Charles Wieder Dent is an American politician, the U. S. Representative for Pennsylvania's 15th congressional district from 2005 to 2018, he is a member of the Republican Party. Born in Allentown, Dent worked in a variety of occupations after graduating from Pennsylvania State University, he earned a master's degree in public administration from Lehigh University and served as an aide to Congressman Donald L. Ritter. From 1991 to 2004, he served in the Pennsylvania General Assembly. In 2004, Dent won election to the United States House of Representatives. In the House, Dent became a member of the centrist Republican Main Street Partnership and the Tuesday Group, he became co-chair of the Tuesday Group in 2007. He served on the House Committee on Appropriations, chaired the House Ethics Committee. In September 2017, Dent announced that he would retire from Congress and not seek re-election to another term in 2018. In April 2018, Dent announced that he would retire in May 2018, not serving out the remainder of his term.
He resigned on May 2018, leaving the seat vacant. Dent was born and raised in Allentown, the son of Marjorie L. and Walter R. Dent, he is of German and Irish descent. Dent is a 1978 graduate of Allentown's William Allen High School, he received a bachelor's in international politics from Pennsylvania State University in 1982 and a masters in public administration from Lehigh University in 1993. He is a member of Phi Kappa Psi, worked as a development officer for Lehigh University, an industrial electronics salesman, a hotel clerk, an aide to U. S. Representative Donald L. Ritter. Before being elected to the United States Congress, Dent was a member of the State Legislature for 14 years, he represented Pennsylvania's 132nd house district from 1991–99 after unseating Democratic incumbent Jack Pressman in a Democratic district in 1990. In 1998, Dent won an open 16th District Senate seat when Democrat Roy Afflerbach retired to take up an unsuccessful bid for Congress. Dent was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 2004, succeeding Pat Toomey, who gave up his seat to challenge Arlen Specter for the U.
S. Senate, he defeated Democrat Joe Driscoll 59%–39%. 2006 He won re-election 54%–44% against Charles Dertinger. 2008 He won re-election 59%–41% against Allentown Democratic Party Chairman Sam Bennett. 2010 Dent won re-election against Bethlehem Mayor John Callahan with 54% of the vote, the smallest percent of the vote he received in his four elections. 2012 Dent defeated Democrat Rick Daugherty, the Chairman of the Lehigh County Democratic Party, 57%–43%. Charlie Dent is a moderate Republican; the non-partisan National Journal gave Dent a composite ideological rating of 62% conservative and 38% liberal in 2013. The National Journal considered Dent to be one of the three most moderate Republicans in that year. GovTrack placed Dent near the ideological center of the House of Representatives. Before retiring, Dent voted in line with President Trump's position on legislation 93% of the time. In April 2011, Dent voted in favor of a 2012 budget proposal authored by Paul Ryan entitled The Path to Prosperity, which included several controversial changes to both health care and tax policy.
Dent said of the bill that, "It's a serious, sober document... There are some things in there that I think are interesting."Dent was ranked as the 47th most bipartisan member of the U. S. House of Representatives during the 114th United States Congress in the Bipartisan Index created by The Lugar Center and the McCourt School of Public Policy that ranks members of the United States Congress by their degree of bipartisanship. Dent, after announcing his retirement during late 2017, stated dealing with the "freewheeling president" became "exhausting". According to The Hill, he stated "disorder, instability, intemperate statements" were not "conservative virtues", he delivered a farewell speech on May 10, resigned on May 12, 2018, leaving the seat vacant. In April 2010, Dent introduced a resolution urging the U. S. State Department to issue a Certificate of Loss of Nationality to Anwar al-Awlaki, he said al-Awlaki "preaches a culture of hate" and had been a functioning member of al-Qaeda "since before 9/11", had renounced his citizenship by engaging in treasonous acts.
Anwar al-Awlaki was killed in a U. S. drone strike in Yemen on September 30, 2011, his 16-year-old son, Abdulrahman was killed two weeks both ordered by U. S. President Barack Obama, his eight-year-daughter Nawar a U. S. citizen, was killed in a SEAL commando raid in Yemen on January 29, 2017, ordered by President Donald Trump, in which a SEAL was killed and an Osprey aircraft was destroyed. In January 2012, Dent co-sponsored the Enemy Expatriation Act with Senator Joe Lieberman; the bill's purpose was'To add engaging in or supporting hostilities against the United States to the list of acts for which United States nationals would lose their nationality', where the term "hostilities" means any conflict subject to the laws of war. The proposal would allow the United States government to strip U. S. citizens of their citizenship without requiring that the citizen have been convicted of a crime. Dent criticized President Donald Trump's 2017 executive ord
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania is a public university in Kutztown, Pennsylvania. It is one of fourteen schools that comprise the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education and is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, Pennsylvania Department of Education, NCATE, NLN, CSWE, NASM, NASAD. First established in 1866, Kutztown University began as the Keystone Normal School based out of the presently-named Old Main Building and specializing in teacher education; the school expanded its programs outside education to be christened Kutztown State College in 1960 and Kutztown University of Pennsylvania in twenty years in 1983. Between four undergraduate colleges and graduate studies, Kutztown University now offers programs in the liberal arts and sciences, the visual and performing arts, business and certain graduate studies. Eight intercollegiate men's sports and thirteen women's sports compete within the NCAA Division II and the Pennsylvania State Athletic Conference.
Kutztown University is a census-designated place in Maxatawny Township just outside the borough of Kutztown and makes up the main population of the university. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,918 residents. On September 15, 1866, the Keystone State Normal School was established on what is now the site of Old Main; the needs of a burgeoning industrialization in the region placed more and more demands on teacher preparation, in 1928, the institution was designated Kutztown State Teacher's College and authorized to confer the bachelor's degree. The area's need for liberally educated personnel to staff its industries outstripped the need for teachers. In 1960, the Department of Education changed the institution's name to Kutztown State College and diversified its goals toward "A center for learning for the best possible education of the youth of Pennsylvania in the arts and sciences and preparation of able and dedicated teachers." On July 1, 1983, the institution became Kutztown University of Pennsylvania of the State System of Higher Education.
The university celebrated its 125th year of service to the region and community during the 1991–92 academic year. As of Fall 2018, the University enrollment was 8,300 full- and part-time undergraduate and graduate students. Degrees offered included Bachelor of Arts in 24 subjects, Bachelor of Science in 30, Bachelor of Science in Business Administration in five, Bachelor of Science in Education in five, Bachelor of Social Work, Bachelor of Science in Leisure & Sport Studies, Bachelor of Science in Library Science, Bachelor of Fine Arts in three subjects. Master's degrees are offered in 18 subjects; the university offers a Doctorate of Social Work. In addition, the university reaches out to the community with credit and non-credit lifelong learning courses. Situated in the Sharadin Arts Building, the College of Visual and Performing Arts offers two Bachelor of Arts degrees in music and communication studies, three Bachelor of Fine Arts degrees in communication design and studio art, three Bachelor of Science degrees in art education, music education, cinema and media production.
The college offers master's degrees in art education and communication design. The Marlin and Regina Miller Gallery displays exhibitions of both student and outside artists sponsored by Third Pennsylvania Partners in the Arts. In addition, student work is featured weekly within the Student Union Art Gallery in the David E. McFarland Student Union Building. Music and theatrical performances conducted by KU Presents make regular appearances in Schaeffer Auditorium throughout the academic year, both student and faculty recitals are held by the Department of Music. Held within the Italo deFrancesco Building, the College of Business provides Bachelor of Science in Business Administration with majors in accounting, finance and marketing, a Bachelor of Science in Sport Management, as well as minors in economics and supply chain management; the College offers an MBA program. In 2015, Kutztown achieved accreditation by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business The Kutztown University Small Business Development Center helps counsel small business located in surrounding counties, including one-on-one business consulting, professional development seminars on increasing profitability, producing business publications for self-instruction.
The College of Liberal Arts and Sciences employs an on-campus observatory and 30-acre ecoplot for environmental studies, independent faculty research projects, geared at providing additional educational and publication opportunities. Degrees offered include anthropology, social work, biological sciences, computer science, criminal justice, environmental science, geology, modern language, philosophy, pre-medical and health sciences, political science, public administration, professional writing. Based from the Beekey Education Building, the College of Education offers Bachelor of Science in Education in instructional technology, elementary education, library science, secondary education, special education. Certifications are offered in a wide range of fields in the liberal arts and sciences; the College of Education offers degree programs in Elementary Education, Art Education, Music Education, Secondary Education, Special Education, Library Science and Instruction Technology and Counseling.
While housed in the College of Visua
Lobbying in the United States
Lobbying in the United States describes paid activity in which special interests hire well-connected professional advocates lawyers, to argue for specific legislation in decision-making bodies such as the United States Congress. It is a controversial phenomenon seen in a negative light by journalists and the American public, with some critics describing it as a legal form of bribery or extortion. While lobbying is subject to extensive and complex rules which, if not followed, can lead to penalties including jail, the activity of lobbying has been interpreted by court rulings as constitutionally protected free speech and a way to petition the government for the redress of grievances, two of the freedoms protected by the First Amendment of the Constitution. Since the 1970s, lobbying activity has grown immensely in the United States in terms of the numbers of lobbyists and the size of lobbying budgets, has become the focus of much criticism of American governance. Since lobby rules require extensive disclosure, there is a large amount of information in the public sphere about which entities lobby, how, at whom, for how much.
The current pattern suggests much lobbying is done by corporations, although a wide variety of coalitions representing diverse groups occurs. Lobbying takes place at every level of government, including federal, county and local governments. In Washington, D. C. lobbying targets members of Congress, although there have been efforts to influence executive agency officials as well as Supreme Court appointments. Lobbying can have an important influence on the political system; the number of lobbyists in Washington is estimated to be over twelve thousand, but most lobbying, is handled by fewer than 300 firms with low turnover. A report in The Nation in 2014 suggested that while the number of 12,281 registered lobbyists was a decrease since 2002, lobbying activity was increasing and "going underground" as lobbyists use "increasingly sophisticated strategies" to obscure their activity. Analyst James A. Thurber estimated that the actual number of working lobbyists was close to 100,000 and that the industry brings in $9 billion annually.
Lobbying has been the subject of academic inquiry in various fields, including law, public policy and marketing strategy. Political scientist Thomas R. Dye once said that politics is about battling over scarce governmental resources: who gets them, when and how. Since government makes the rules in a complex economy such as the United States, it is logical that various organizations, individuals, trade groups, religions and others—which are affected by these rules—will exert as much influence as they can to have rulings favorable to their cause, and the battling for influence has happened in every organized society since the beginning of civilization, whether it was Ancient Athens, Florence during the time of the Medici, Late Imperial China, or the present-day United States. Modern-day lobbyists in one sense are like the courtiers of the Ancien Régime. If voting is a general way for a public to control a government, lobbying is a more specific, targeted effort, focused on a narrower set of issues.
The term lobby has etymological roots in the physical structure of the British Parliament, in which there was an intermediary covered room outside the main hall. People pushing an agenda would try to meet with members of Parliament in this room, they came to be known, by metonymy, as lobbyists, although one account in 1890 suggested that the application of the word "lobby" is American and that the term is not used as much in Britain; the term lobbying in everyday parlance can describe a wide variety of activities, in its general sense, suggests advocacy, advertising, or promoting a cause. In this sense, anybody who tries to influence any political position can be thought of as "lobbying", sometimes the term is used in this loose sense. A person who writes a letter to a congressperson, or questions a candidate at a political meeting, could be construed as being a lobbyist. However, the term "lobbying" means a paid activity with the purpose of attempting to "influence or sway" a public official – including bureaucrats and elected officials – towards a desired specific action relating to specific legislation.
If advocacy is disseminating information, including attempts to persuade public officials as well as the public and media to promote the cause of something and support it when this activity becomes focused on specific legislation, either in support or in opposition it crosses the line from advocacy and becomes lobbying. This is the usual sense of the term "lobbying." One account suggested that much of the activity of nonprofits was not lobbying per se, since it did not mean changes in legislation. A lobbyist, according to the legal sense of the word, is a professional a lawyer. Lobbyists are intermediaries between client organizations and lawmakers: they explain to legislators what their organizations want, they explain to their clients what obstacles elected officials face. One definition of a lobbyist is someone "employed to persuade legislators to pass legislation that will help the lobbyist's employer." Many lobbyists work in lobbying firms or law firms. Others work for advocacy groups, trade associations and state and local governments.
Lobbyists can be one type of government official, such as a governor of a sta
Emmaus is a borough in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. It is located 5 miles southwest of Allentown, Pennsylvania, in the Lehigh Valley region of the state, it is 50 miles north of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania's largest city, 20 miles west of the Delaware River. Emmaus is located in the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ Metropolitan Statistical Area, in the New York City-Newark, New Jersey, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area; the population of Emmaus was 11,368 in 2015. This borough has been given many awards, including the Delaware Valley Green Building Council's Sustainable Community Award. In 2007 and 2009, Emmaus has been listed as one of the top 100 "Best Places to Live" in the United States by Money magazine. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 2.9 square miles, all land, though part of the Little Lehigh Creek, a tributary of the Lehigh River, flows just outside the Emmaus border with Salisbury Township. Emmaus borders a large mountain range.
The town's elevation is 436 feet above sea level. Emmaus is located at 40°32′13″N 75°29′45″W, it is in hardiness zone 6b. As of the census of 2010, there were 11,313 people, 4,985 households, 3,155 families residing in the borough; the population density was 3,918.8 people per square mile. There were 5,186 housing units at an average density of 1,796.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 95.89% White, 0.70% African American, 0.06% Native American, 1.81% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.88% from other races, 0.63% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.51% of the population. There were 4,985 households, out of which 26.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.9% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.7% were non-families. 31.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 13.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.85.
In the borough, the population was spread out, with 21.2% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 31.0% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, 19.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there are 91.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $55,139, whereas the estimated median household for the state of Pennsylvania is $52,007, the median income for a family was $54,120. Males had a median income of $38,659 versus $25,331 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $23,245. About 2.2% of families and 3.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.2% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over. Emmaus was settled in the 1740s and dates its founding to 1759. For 100 years, until the mid-19th century, it was a closed community of the Moravian Church; the original land on which the town now lies was donated by Sebastian Heinrich Knauss and Jacob Ehrenhardt for use by the Moravian church.
The founders and original residents of the town were members of the Lutheran and Reformed faiths, who joined the Moravian church when their own denominations were unable to provide ministers. Emmaus was one of the four leading Moravian communities in the northeast United States at the time of its founding; the borough was named for the biblical village of Emmaus, according to the New Testament, Jesus was seen by his disciples Luke and Cleopas following his crucifixion and resurrection. From its founding in 1759 until 1830, the settlement's name was spelled Emmaus. From 1830 until 1938, the community used the Pennsylvania Dutch spelling of the name, Emaus, to reflect local language and the significant presence of Pennsylvania Dutch. In German into the early twentieth century, the name had been spelled with a line above the m, which indicated a doubling of the letter, the usage in English into the sixteenth century. Since this tradition had died out in English, the line was omitted in spellings of the name, which became confusing to the now more prevalent English speakers.
In 1938, after petitions circulated by the local Rotary Club, the borough formally changed the name's spelling to Emmaus, reflecting the spelling in the Gospel of Luke in the English New Testament. Iron ore was discovered nearby in the 19th century and served as a source of industrial growth for much of the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1859, the East Pennsylvania Railroad brought trains to Emmaus; that same year, the town was incorporated as a borough. In 1869, the town's first blast furnace opened; the largest iron company was Donaldson Iron Company, which made cast iron pipes and other products until the company closed in 1943. During the 19th century, Emmaus was a center of silk and cigar manufacturing. In 1940, public census statistics showed; the population of the borough has since nearly doubled to 11,313, as of the 2000 census. Housing construction has reached the borough line in all directions, so significant continued population growth in the borough is unlikely. Outside the borough line, the local population continues to grow in neighboring Lower Macungie Township.
Emmaus is home to several residences and other properties that were constructed in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, have been labeled historic sites by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Under historical preservation Commo
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Pennsylvania House of Representatives
The Pennsylvania House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Pennsylvania General Assembly, the legislature of the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. There are 203 members, elected for two-year terms from single member districts. Republican Mike Turzai was first elected Speaker of the House on January 6, 2015. In 2012, a State Representative district had an average population of 60,498 residents, it is the largest full-time state legislature in the country. The Hall of the House contains important symbols to Pennsylvania history and the work of legislators. Speaker's Chair: a throne-like chair of rank that sits directly behind the Speaker's rostrum. Architect Joseph Huston designed the chair in 1906, the year. Mace: the House symbol of authority, peace and respect for law rests in a pedestal to the right of the Speaker, its base is solid mahogany, intricately carved and capped by a brass globe engraved with the Pennsylvania coat of arms. An American Eagle perches on top; the tradition of the mace may date to the Roman Republic when attendants of Roman consuls carried bundles of sticks wrapped around an axe to enforce order.
The tradition is common may come directly from Pennsylvania's English heritage. Murals: a colorful panorama of Pennsylvania history appear in murals by Edwin Austin Abbey; the most commanding of the series hangs behind the Speaker's rostrum and dominates the wall behind the Speaker. It is called The Apotheosis of Pennsylvania Ceiling: a work of art in itself with its ornate geometry of gold leaf buttoned at the center by a charming painted illustration. In "The Hours", Abbey represents the passage of time in the form of 24 maidens revolving in an endless circle amidst the moon, the sun and the stars of the Milky Way; the speakership is the oldest elected statewide office in the Commonwealth. Since its first session in 1682—presided over by William Penn—over 130 house members have been elevated to the speaker's chair; the house cannot hold an official session in the absence of the speaker or his designated speaker pro tempore. Speaker Leroy Irvis was the first African American elected speaker of any state legislature in the United States since Reconstruction.
Speaker Dennis O'Brien was the only minority-party Speaker known in Pennsylvania and only the second known nationwide. Pennsylvania has never had a female speaker; as of November 13, 2018 Speaker of the House of Representatives: Mike Turzai Pennsylvania State Senate Project Vote Smart List of Pennsylvania state legislatures Specific GeneralTrostle, Sharon, ed.. The Pennsylvania Manual. 119. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Department of General Services. ISBN 0-8182-0334-X. Pennsylvania House of Representatives State House of Pennsylvania information and voting records This link leads to information about elected officials and candidates in Pennsylvania on the website "Project Vote Smart." This web site provides such information for all states in the US