The Graduate is a 1967 American romantic comedy-drama film directed by Mike Nichols and written by Buck Henry and Calder Willingham, based on the 1963 novel of the same name by Charles Webb, who wrote it shortly after graduating from Williams College. The film tells the story of 21-year-old Benjamin Braddock, a recent college graduate with no well-defined aim in life, seduced by an older woman, Mrs. Robinson, falls in love with her daughter Elaine; the film was released on December 22, 1967, received positive reviews and grossed $104.9 million in the U. S. and Canada. With the figures adjusted for inflation, the film's gross is $789 million, making it the 22nd highest-ever grossing film in the U. S. and Canada. It was nominated in six other categories. In 1996, The Graduate was selected for preservation in the U. S. National Film Registry as being "culturally or aesthetically significant." The film was placed at number 7 on AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies list in 1998. When AFI revised the list in 2007, the film was moved to number 17.
In 1967, Benjamin Braddock, aged 21, has earned his bachelor's degree from a college on the East Coast and has returned home to a party celebrating his graduation at his parents' house in suburban Los Angeles. Benjamin, visibly uncomfortable as his parents deliver accolades and neighborhood friends ask him about his future plans, evades those who try to congratulate him. Mrs. Robinson, the wife of his father's law partner, insists. Benjamin is coerced inside to have a drink and Mrs. Robinson attempts to seduce him, she invites him up to her daughter Elaine's room to see her portrait and enters the room naked, making it clear that she is available to him. Benjamin rebuffs her but a few days he clumsily organizes a tryst at the Taft Hotel. Benjamin spends the remainder of the summer drifting around in the pool by day, purposefully neglecting to select a graduate school, seeing Mrs. Robinson at the hotel by night, he discovers that Mrs. Robinson have nothing to talk about. However, after Benjamin pesters her one evening, Mrs. Robinson reveals that she entered into a loveless marriage when she accidentally became pregnant with Elaine.
Both Mr. Robinson and Benjamin's parents encourage him to call Elaine, but, in private, Mrs. Robinson forbids it. Benjamin takes Elaine on a date but tries to sabotage it by ignoring her, driving recklessly and taking her to a strip club. After Elaine runs out of the strip club in tears, Benjamin has a change of heart, realizes how rude he has been to her, discovers that Elaine is someone with whom he is comfortable. In search of a late-night drink they visit the Taft hotel but when the staff greet Benjamin as "Mr. Gladstone" Elaine guesses that he has been having an affair with a married woman and accepts his assurances that the affair is now over. To preempt a furious Mrs. Robinson, who threatens to tell Elaine her version of their affair, Benjamin tells Elaine that the married woman was her mother. Elaine is distraught and returns to Berkeley. Benjamin tries to talk to her, she reveals that her mother's story is that he raped her while she was drunk, refuses to believe that her mother seduced Benjamin.
After pestering her to marry him for several days, Benjamin begins to make inroads with Elaine. However, Mr. Robinson arrives at Berkeley after learning about the affair, confronts Benjamin at his rooming house, threatens to put him behind bars if Benjamin sees his daughter again. Mr. Robinson forces Elaine to drop out of college and takes her away to marry Carl, a classmate with whom she had been involved. Returning to Pasadena in search of Elaine, Benjamin breaks into the Robinson home but encounters Mrs. Robinson, she tells him he will not be able to stop the wedding and calls the police claiming that her house is being burgled. Benjamin visits Carl's fraternity brothers who tell him that the wedding is in Santa Barbara, California that morning, he arrives just as Elaine is married. He bangs on the glass at the back of the church and screams out "Elaine!" repeatedly. After a brief hesitation, Elaine screams out "Ben!" and starts to run toward him. A brawl ensues as guests try to stop Benjamin from leaving together.
Elaine manages to break free from her mother, who slaps her. Benjamin manages to keep the guests at bay by jamming a large cross into the doors of the church. Both he and Elaine run into the street to flag down a passing bus and take the back seat. Although elated at their victory, the pair become uncomfortable as they journey towards an uncertain future. Nichols' first choice for Mrs. Robinson was French actress Jeanne Moreau; the idea behind this was that in the French culture, the "older" women tended to "train" the younger men in sexual matters. There were numerous actors tested for, or who wanted, roles in the film. Doris Day turned down an offer because the nudity required by the role offended her. Joan Crawford inquired as to play the part, while Lauren Bacall and Audrey Hepburn both wanted the role. Patricia Neal turned down the film as she had recovered from a stroke and did not feel ready to accept such a major role. Geraldine Page turned it down. Other actors considered for the part included Claire Bloom, Angie Dickinson, Sophia Loren, Judy Garland, Rita Hayworth, Susan Hayward, Anouk Aimee, Jennifer Jones, Deborah Kerr, Eva Marie Saint, Rosalind Russell, Simone Signoret, Jean Simmons, Lana Turner, Eleanor Parker, Anne Baxter and Shelley Winters.
Angela Lansbury asked about playing the p
The Dave Clark Five
The Dave Clark Five were an English rock and roll band formed in Tottenham in 1957. In January 1964 they had their first UK top ten single, "Glad All Over", which knocked the Beatles' "I Want to Hold Your Hand" off the top of the UK Singles Chart, it peaked at number 6 in the United States in April 1964. Although this was their only UK #1, they topped the US chart in December 1965, with their cover of Bobby Day's "Over And Over", their version of Chet Powers' "Get Together" reached number 8 on the UK Singles Chart retitled as "Everybody Get Together". They were the second group of the British Invasion to appear on The Ed Sullivan Show in the United States, they would have 18 appearances on the show. The group disbanded in late 1970. On 10 March 2008, the band was inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame; the band started out as the Dave Clark Quintet in 1957, with Clark on drums, Dave Sanford on lead guitar, Chris Walls on bass, Don Vale on piano. In 1958, Sanford was replaced by Rick Huxley and Vale was replaced by Roger Smedley.
People were confused by the meaning of the word quintet, so the band renamed themselves the Dave Clark Five, with Stan Saxon on lead vocals, Huxley on rhythm guitar, Smedley on piano and Johnny Johnson on lead guitar. Mick Ryan replaced Johnson in 1958 and Jim Spencer joined on saxophone, while Smedley left. Walls left in 1959 and Huxley became the bass player. Mike Smith joined on piano in 1960, Lenny Davidson replaced Ryan in 1961. In 1962, Saxon left. By the group was Clark on drums, Huxley on bass, Smith on organ and lead vocals, Davidson on lead guitar, adding Denny Payton on tenor and baritone saxophone and guitar. Originating in north London, the band was promoted as the vanguard of a "Tottenham Sound". Dave Clark, who formed the group, struck business deals that allowed him to produce the band's recordings and gave him control of the master recordings. Songwriting credits went to Clark and Smith, Clark and Davidson, Clark and Payton; the Dave Clark Five had 12 Top 40 hits in the UK between 1964 and 1967, 17 records in the Top 40 of the US Billboard chart.
Their cover of Bobby Day's "Over and Over" went to number one in the US on the Billboard Hot 100 on Christmas Day 1965, despite less impressive sales in the UK. They made 18 appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show – more than any British Invasion group; the band released a film, Catch Us If You Can in 1965. It starred Barbara Ferris, was released in the United States as Having a Wild Weekend; the short film Hits in Action highlighted a series of Dave Clark Five hits. Other than the songs "Inside and Out", "Maze of Love" and "Live in the Sky", the band did not follow the psychedelic music trend; the Dave Clark Five disbanded in 1970, having had three singles on the UK chart that year, two of which reached the Top Ten. In 1970, Davidson and Payton left, Alan Parker and Eric Ford joined on lead guitar and bass; that line-up, renamed "Dave Clark & Friends", lasted until 1973. Between 1978 and 1993, none of their music was available to be purchased in any commercial format due to rights-holder Clark declining to license the band's recordings.
In 1993, a single CD Glad All Over Again was produced by Dave himself and released by EMI in Britain. After a 1989 deal with the Disney Channel to rebroadcast the 1960s ITV show Ready Steady Go!, he made a deal with Disney-owned Hollywood Records to issue in 1993 a double CD History of the Dave Clark Five. No DC5 material was legally available until 2008, when the Hits compilation was released by Universal Music in the UK. In 2009, selections from the band's catalogue were released on iTunes, but their catalogue remains unavailable on Spotify. Dave Clark was the band's manager and producer of their recordings. Following the group's break-up, Clark set up a media company. In the process, he acquired the rights to the 1960s pop series Ready Steady Go!. Additionally, he wrote and produced the 1986 London stage musical Time – The Musical where he directed the last performance of Sir Laurence Olivier. A two-disc vinyl album was released in conjunction with the stage production featuring music recorded by Julian Lennon, Freddie Mercury, Stevie Wonder, Cliff Richard, Ashford & Simpson and Olivier's selected dialogue.
This double album was digitally remastered and released on iTunes in May 2012. Mike Smith released a now-scarce CD in 2000 titled It's Only Rock & Roll and returned to performing in 2003 after a hiatus of 25 years, he formed Mike Smith's Rock Engine and did two mini-tours of the U. S, he died on 28 February 2008 in London from pneumonia caused by a spinal injury fall sustained after scaling a fence at his home in Spain. Denis Payton died on 17 December 2006 at the age of 63 after a long battle with cancer. Rick Huxley died from emphysema on 11 February 2013 at the age of 72. Lenny Davidson taught guitar for many years at a school in Cambridgeshire; the Dave Clark Five made the list of nominees for the class of 2008, on 13 December 2007 it was announced that the band would be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on 10 March 2008. The group was inducted by Tom Hanks, who wrote and starred in the 1996 film That Thing You Do!, about an American one-hit wonder band that became popular in the wake of the British Invasion.
In attendance with the three surviving members of the DC5 were the families of Lenny Davidson and Rick Huxley, Denis Payton's two sons. Mike Smith died eleven days before the induction. Dave Clark opened up his acceptance speech by saying
The Rhythm of the Saints
The Rhythm of the Saints is the eighth solo studio album by American singer-songwriter Paul Simon, released on October 16, 1990 on Warner Bros. Like its predecessor, the album gained commercial success and received favorable reviews from critics. In 1992, The Rhythm of the Saints earned two nominations for the 34th Grammy Awards – Album of the Year and Producer of the Year. Following the success of 1986's Graceland, on which he worked principally with South African musicians, Simon broadened his interests in diverse forms of music from around the world, he turned to Latin America for the musicians and rhythms which characterize much of this album, partnering with Afro-Brazilian superstars Grupo Cultural Olodum, masters of the percussive sub-style of samba called Batuque or Batucada. The group's drumming is featured on the opening song and first single, "The Obvious Child". Brazilian singer-songwriter Milton Nascimento contributed some vocals. Guest appearances were made by mandolin- and "guitarra baiana" master Armandinho, another Bahia musician, by Afro-Cuban drummer Francisco Aguabella, Puerto Rican-born drummer Giovanni Hidalgo.
Another collaborator was jazz master of the berimbau, Naná Vasconcelos. The musical styles on The Rhythm of the Saints are, not uniformly Brazilian. US saxophonist Michael Brecker and other horn players contribute as session musicians, as well as American roots rock guitarist JJ Cale, Fabulous Thunderbirds vocalist Kim Wilson, R&B keyboards player Greg Phillinganes and jazz drummer Steve Gadd. Art rock guitarist and synth player Adrian Belew, who played on Graceland, is credited on "Spirit Voices". There are many backing vocals on The Rhythm of the Saints, such as "She Moves On", a duet with Charlotte Mbango. Simon was influenced by bikutsi for this album; the album is characterized by impressionistic lyrics, with slower tempos than Graceland and an atmospheric flow. Along with Latin rhythms, the prime influence on the album was West African and Central African music. Cameroonian jazz composer Andre Manga plays bass, South African guitarist Ray Phiri, who collaborated on Graceland, plays one song of the album, while famed trumpeter and worldbeat bandleader Hugh Masekela is credited with playing flugelhorn on one song.
Although drums for "The Obvious Child" were recorded live at Pelourinho Square in Salvador, Simon recorded most of the rhythms for the tracks in Rio de Janeiro studios before returning to The Hit Factory in New York City to record guitar accompaniment and the final arrangements. The Rhythm of the Saints marks Simon's first collaboration with Cameroonian guitarist Vincent Nguini, a member of his band up until his death in December 2017. Nguini is credited with creating the music and guitar arrangements for "The Coast", although Simon still wrote the lyrics. Nguini arranged guitar for other songs, such as "She Moves On" and "The Cool, Cool River," and he arranged the horns for "Proof." Together and Nguini created the melodies and arrangements that changed the bare rhythm and guitar recordings into the expertly-edited final product. The Rhythm of the Saints peaked at #4 on the US album chart, while Graceland had peaked at #3, both among Simon's most commercially successful albums; the album was commercially successful across the Atlantic, reaching #1 on the UK album chart.
However, with the exception of "The Obvious Child", none of its singles charted or received substantial radio play. "The Obvious Child" failed to reach the US top 40, although it came in at #15 in the UK – his last major hit in the UK. In the end, the album was certified multi-Platinum. Simon, alongside various musicians, performed live versions of many of the songs from the album at a free concert in Central Park, New York City on August 15, 1991, in front of an audience of around 50,000 people; the performance was recorded and released as the album Paul Simon's Concert in the Park. All tracks composed except where noted. Side one "The Obvious Child" – 4:10 "Can't Run But" – 3:36 "The Coast" – 5:04 "Proof" – 4:39 "Further to Fly" – 5:36Side two "She Moves On" – 5:03 "Born at the Right Time" – 3:48 "The Cool, Cool River" – 4:33 "Spirit Voices" – 3:56 "The Rhythm of the Saints" – 4:12 According to an article published in Stereophile magazine, Simon's original track sequence was changed when "the boys in Warners' front office insisted the album's lead single,'The Obvious Child' be given pride of place."
To hear Simon's preferred track order, the current release would have to be re-sequenced as 3-6-4-7-8-1-2-9-5-10. "The Coast" "She Moves On" "Proof" "Born at the Right Time" "The Cool, Cool River" "The Obvious Child" "Can't Run But" "Spirit Voices" "Further To Fly" "The Rhythm of the Saints" In 2004, the album was remastered by Dan Hersch and Bill Inglot. It was reissued with the same track order as the original release, along with four unreleased bonus tracks: "Born at the Right Time" – 3:50 "Thelma" – 4:14 "The Coast" – 5:13 "Spirit Voices" – 3:49 Paul Simon – vocals, acoustic guitar, electric guitar C. J. Chenier – accordion Ladysmith Black Mambazo – background vocals Milton Nascimento – vocals Naná Vasconcelos – percus
The Lovin' Spoonful
The Lovin' Spoonful is an American rock band, inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2000 and well known for a number of hit songs in the 1960s including "Summer in the City", "Do You Believe In Magic", "Did You Ever Have to Make Up Your Mind?", "Daydream". The band had its roots in the folk music scene based in the Greenwich Village section of lower Manhattan during the early 1960s. John B. Sebastian, the son of classical harmonicist John Sebastian, grew up in the Village in contact with music and musicians, including folk musicians who were involved with the American folk music revival of the 1950s through the early 1960s. Sebastian formed the Spoonful with guitarist Zal Yanovsky from a bohemian folk group called The Mugwumps, playing local coffee houses and small clubs; the formation of the Lovin' Spoonful during this period was described in the lyrics of the Mamas & the Papas' 1967 top ten hit, "Creeque Alley". Drummer Jan Carl and bassist Steve Boone rounded out the group, but Carl was replaced by drummer-vocalist Joe Butler after the group's first gig at The Night Owl in Greenwich Village.
Butler had played with Boone in a group called The Kingsmen. The group's first Night Owl performances were so bad that the club owner told them to go away and practice, so they practiced in the basement of the nearby Hotel Albert until they had improved enough to draw audience attention; the group made its first recordings for Elektra Records in early 1965, agreed in principle to sign a long-term deal with Elektra in exchange for a $10,000 advance. However, Kama Sutra Records had an option to sign the Lovin' Spoonful as recording artists as part of a signed production deal, Kama Sutra exercised the option upon learning of Elektra's intent to sign the band; the four tracks recorded for Elektra were released on the 1966 various artists compilation LP What's Shakin' after the band's success on Kama Sutra. The band worked with producer Erik Jacobsen to release their first single on July 20, 1965, "Do You Believe in Magic", written by Sebastian. Additionally, they wrote their own material, including "Younger Girl", a hit for The Critters in mid-1966.
"Do You Believe in Magic" reached #9 on the Hot 100, the band followed it up with a series of hit singles and albums throughout 1965 and 1966, all produced by Jacobsen. The Lovin' Spoonful became known for such folk-flavored pop hits as "You Didn't Have to Be So Nice", which reached #10, "Daydream", which went to #2. Other hits included "Did You Ever Have to Make Up Your Mind?" and their only song to reach #1 on the Hot 100, "Summer in the City". That year, the #10 hit "Rain on the Roof" and the #8 hit "Nashville Cats" completed the group's first seven consecutive Hot 100 hits to reach that chart's top 10; the only other 1960s act to achieve that feat is the Playboys. The Lovin' Spoonful was one of the most successful pop/rock groups to have jug band and folk roots, nearly half the songs on their first album were modernized versions of blues standards, their popularity revived interest in the form, many subsequent jug bands cite them as an inspiration. The rest of their albums featured original songs, but their jug band roots showed up again and again in "Daydream" and the lesser-known "Money", featuring a typewriter as percussion.
Lovin' Spoonful members termed their approach "good-time music". In the liner notes of "Do You Believe in Magic," Zal Yanovsky said that he "became a convert to Reddy Kilowatt because it's loud, people dance to it, it's loud." Soon-to-be members of the psychedelic rock band the Grateful Dead were part of the West Coast acoustic folk music scene when the Lovin' Spoonful came to town on tour. They credited the Lovin' Spoonful concert as a fateful experience, after which they decided to leave the folk scene and "go electric". At the peak of the band's success, the producers of the television series that became The Monkees planned to build their series around the Lovin' Spoonful, but dropped the band from the project due to conflicts over song publishing rights; the band gained an added bit of publicity when Butler replaced Jim Rado in the role of Claude for a sold-out four-month run with the Broadway production of the rock musical Hair. The Lovin' Spoonful's song "Pow!" was used as the opening theme of Woody Allen's first feature film, What's Up, Tiger Lily.
Shortly thereafter, John Sebastian composed the music for Francis Ford Coppola's second film, You're a Big Boy Now, the Lovin' Spoonful played the music for the soundtrack, which included yet another hit, "Darling Be Home Soon". Both films were released in 1966. In addition, the Michelangelo Antonioni film Blow-up released that year, contained an instrumental version of the Spoonful song, "Butchie's Tune", performed by jazz musician Herbie Hancock. In early 1967, the band broke with their producer Erik Jacobsen, turning to Joe Wissert to produce the single "Six O'Clock", which reached #18 in the U. S. Yanovsky left the band after the soundtrack album You're a Big Boy Now was released in May 1967 due to a drug bust in San Francisco, in which he was arrested for possession of marijuana and pressured by police to name his supplier, he wa
Simon & Garfunkel
Simon & Garfunkel were an American folk rock duo consisting of singer-songwriter Paul Simon and singer Art Garfunkel. They were one of the bestselling music groups of the 1960s and became counterculture icons of the decade's social revolution, alongside artists such as the Beatles, the Beach Boys, Bob Dylan, their biggest hits—including "The Sound of Silence", "Mrs. Robinson", "The Boxer", "Bridge over Troubled Water" —reached number one on singles charts worldwide; the duo met in elementary school in Queens, New York, in 1953, where they learned to harmonize together and began writing original material. By 1957, under the name Tom & Jerry, the teenagers had their first minor success with "Hey Schoolgirl", a song imitating their idols The Everly Brothers. In 1963, aware of a growing public interest in folk music, they regrouped and were signed to Columbia Records as Simon & Garfunkel, their debut, Wednesday Morning, 3 A. M. sold poorly, they once again disbanded. In June 1965, a new version of "The Sound of Silence", overdubbed with electric guitar and drums, became a major U.
S. AM radio hit, reaching number one on the Billboard Hot 100, they reunited to release a second studio album, Sounds of Silence, tour colleges nationwide. On their third release, Sage and Thyme, the duo assumed more creative control, their music was featured in the 1967 film The Graduate, giving them further exposure. Bookends, their next album, topped the Billboard 200 chart and included the number-one single "Mrs. Robinson" from the film, their rocky relationship led to artistic disagreements, which resulted in their breakup in 1970. Their final studio record, Bridge over Troubled Water, released that year, was their most successful, becoming one of the world's best-selling albums. After their breakup, Simon released a number of acclaimed albums, including 1986's Graceland. Garfunkel released some solo hits such as "All I Know", pursued an acting career, with leading roles in two Mike Nichols films, Catch-22 and Carnal Knowledge, in Nicolas Roeg's 1980 Bad Timing; the duo have reunited several times, most famously in 1981 for "The Concert in Central Park", which attracted more than 500,000 people, one of the largest concert attendances in history.
Simon & Garfunkel won 10 Grammy Awards and were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1990. Bridge over Troubled Water is ranked at number 51 on Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. Richie Unterberger described them as "the most successful folk-rock duo of the 1960s" and one of the most popular artists from the decade, they are among the best-selling music artists. Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel grew up in the 1940s and 1950s in the predominantly Jewish neighborhood of Forest Hills in Queens, New York, three blocks away from one another, they attended the same schools: Public School 164 in Flushing, Parsons Junior High School, Forest Hills High School. They were both fascinated with music. Simon first noticed Garfunkel when Garfunkel was singing in a fourth grade talent show, which Simon thought was a good way to attract girls, they formed a streetcorner doo-wop group, the Peptones, with three friends, learned to harmonize. They began performing as a duo at school dances. Simon and Garfunkel moved to Forest Hills High School in 1955, where, in 1956, they wrote their first song, "The Girl for Me".
While trying to remember the lyrics to the Everly's song "Hey Doll Baby", they created their own song, "Hey Schoolgirl", which they recorded themselves for $25 at Sanders Recording Studio in Manhattan. While recording they were overheard by a promoter, Sid Prosen, who – after speaking to their parents – signed them to his independent label Big Records, they were 15. Under Big Records and Garfunkel assumed the name Tom & Jerry, their first single, "Hey Schoolgirl", was released with the B-side "Dancin' Wild" in 1957. Prosen, using the payola system, bribed DJ Alan Freed $200 to play the single on his radio show, where it became a nightly staple. "Hey Schoolgirl" attracted regular rotation on nationwide AM pop stations, leading it to sell over 100,000 copies and to land on Billboard's charts at number 49. Prosen promoted the group getting them a headlining spot on Dick Clark's American Bandstand alongside Jerry Lee Lewis. Simon and Gafunkel shared $4,000 from the song – earning two percent each from royalties, the rest staying with Prosen.
They released three more singles on Big Records: "Our Song", "That's My Story", "Don't Say Goodbye", none of them successful. After graduating from Forest Hills High School in 1958, the pair continued their education should a music career not unfold. Simon studied English at Queens College, City University of New York, Garfunkel studied architecture before switching to art history at Columbia College, Columbia University. While still with Big Records as a duo, Simon released a solo single, "True or False", under the name "True Taylor"; this upset Garfunkel. Their last recording with Big Records was a cover of a Jan and Dean single, "Baby Talk", but the company went bankrupt soon after release.
Bob Dylan is an American singer-songwriter and visual artist, a major figure in popular culture for six decades. Much of his most celebrated work dates from the 1960s, when songs such as "Blowin' in the Wind" and "The Times They Are a-Changin'" became anthems for the Civil Rights Movement and anti-war movement, his lyrics during this period incorporated a wide range of political, social and literary influences, defied pop-music conventions and appealed to the burgeoning counterculture. Following his self-titled debut album in 1962, which comprised traditional folk songs, Dylan made his breakthrough as a songwriter with the release of The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan the following year; the album featured "Blowin' in the Wind" and the thematically complex "A Hard Rain's a-Gonna Fall". For many of these songs he adapted the tunes and sometimes phraseology of older folk songs, he went on to release the politically charged The Times They Are a-Changin' and the more lyrically abstract and introspective Another Side of Bob Dylan in 1964.
In 1965 and 1966, Dylan encountered controversy when he adopted electrically amplified rock instrumentation, in the space of 15 months recorded three of the most important and influential rock albums of the 1960s: Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited and Blonde on Blonde. The six-minute single. In July 1966, Dylan withdrew from touring after being injured in a motorcycle accident. During this period he recorded a large body of songs with members of the Band, who had backed him on tour; these recordings were released as the collaborative album The Basement Tapes, in 1975. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Dylan explored country music and rural themes in John Wesley Harding, Nashville Skyline, New Morning. In 1975, he released Blood on the Tracks. In the late 1970s, he became a born-again Christian and released a series of albums of contemporary gospel music before returning to his more familiar rock-based idiom in the early 1980s; the major works of his career include Time Out of Mind, "Love and Theft", Tempest.
His most recent recordings have comprised versions of traditional American standards songs recorded by Frank Sinatra. Backed by a changing lineup of musicians, he has toured since the late 1980s on what has been dubbed "the Never Ending Tour". Since 1994, Dylan has published eight books of drawings and paintings, his work has been exhibited in major art galleries, he has sold more than 100 million records, making him one of the best-selling music artists of all time. He has received numerous awards including ten Grammy Awards, a Golden Globe Award, an Academy Award. Dylan has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Minnesota Music Hall of Fame, Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame, the Songwriters Hall of Fame; the Pulitzer Prize jury in 2008 awarded him a special citation for "his profound impact on popular music and American culture, marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power". In 2012, Dylan received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, in 2016, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature "for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition".
Bob Dylan was born Robert Allen Zimmerman in St. Mary's Hospital on May 24, 1941, in Duluth and raised in Hibbing, Minnesota, on the Mesabi Range west of Lake Superior, he has David. Dylan's paternal grandparents and Anna Zimmerman, emigrated from Odessa, in the Russian Empire, to the United States following the anti-Semitic pogroms of 1905, his maternal grandparents and Florence Stone, were Lithuanian Jews who arrived in the United States in 1902. In his autobiography, Chronicles: Volume One, Dylan wrote that his paternal grandmother's maiden name was Kirghiz and her family originated from the Kağızman district of Kars Province in northeastern Turkey. Dylan's father, Abram Zimmerman – an electric-appliance shop owner – and mother, Beatrice "Beatty" Stone, were part of a small, close-knit Jewish community, they lived in Duluth until Dylan was six, when his father had polio and the family returned to his mother's hometown, where they lived for the rest of Dylan's childhood. In his early years he listened to the radio—first to blues and country stations from Shreveport and when he was a teenager, to rock and roll.
Dylan formed several bands while attending Hibbing High School. In the Golden Chords, he performed covers of songs by Elvis Presley, their performance of Danny & the Juniors' "Rock and Roll Is Here to Stay" at their high school talent show was so loud that the principal cut the microphone. On January 31, 1959, three days before his death, Buddy Holly performed at the Duluth Armory. Zimmerman, 17, was in the audience. Something I didn't know what, and it gave me the chills."In 1959, Dylan's high school yearbook carried the caption "Robert Zimmerman: to join'Little Richard'." That year, as Elston Gunnn, he performed two dates with Bobby Vee, clapping. In September 1959, Zimmerman enrolled at the University of Minnesota, his focus on rock and roll gave way to American folk music. In 1985, he said: The thing about rock'n'roll is that for me anyway it wasn't enough... There were great catch-phrases and driving pulse rhythms... but the songs weren't serious or didn't reflect li
An audio engineer helps to produce a recording or a live performance and adjusting sound sources using equalization and audio effects, mixing and reinforcement of sound. Audio engineers work on the "...technical aspect of recording—the placing of microphones, pre-amp knobs, the setting of levels. The physical recording of any project is done by an engineer... the nuts and bolts." It's a creative hobby and profession where musical instruments and technology are used to produce sound for film, television and video games. Audio engineers set up, sound check and do live sound mixing using a mixing console and a sound reinforcement system for music concerts, sports games and corporate events. Alternatively, audio engineer can refer to a scientist or professional engineer who holds an engineering degree and who designs and builds audio or musical technology working under terms such as acoustical engineering, electronic/electrical engineering or signal processing. Research and development audio engineers invent new technologies and techniques, to enhance the process and art of audio engineering.
They might design acoustical simulations of rooms, shape algorithms for audio signal processing, specify the requirements for public address systems, carry out research on audible sound for video game console manufacturers, other advanced fields of audio engineering. They might be referred to as acoustic engineers. Audio engineers working in research and development may come from backgrounds such as acoustics, computer science, broadcast engineering, acoustical engineering, electrical engineering and electronics. Audio engineering courses at university or college fall into two rough categories: training in the creative use of audio as a sound engineer, training in science or engineering topics, which allows students to apply these concepts while pursuing a career developing audio technologies. Audio training courses give you a good knowledge of technologies and their application to recording studio and sound reinforcement systems, but do not have sufficient mathematical and scientific content to allow you to get a job in research and development in the audio and acoustic industry.
Audio engineers in research and development possess a bachelor's degree, master's degree or higher qualification in acoustics, computer science or another engineering discipline. They might work in acoustic consultancy. Alternatively they might work in audio companies, or other industries that need audio expertise, or carry out research in a university; some positions, such as faculty require a Doctor of Philosophy. In Germany a Toningenieur is an audio engineer who designs and repairs audio systems; the listed subdisciplines are based on PACS coding used by the Acoustical Society of America with some revision. Audio engineers develop audio signal processing algorithms to allow the electronic manipulation of audio signals; these can be processed at the heart of much audio production such as reverberation, Auto-Tune or perceptual coding. Alternatively, the algorithms might carry out echo cancellation on Skype, or identify and categorize audio tracks through Music Information Retrieval. Architectural acoustics is the engineering of achieving a good sound within a room.
For audio engineers, architectural acoustics can be about achieving good speech intelligibility in a stadium or enhancing the quality of music in a theatre. Architectural Acoustic design is done by acoustic consultants. Electroacoustics is concerned with the design of headphones, loudspeakers, sound reproduction systems and recording technologies. Examples of electroacoustic design include portable electronic devices, sound systems in architectural acoustics, surround sound and wave field synthesis in movie theater and vehicle audio. Musical acoustics is concerned with describing the science of music. In audio engineering, this includes the design of electronic instruments such as synthesizers. Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of. At the heart of audio engineering are listeners who are the final arbitrator as to whether an audio design is successful, such as whether a binaural recording sounds immersive; the production, computer processing and perception of speech is an important part of audio engineering.
Ensuring speech is transmitted intelligibly and with high quality. A variety of terms are used to describe audio engineers who install or operate sound recording, sound reinforcement, or sound broadcasting equipment, including large and small format consoles. Terms such as "audio technician," "sound technician," "audio engineer," "audio technologist," "recording engineer," "sound mixer" and "sound engineer" can be ambiguous; such terms can refer to a person working in music production.