City Philadelphia, or for pedestrians departing the Manayunk/Norristown Line transit route at Wissahickon Station or Bus Interchange. Forbidden Drive is accessible at its midpoint at the Valley Green Inn. Valley Green Road can be reached from Springfield Avenue in Chestnut Hill, two blocks west of St. Martin's Lane and the St. Martin's railroad station on the Chestnut Hill West Line. Just above Valley Green, Wise's Mill Road meets Forbidden Drive, connecting it to Henry Avenue in Roxborough. Wise's Mill Road may be the same as that described in Edgar Allan Poe's 1844 story "Morning on the Wissahiccon": "I would advise the adventurer who would behold its finest points to take the Ridge Road, running westwardly from the city, having reached the second lane beyond the sixth mile-stone, to follow this lane to its termination, he will thus strike the Wissahiccon, at one of its best reaches...". Forbidden Drive ends at Northwestern Avenue after crossing Bell's Mill Road.
A number of trails climb out of the valley from Forbidden Drive to the "upper trails" which run along the precipitous walls of the valley. Many of these upper trails have been marked with colored blazes; the green blazed trail has been designated a multi-use trail approved for mountain bikers with permits. The blue blazed trail has been designated a hiking trail only. All trails in the Andorra Natural Area are prohibited to all bicycles. Devil's Pool is an attraction best reached from Valley Green by crossing the stream and taking the footpath on the eastern bank, going downstream to the mouth of the Cresheim Creek; as the ravine widens into the Cresheim, the waters gather in a basin surrounded on either side by rocky outcroppings before flowing into the Wissahickon Creek. Legend has it. Although it is not legal due to unsafe levels of pollutants, Devil's pool has become a popular area to swim and drink. Devil's pool falls victim to litter and vandalism. However, recent efforts to clean the site by the Friends of the Wissahickon have been moderately successful.
One of the most romantic hikes in this park leads to a precipice overlooking the gorge. It can be found by entering the main footpath at the Ridge Avenue entrance and following the west bank to Hermit's Lane Bridge. Coming from Blue Stone Bridge, follow the path at the west end to Lover's Leap. Another well-known outlook in the park is Mom Rinker's Rock, on a ridge on the eastern side of the Park just north of the Walnut Lane Bridge, close by the Toleration statue. Here on a moonlit night in May 1847, George Lippard, romancer of the Wissahickon, was married to his frail young wife according to so-called Indian rites. Years afterward in 1883, the Toleration statue was erected, a marble statue of a man in simple Quaker clothing. Atop Mom Rinker's Rock, the nine-foot-eight-inch statue has the single word "Toleration" carved into its four-foot-three-inch base. Created by late 19th-century sculptor Herman Kirn, it was brought to the site by landowner John Welsh, reported to have purchased the statue at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia.
Welsh, a former Fairmount Park Commissioner and U. S. Ambassador to Britain, donated his land to the Park prior to his death in 1886; some miles away is the path leading to the Indian statue, a dramatic 15 ft high white marble sculpture of a kneelin
Society Hill is a historic neighborhood in Center City Philadelphia, Pennsylvania with a population of 6,215 as of the 2010 United States Census. Settled in the early 1680s, Society Hill is one of the oldest residential neighborhoods in Philadelphia. After urban decay developed between the late 19th and early 20th centuries, an urban renewal program began in the 1950s, restoring the area and its many historic buildings. Society Hill has since become one of the most expensive neighborhoods with the highest average income and second highest real estate values in Philadelphia. Society Hill's historic colonial architecture, along with intelligent planning and restoration efforts, led the American Planning Association to designate it, in 2008, as one of the great American neighborhoods and a good example of sustainable urban living; the neighborhood contains one of the largest concentrations of original 18th- and early 19th-century buildings in the United States. Society Hill is noted for its Franklin street lamps, brick sidewalks and Belgian block streets bordered by two- to four-story brick rowhouses in Federal and Georgian architecture, public buildings in Greek Revival architecture such as the Merchants' Exchange Building and the Old Pine Street Church.
Society Hill is named after the 17th-century Free Society of Traders, which had its offices at Front Street on the hill above Dock Creek. The Free Society of Traders was a company of elite merchants and personal associates of William Penn who were granted special concessions in order to direct the economy of the young colony. Society Hill was known as the Dock Ward, an appropriate designation until the post-World War II period when the shipping industry declined and relocated; the Dock Ward, first defined in 1705, was one of the ten original wards that the city used to subdivide land east of 7th Street. As part of the 1854 Act of Consolidation, the Dock Ward was renamed the 5th Ward; the wards were realigned in 1965 and the boundaries of the 5th Ward no longer correspond to Society Hill's boundaries. The land area of Society Hill is 0.254 square miles. Bordering the Delaware River just south of Old City and Independence Hall, Society Hill is loosely defined as bounded by Walnut, Front and 8th Streets.
The Society Hill Civic Association further subdivides Society Hill along Spruce Street and 4th Street into quadrants by intercardinal directions: northeast, southeast and northwest. Across different sources, variation in the exact border includes extending the eastern boundary to the Delaware River, the southern border to South Street, the northern border to Chestnut Street, or limiting the western border to 7th Street. With prime access to the Delaware River and Philadelphia's civic buildings, including Independence Hall, the neighborhood became one of the most populous areas in colonial Philadelphia. Several market halls and churches were built alongside brick houses of Philadelphia's affluent citizens. After the Revolutionary War, the polluted Dock Creek—which had been used as a public sewer—became Dock Street when the city filled in the creek and created a new food distribution market. Though the streets of Philadelphia were laid out in a grid, the new Dock Street’s arc connecting Chestnut and Spruce Streets between 2nd and 3rd, owes its uncharacteristic shape to the path of the former creek as it ran to the river.
In the 19th century, the city expanded westward and the area lost its appeal. Houses deteriorated, by the 1940s, Society Hill had become a slum neighborhood, one of the worst in the city. In the 1950s, the city and federal governments began one of the first urban renewal programs aimed at the preservation of historic buildings. While most commercial 19th-century buildings were demolished, historically-significant houses were restored by occupants or taken over by the Philadelphia Redevelopment Authority and sold to individuals who agreed to restore the exteriors. Replicas of 18th-century street lights and brick sidewalks were added to enhance the colonial atmosphere. Empty lots and demolished buildings were replaced with parks and modern townhouses. From 1957-1959, the Greater Philadelphia Movement, the Redevelopment Authority and the Old Philadelphia Development Corporation bought 31 acres around Dock Street, they demolished and relocated the Dock Street market, setting aside 5 acres of land that would become the Society Hill Towers.
In 1957, Edmund Bacon, the executive director of the Philadelphia City Planning Commission, awarded developer-architect firm Webb and Knapp the competition for the redevelopment of Society Hill. Architect I. M. Pei and his team designed a plan for three 31-story Society Hill Towers and low-rise buildings; the Towers and townhouses project was completed in 1964, while the entire plan was completed in 1977. Architect Louis Sauer designed dozens of rowhouse projects for the area around Society Hill, including Waverly Court and Penn's Landing Square. Historic buildings in Society Hill include the Society Hill Synagogue, built in 1829 as a Baptist church by Philadelphia architect Thomas Ustick Walter, one of the architects of the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. The synagogue was entered into the National Register of Historic Places in 1971. Another notable building is St. Peter's Church, constructed between 1761 by Robert Smith. Congregation Kesher Israel occupies and has renovated the building constructed by the Universalist Church in 1796 at 412 Lombard Street.
The Society Hill Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971. In 1999, it was listed on the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 6,215 people residing in So
The Schuylkill River is an important river running northwest to southeast in eastern Pennsylvania, improved by navigations into the Schuylkill Canal. Several of its tributaries drain major parts of the center-southern and easternmost Coal Regions in the state. Originating from waters in the Anthracite Coal Region, millions of tons of coal enabling the iron and steel based industries of America's largest city of the day used the waterway to supply some of the growing American energy needs, it flows for 135 miles to Philadelphia, where it joins the Delaware River as one of its largest tributaries. In 1682 William Penn chose the left bank of the confluence upon which he founded the planned city of Philadelphia on lands purchased from the native Delaware nation, it is a designated Pennsylvania Scenic River, its whole length was once part of the Delaware people's southern territories. The river's watershed of about 2,000 sq mi lies within the state of Pennsylvania, the upper portions in the Ridge-and-valley Appalachian Mountains where the folding of the mountain ridges metamorphically modified bituminous into widespread anthracite deposits located north of the Blue Mountain barrier ridge.
The source of its eastern branch is in lands now mined situated one ridgeline south of Tuscarora Lake along a drainage divide from the Little Schuylkill about a mile east of the village of Tuscarora and about a mile west of Tamaqua, at Tuscarora Springs in Schuylkill County. Tuscarora Lake is one source of the Little Schuylkill River tributary; the West Branch starts near Minersville and joins the eastern branch at the town of Schuylkill Haven. It combines with the Little Schuylkill River downstream in the town of Port Clinton; the Tulpehocken Creek joins it at the western edge of Reading. Wissahickon Creek joins it in northwest Philadelphia. Other major tributaries include: Maiden Creek, Manatawny Creek, French Creek, Perkiomen Creek; the Schuylkill joins the Delaware at the site of the former Philadelphia Navy Yard, now the Philadelphia Naval Business Center, just northeast of Philadelphia International Airport. The Leni Lenape were the original inhabitants of the area around this river, which they called Tool-pay Hanna or Tool-pay Hok Ing.
The river was discovered by European explorers from the Netherlands and England. It was through historical documents called various names, including Manayunk, Manajungh and Lenni Bikbi; the Swedish explorer called it Menejackse alternately Skiar kill or the Linde River. The headwaters of the river, up near Reading, was called "Tulpehocken" by the English; the river was given the Dutch name Schuylkill. As kil means "creek" and schuylen means "to hide, skulk" or "to take refuge, shelter", one explanation given for this name is that it translates to "hidden river", "skulking river" or "sheltered creek" and refers to the river's confluence with the Delaware River at League Island, nearly hidden by dense vegetation. Another explanation is that the name properly translates to "hideout creek" in one of the Algonquian languages spoken by a Leni Lenape in their confederation; the mighty Susquehannock confederation claimed the area along the Schuylkill as a hunting ground, as they did to the lands down along the Chesapeake Bay to the left bank Potomac River, across from the Powhatan Confederacy when traders first stopped in the Delaware and settlers arrived in the first decade of the 1600s.
With ample tributary streams, the Schuylkill was ground zero during the early years of the Beaver Wars, during which the Delaware peoples became tributary to the victorious Susquehannocks, an Iroquoian people often in contention with their relatives, both the Erie people west and northwest through the gaps of the Allegheny in Eastern Ohio and Northwestern Pennsylvania (between the upper Allegheny River and Lake Erie, the Five Nations of the Iroquois, another Amerindian confederation eastwards from the right bank Genessee River through the finger lakes region of upper New York down the Saint Lawrence. The Lenape had settlements on the river, including Nittabakonck, a village on the east bank just south of the confluence of the Wissahickon Creek, the Passyunk site, on the west bank where the Schuylkill meets the Delaware River. Patriot paper maker Frederick Bicking owned a fishery on the river prior to the Revolution, Thomas Paine tried in vain to interest the citizens in funding an iron bridge over this river, before abandoning "pontifical works" on account of the French Revolution.
In the next decades, pioneering industrialists Josiah White and protege & partner Erskine Hazard built iron industries at the Falls of the Schuylkill in Jefferson's administration, where White built a suspension bridge with cables made from their wire mill. During the war of 1812 the two took delivery of an ark of anthracite coal, notoriously difficult to combust reliably and experimented with ways to use it industrially, providing the knowledge to begin resolving the ongoing decades long energy crises around eastern cities; the two heavily backed the flagging effort to improve navigation on the Schuylkill, which efforts date back to legislation measures as early as 1762. Needing energy resources and by 1816 disenchanted with the lack of urgency found in other investors to accelerate the anemic construction rate of the Schuylkill Canal, the two jumped to option the mining rights of the Lehigh Coal Mine Company which disenchanted stockholders were giving up on waited until a charter to improved the Lehigh went delinquent, resulting in t
Italian Market, Philadelphia
The Italian Market is the popular name for the South 9th Street Curb Market, an area of South Philadelphia featuring many grocery shops, restaurants, cheese shops, butcher shops, etc. many with an Italian influence. The historical heart of the market is the area of 9th Street between Christian Street and Washington Avenue, is now considered to extend from Fitzwater Street at the north to Wharton Street at the south; the term Italian Market is used to describe the surrounding neighborhood between South Street to the North and Wharton Street to the South running a few blocks to the east and west of 9th street. Although it is considered the social and commercial heart of the Philadelphia Italian community, the Ninth Street Market was an ethnic mix from its inception. In recent years, an influx of immigrants from Latin America from Mexico and to a lesser degree from Central American countries like Guatemala and El Salvador, has changed the Italian Market area and it is now home to many stores and restaurants catering to South Philadelphia's Hispanic population.
The Italian Market referred to as 9th Street, has its origins as a marketplace in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The area, outside the original boundaries of William Penn's planned city, was an area for immigrants to settle in. Italian immigrants began to move into the area around 1884, when Antonio Palumbo began receiving Italian immigrants into his boardinghouse. Shops along 9th Street opened up shortly afterward to cater to the new Italian community and have remained in the area to this day, with many of the present vendors tracing the founding of their businesses back to the first decade of the 20th century; the name "Italian Market" came about in the mid-1970s as supermarket chains began to move to the area. During this time, many other ethnicities abandoned the Market, the Ninth Street Market was left with a predominantly Italian population that continued to buy and operate in the market; the area continues to attract new immigrants as a significant number of Vietnamese, Korean and Mexican-run businesses have joined the traditional Italian shops in the market.
Many new Mexican stores have opened up around the market. Many Latino immigrants work in the market; the market plays host to the annual Italian Market Festival with music, activities and, of course, food. One of several curb markets established in the early 20th century offering fresh produce and a variety of ethnic specialty foods, it has evolved into a popular Philadelphia icon. On October 12, 2007, the Market was honored by the dedication of a Pennsylvania State Historical Marker as the "South 9th Street Curb Market" at the NE corner of 9th and Christian Streets. An unofficial historical marker was erected just in front of the Frank Rizzo mural in 2008; the marker, entitled "The Italian Market," explains about the Italian market area forming a business association in the early 1900s. The officers of the association were of eastern Sicilian heritages; the other members of the association were of northern and eastern European and Asian heritages. The sign states; the "outdoor" market features bright colorful metal awnings covering the sidewalks where vendors of fruit, vegetables and housewares conduct business year round.
Ground floor shops in traditional Philadelphia rowhouses line the street. Owners would have lived above their shops, many still do; the market is open year-round from 9 am to 5 pm, though it varies from business to business. Most businesses are open until lunchtime on Sunday, closed Monday. Outdoor stands and cafes open at the crack of dawn, restaurants serve patrons late into the evening; the broad awnings shield shoppers from sun and snow. In the winter, vendors set up burn barrels in the street near their stands; the market plays a role in the culture of Philadelphia. It is included in cultural depictions of the city. For example, The Italian Market was featured in Rocky and Rocky II; the television series Hack filmed several episodes that featured the Italian Market. The Italian Market was featured on a season 5 episode of the television show It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia; as Philadelphia has gentrified, so has the Italian Market. Outdoor seating at cozy cafes, upscale gift stores and top notch gourmet shops are thriving among the market's traditional produce vendors and specialty butchers and cheese mongers.
Pat's King of Steaks Geno's Steaks History of the Italian Americans in Philadelphia Frank Palumbo and Palumbo's Little Saigon, Philadelphia, a neighborhood that it is intertwined with. Washington Avenue Historic District Liberati, Maria. PHILADELPHIA'S ITALIAN MARKET TOUR - A Self-guided Pictorial Walking Tour Publication date: January 21, 2012 ASIN B0070N2FNK Official website