The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
Andrew James Wilson, better known as Snoo Wilson, was an English playwright and director. His early plays such as Blow-Job were overtly political combining harsh social comment with comedy. In his works he moved away from purely political themes, embracing a range of surrealist, magical and madcap, darkly comic subjects. After studying literature at the University of East Anglia, Wilson began his writing career in 1969, he began to build his reputation with a series of plays and screenplays in the early 1970s and was a founder of Portable Theatre Company, a touring company concentrating on experimental theatre. In the mid-1970s, he served as dramaturge to the Royal Shakespeare Company and produced one of his best-regarded plays, The Soul of the White Ant. In 1978, his surrealist play The Glad Hand attracted favourable notice, as did his 1994 play, Darwin's Flood, among others, he continued to write plays and screenplays until the end of his life, including for the Bush Theatre. He wrote several novels and held teaching positions.
Wilson was born in Reading, the son of two teachers: Leslie Wilson and his wife Pamela Mary née Boyle. Snoo was a childhood nickname, he was educated at Bradfield College, where his father taught, the University of East Anglia, graduating with a degree in American and English Literature in 1969. At UEA, he was a student of Malcolm Bradbury. Wilson's early plays, the one-act Girl Mad as Pigs and the two-act Ella Daybellfesse's Machine, were first produced at UEA in June and November 1967. Two years a second one-act play, Between the Acts, was first produced in Canterbury, at the University of Kent. In 1969, Wilson embarked on a writing career. Together with Tony Bicat and David Hare, Wilson founded the Portable Theatre Company, a touring company concentrating on experimental theatre, was its associate director from 1970 to 1975, his plays from these years included four one-act works, Charles the Martyr, Device of Angels, The Mean Knight and Reason, most of which dealt with overtly political subjects.
Wilson's first full-length works to attract notice were Pignight and Blow-Job, both produced in 1971, in which "Horror and farce sat side by side." Pignight, the first of his own plays that Wilson directed, is a nightmarish fantasy about a mentally disturbed former soldier, while on a Lincolnshire pig farm, believes that pigs are about to take over the world. Dusty Hughes called it "a vivid and emetic portrait of rural change and urban corruption". Critic Michael Billington described it as a "savage and disenchanted portrait of rural life". Blow-Job is a political exploration of urban violence during which a quantity of raw meat is thrown on stage to simulate the corpse of an Alsatian dog that has just been blown up. With some reservations, Irving Wardle praised the piece in The Times for its "authentic sense of horror … its intermingling of physical outrage and savage farce."In Wilson's 1973 full-length play, The Pleasure Principle, comedy and social comment were again combined, but to less savage effect.
Billington wrote, "On the one hand it is a strenuous indictment of ownership, property and personal exploitation: on the other, it is a madhouse extravaganza that operates on the good old comic principle of always putting a bomb under the audience's expectations." In The Observer, Robert Cushman wrote, "This is one of the best plays of the seventies' heartless school. Other full-length plays of this period were Vampire written for Paradise Foundry, The Beast, staged by the Royal Shakespeare Company and The Everest Hotel for Bush Theatre, which he directed. In the 1970s, Wilson's plays fell from favour with theatre producers who were looking for more commercial projects. Wilson was successful with screenplays and teleplays in the 1970s, including Sunday for Seven Days, The Good Life, More About the Universe, Swamp Music, The Barium Meal, The Trip to Jerusalem, Don't Make Waves and A Greenish Man. In 1975 and 1976, he was dramaturge to the Royal Shakespeare Company, in 1976 he married the journalist Ann McFerran, a theatre critic, with whom he had two sons and David, a daughter, Jo.
In the same year, he became script editor of the BBC television anthology drama series, Play for Today. A play that year, The Soul of the White Ant, starring Simon Callow, was first produced at the Soho Poly, it is a dramatic treatment of a racial murder in South Africa and the ensuing cover-up by the police and the press. A white woman has an affair with a Black lover and shoots him, it is "possibly masterpiece". In 1978, The Glad Hand, in which a South African tycoon employs a troupe of actors and sails an oil tanker through the Bermuda Triangle, hoping to conjure up the Anti-Christ and kill him in a Wild West gunfight, premiered at the Royal Court Theatre and won the John Whiting Award. Cushman wrote, "Sceptics like. Like Tom Stoppard he explains them; that year, Wilson was appointed Henfield Fellow at the University of East Anglia. Wilson's style grew away from the overtly political manner of his contemporaries David Hare and Howard Brenton, he wrote about the arcane, the occult, the irrational, whether in the Gothic intrigues of Vampire, the space aliens of Moonshine, or the duelling wizards of The Number of the Beast.
Commenting on his interest in magical subjects, Wilson sa
Edward Bond is an English playwright, theatre director, poet and screenwriter. He is the author of some fifty plays, among them Saved, the production of, instrumental in the abolition of theatre censorship in the UK. Bond is broadly considered one among the major living dramatists but he has always been and remains controversial because of the violence shown in his plays, the radicalism of his statements about modern theatre and society, his theories on drama. Edward Bond was born on 18 July 1934 into a lower-working-class family in North London; as a child during World War II he was evacuated to the countryside but was present during the bombings on London in 1940 and 1944. This early exposure to the violence and terror of war shaped themes in his work, while his experience of the evacuation gave him an awareness of social alienation which would characterise his writing, his first contact with theatre was music-hall, where his sister used to be sawn in two in a conjuror's sideshow. At fourteen, with his class he saw a performance of Shakespeare's Macbeth by Donald Wolfit, revelatory.
He explained that this performance was the first time he had been presented with traumatic experiences comparable to his own in a way he could apprehend and give meaning to. At fifteen, he left school with only a basic education, something from which he derived a deep sense of social exclusion that contributed to his political orientation. Bond educated himself, driven by an impressive eagerness for knowledge. After various jobs in factories and offices, he did his national service in the British Army occupation forces in Vienna between 1953 and 1955. During his time in the army he discovered the naked violence hidden behind normal social behaviour, decided to start writing. Back in London, he educated himself in theatre while working, saw everything he could on stage and exercised his skill by writing drama sketches, he was impressed by the performances of the Berliner Ensemble in the summer of 1956. In June 1958, after submitting two plays to the Royal Court Theatre he was invited to join its newly formed writers' group.
After three years studying with writers his age but well-known, Bond had his first real play, The Pope's Wedding, staged as a Sunday night "performance without décor" at the Royal Court Theatre in 1962. This is a falsely naturalistic drama set in contemporary Essex which shows, through a set of tragic circumstances, the death of rural society brought about by modern post-war urban living standards. Bond's next play, Saved became one of the best known cause célèbres in 20th century British theatre history. Saved delves into the lives of a selection of South London working class youths suppressed – as Bond would see it – by a brutal economic system and unable to give their lives meaning, who drift into barbarous mutual violence. Among them, one character, persistently tries to maintain links between people violently tearing each other to pieces; the play opposes them with individual freedom. This would remain the major theme throughout Bond's work; the play was directed by William Gaskill artistic director of the Royal Court.
The Theatres Act 1843 was still in force and required scripts to be submitted for approval by the Lord Chamberlain's Office. Saved included a scene featuring the stoning to death of a baby in its pram; the Lord Chamberlain sought to censor it, but Bond refused to alter a word, claiming that removing this pivotal scene would alter the meaning of the play. He was backed by Gaskill and the Royal Court although threatened with serious trouble. Formation of a theatre club allowed plays, banned for their language or subject matter to be performed under "club" conditions – such as that at the Comedy Theatre, however the English Stage Society were prosecuted. An active campaign sought to overturn the prosecution, with a passionate defence presented by Laurence Olivier Artistic Director of the National Theatre; the court found the English Stage Society guilty and they were given a conditional discharge. Bond and the Royal Court continued to defy the censor, in 1967 produced a new play, the surreal Early Morning.
This portrays a lesbian relationship between Queen Victoria and Florence Nightingale, the royal Princes as Siamese twins and Prince Albert plotting a coup and the whole dramatis personae damned to a cannibalistic Heaven after falling off Beachy Head. The Royal Court produced the play despite the imposition of a total ban and within a year the law was repealed. In 1969, when the Royal Court was able to perform Bond's work it put on and toured the three plays in Europe, winning the Belgrade International Theatre Festival prize; the experience of prosecution and mutual support sealed a link between Bond and the Royal Court where all his plays would be premiered until 1976, most directed by Gaskill. While Bond's work remained banned for performance in Britain, Saved became the greatest international success of its time with more than thirty different productions around the world between 1966 and 1969 by notorious directors such as Peter Stein in Germany or Claude Régy in France. At that time, the play is now considered as a 20th-century classic.
After a few commissioned works (the British Empire satire Narrow Road to the Deep North for the Coventry People and City Festival, two agit-prop plays for festival performances, Black Mass
BBC Radio 4
BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, comedy and history. It replaced the BBC Home Service in 1967; the station controller is Gwyneth Williams, the station is part of BBC Radio and the BBC Radio department. The station is broadcast from the BBC's headquarters at London. On 21 January 2019 Williams announced. There are no details of when, it is the second most popular domestic radio station in the UK, broadcast throughout the UK, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands on FM, LW and DAB, can be received in eastern and south eastern counties of Ireland, the north of France and Northern Europe. It is available through Freeview, Virgin Media and on the Internet, its sister station, BBC Radio 4 Extra, complements the main channel by broadcasting repeats from the Radio 4 archive, extended versions of Radio 4 programmes and supplements to series such as The Archers and Desert Island Discs.
It is notable for its news bulletins and programmes such as Today and The World at One, heralded on air by the Greenwich Time Signal "pips" or the chimes of Big Ben. Radio 4 broadcasts the Shipping Forecast, which reached 150 years old in August 2017; the pips are only accurate on FM, LW, MW as there is a delay on DAB and digital radio of 3 to 5 seconds longer online. BBC Radio 4 is the second most popular British domestic radio station by total hours, after Radio 2 – and the most popular in London and the South of England, it recorded its highest audience, of 11 million listeners, in May 2011 and was "UK Radio Station of the Year" at the 2003, 2004 and 2008 Sony Radio Academy Awards. It won a Peabody Award in 2002 for File On 4: Export Controls. Costing £71.4 million, it is the BBC's most expensive national radio network and is considered by many to be its flagship. There is no comparable British commercial network: Channel 4 abandoned plans to launch its own speech-based digital radio station in October 2008 as part of a £100m cost cutting review.
In 2010 Gwyneth Williams replaced Mark Damazer as Radio 4 controller. Damazer became Master of Oxford. Music and sport are the only fields that fall outside the station's remit, it broadcasts occasional concerts, documentaries related to various forms of both popular and classical music, the long-running music-based Desert Island Discs. Prior to the creation of BBC Radio 5 it broadcast sports-based features, notably Sport on Four, since the creation of BBC Radio 5 Live has become the home of ball-by-ball commentaries of most Test cricket matches played by England, broadcast on long wave; as a result, for around 70 days a year listeners have to rely on FM broadcasts or DAB for mainstream Radio 4 broadcasts – the number relying on long wave is now a small minority. The cricket broadcasts take precedence over on-the-hour news bulletins, but not the Shipping Forecast, carried since its move to long wave in 1978 because that can be received at sea; the station is the UK's national broadcaster in times of national emergency such as war, due to the wide coverage of the Droitwich signal: if all other radio stations were forced to close, it would carry on broadcasting.
It has been claimed that the commanders of nuclear-armed submarines believing that Britain had suffered nuclear attack were required to check if they could still receive Radio 4 on 198 long wave, if they could not they would open sealed orders that might authorise a retaliatory strike. As well as news and drama, the station has a strong reputation for comedy, including experimental and alternative comedy, many successful comedians and comedy shows first appearing on the station. Following the six o'clock news from Monday to Friday, the station broadcasts a thirty-minute comedy programme; the station is available on FM in parts of Ireland and the north of France. Freesat and Virgin have a separate channel which broadcasts the Radio 4 LW output in mono, in addition to the FM output; the BBC Home Service was the predecessor of Radio 4 and broadcast between 1939 and 1967. It had regional variations and was broadcast on medium wave with a network of VHF FM transmitters being added from 1955. Radio 4 replaced it on 30 September 1967, when the BBC renamed many of its domestic radio stations, in response to the challenge of offshore radio.
It moved to long wave in November 1978, taking over the 200 kHz frequency held by Radio 2, moved to 198 kHz as a result of international agreements aimed at avoiding interference and to mark the station becoming a national service for the first time the station became known as Radio 4 UK, a title that remained until mid 1984. For a time during the 1970s Radio 4 carried regional news bulletins Monday to Saturday; these were broadcast twice at breakfast, at lunchtime and an evening bulletin was aired at 5.55pm. There were programme variations for the parts of England not served by BBC Local Radio stations; these included Roundabout East Anglia, a VHF opt-out of the Today programme broadcast from BBC East's studios in Norwich each weekday from 6.45 am to 8.45 am. Roundabout East Anglia came to an end in mid-1980, when local radio services were introduced to East Anglia with the launch of BBC Radio Norfolk. All regional news bulletins broadcast
Fast Girls is a 2012 British drama film directed by Regan Hall and written by Jay Basu, Noel Clarke and Roy Williams. It stars Lily James, Bradley James, Noel Clarke and Rupert Graves; the film follows the story of two women as they become professional sprinters and join the British relay team for a World Championship event. The film had its world premiere in London on 7 June 2012; the film was released on 15 June in the United Kingdom. Athlete Shanaya Andrews competes against Lisa Temple at a local level, have an ongoing rivalry as they work their way into the British 4×100 metres relay team and compete in the World Championships, they team up and win the 4x100 metre race against their rival Jamaica and the USA Casting was conducted in Regent's Park in London, where producer Damian Jones and first time movie director Regan Hall chose the four actresses who would become the 4×100 metre relay team in the film. The aim was to find actresses; the athletic extras in the film are from athletic clubs in London and Loughborough.
Lenora Crichlow as Shania Andrews. Lily James as Lisa Temple. Bradley James as Carl Noel Clarke as Tommy Rupert Graves as David Temple Lashana Lynch as Belle Jake Pennington as Leo Temple Phil Davis as Brian Lorraine Burroughs as Trix Tiana Benjamin as Tara Dominique Tipper as Sarah. Tipper had appeared in 2008's Adulthood, written by and starring Noel Clarke. Hannah Frankson as Rachel Jonathan Illori as Usain Bolt It had been intended to base the athletics competition in the film on the 2012 Summer Olympics. However, due to its tight legal restrictions the use of Olympic trademarks, the International Olympic Committee disallowed any reference to the Olympic Games in the film, the script had to be re-written to make the competition a fictional one. Co-writer Noel Clarke took inspiration from Rocky, saying that if you made a film about any sport you'd want it to be the equivalent of what Rocky was to boxing, he noted that the movie was deliberately designed to be released just before the Olympics, as a feel-good film in which Britain did well.
The actresses portraying athletes completed six weeks of intensive training at Crystal Palace National Sports Centre prior to the beginning of the shooting phase of the film, being trained by sprinters Jeanette Kwakye and Shani Anderson. The training sessions involved up to six days a week. On the first day of shooting, Lenora Crichlow was diagnosed with stress fractures in her ankles which she attributed to running on track spikes without proper training. Body doubles were employed along with the use of certain camera angles to reduce the need to show Lenora running. By the time the film completed filming, she was keeping her feet on ice most of the time. Special flooring was laid during re-shoots in February 2012 in order to allow her to run more comfortably. Crichlow was pleased; the GB Qualifiers scene was filmed in Enfield. The Championships in Barcelona were filmed inside Lea Valley Athletic Centre in Enfield; the derelict track where Lenora's character trains is filmed in West London. The film was launched at the Toronto International Film Festival in 2011 as Hall's first full-length feature.
Members of the film's cast were promoting the film at the 2012 Cannes Film Festival in order to secure an international distributor for the movie, with the rights pre-acquired for the UK distribution by StudioCanal UK at the time of the film's launch. The premiere of the film took place in London's Leicester Square a few weeks ahead of the 2012 Summer Olympics to be held in London; the red carpet was not traditionally plain, but instead had track markings on it to simulate an athletics track. Guests attending the premiere included British athlete Dame Kelly Holmes, it went on general release in the UK on 15 June 2012. Leslie Felperin reviewed the film for Variety, she felt that the portrait of the environments in the film felt credible and while the film was technically solid, it was quite obvious when stand in athletes were used in long shots. Simon Reynolds saw the film for Digital Spy, saying that while it was entertaining, it was cheesy and won't be considered a classic in the future, he gave the film three out of five stars.
Mark Adams gave the film four out of five stars for the Daily Mirror, saying that it was an uplifting bit of pre-Olympics entertainment. Official website Fast Girls on IMDb Fast Girls at Rotten Tomatoes
McDonald's is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, United States. They rechristened their business as a hamburger stand, turned the company into a franchise, with the Golden Arches logo being introduced in 1953 at a location in Phoenix, Arizona. In 1955, Ray Kroc, a businessman, joined the company as a franchise agent and proceeded to purchase the chain from the McDonald brothers. McDonald's had its original headquarters in Oak Brook, but moved its global headquarters to Chicago in early 2018. McDonald's is the world's largest restaurant chain by revenue, serving over 69 million customers daily in over 100 countries across 37,855 outlets as of 2018. Although McDonald's is best known for its hamburgers and french fries, they feature chicken products, breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes and desserts. In response to changing consumer tastes and a negative backlash because of the unhealthiness of their food, the company has added to its menu salads, fish and fruit.
The McDonald's Corporation revenues come from the rent and fees paid by the franchisees, as well as sales in company-operated restaurants. According to two reports published in 2018, McDonald's is the world's fourth-largest private employer with 1.7 million employees. The siblings Richard and Maurice McDonald opened in 1940 the first McDonald's at 1398 North E Street at West 14th Street in San Bernardino, California but it was not the McDonald's recognizable today; the brothers introduced the "Speedee Service System" in 1948, putting into expanded use the principles of the modern fast-food restaurant that their predecessor White Castle had put into practice more than two decades earlier. The original mascot of McDonald's was a chef hat on top of a hamburger, referred to as "Speedee". In 1962, the Golden Arches replaced Speedee as the universal mascot; the symbol, Ronald McDonald, was introduced in 1965. The clown, Ronald McDonald, appeared in advertising to target their audience of children. On May 4, 1961, McDonald's first filed for a U.
S. trademark on the name "McDonald's" with the description "Drive-In Restaurant Services", which continues to be renewed. By September 13, McDonald's, under the guidance of Ray Kroc, filed for a trademark on a new logo—an overlapping, double-arched "M" symbol, but before the double arches, McDonald's used a single arch for the architecture of their buildings. Although the "Golden Arches" logo appeared in various forms, the present version was not used until November 18, 1968, when the company was favored a U. S. trademark. The present corporation credits its founding to franchised businessman Ray Kroc in on April 15, 1955; this was in fact the ninth opened McDonald's restaurant overall, although this location was destroyed and rebuilt in 1984. Kroc purchased the McDonald brothers' equity in the company and begun the company's worldwide reach. Kroc was recorded as being an aggressive business partner, driving the McDonald brothers out of the industry. Kroc and the McDonald brothers fought for control of the business, as documented in Kroc's autobiography.
The San Bernardino restaurant was torn down and the site was sold to the Juan Pollo chain in 1976. This area now serves as headquarters for the Juan Pollo chain, a McDonald's and Route 66 museum. With the expansion of McDonald's into many international markets, the company has become a symbol of globalization and the spread of the American way of life, its prominence has made it a frequent topic of public debates about obesity, corporate ethics, consumer responsibility. McDonald's restaurants are found in 120 countries and territories around the world and serve 68 million customers each day. McDonald's operates 37,855 restaurants worldwide, employing more than 210,000 people as of the end of 2018. There are a total of 2,770 company-owned locations and 35,085 franchised locations, which includes 21,685 locations franchised to conventional franchisees, 7,225 locations licensed to developmental licensees, 6,175 locations licensed to foreign affiliates. Focusing on its core brand, McDonald's began divesting itself of other chains it had acquired during the 1990s.
The company owned a majority stake in Chipotle Mexican Grill until October 2006, when McDonald's divested from Chipotle through a stock exchange. Until December 2003, it owned Donatos Pizza, it owned a small share of Aroma Cafe from 1999 to 2001. On August 27, 2007, McDonald's sold Boston Market to Sun Capital Partners. Notably, McDonald's has increased shareholder dividends for 25 consecutive years, making it one of the S&P 500 Dividend Aristocrats; the company is ranked 131st on the Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. In October 2012, its monthly sales fell for the first time in nine years. In 2014, its quarterly sales fell for the first time in seventeen years, when its sales dropped for the entirety of 1997. In the United States, it is reported. McDonald's closed down 184 restaurants in the United States in 2015, 59 more than what they planned to open; this move was the first time McDonald's had a net decrease in the number of locations in the United States since 1970.
For the fiscal year 2017, McDonalds reported earnings of US$5.2 billion, with an annual revenue of US$22.8 billion, an decrease of 7.3% over the previous fiscal cycle. McDonald's shares traded at over $145 per share, its market capitalization was valued at over US$134.5 billion in September 2018. The compa
Peter Richard Nichols is an English playwright, screenwriter and journalist. Born in Bristol, England, he was educated at Bristol Grammar School, served his compulsory National Service as a clerk in Calcutta and in the Combined Services Entertainment Unit in Singapore where he entertained the troops alongside John Schlesinger, Stanley Baxter, Kenneth Williams, before going on to study acting at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, he claimed to have studied acting because there were no dedicated courses for playwrights. While he was working as a teacher he began to write television plays, his first play for the stage was The Hooded Terror, part of a season of new plays at the Little Theatre in Bristol. He wrote A Day in the Death of Joe Egg for the stage. A Day in the Death of Joe Egg is a one-set drama in music hall style; the National Health is a fantasy farce interrupted by vaudeville. Privates on Parade is a musical comedy inspired by Nichols's own experiences in the Combined Services Entertainments Unit.
Poppy takes the form of a Christmas pantomime. Despite the comic style, Nichols' plays deal with the most serious of themes. In A Day in the Death of Joe Egg the burden of raising a hopelessly handicapped child shatters a couple's marriage; the patients of The National Health suffer and die, as do the singing soldiers of Privates on Parade. In Poppy, a pantomime take on the Chinese opium wars, Dick Whittington's girlfriend becomes a drug addict. Passion Play, focuses on betrayal. In Blue Murder, a comic satire about play censorship, a constable investigates a death. Nichols is considered an autobiographical playwright, has chronicled much of the background to his plays in his published autobiography and diaries. Joe Egg is based on Nichols' own experiences of raising a handicapped child, The National Health draws on a hospital stay of his own, while Privates on Parade draws on his own military experiences. Nichols was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2018 New Year Honours for services to drama.
His plays include: Promenade, an original play for television Ben Spray, an original play for television The Hooded Terror A Day in the Death of Joe Egg The Gorge, a play in the Wednesday Play series, The National Health Forget-Me-Not-Lane Chez Nous Harding's Luck The Freeway Privates on Parade Born in the Gardens Passion Play Poppy A Piece of My Mind Blue Murder So Long Life Nicholodeon Lingua Franca Feeling You're Behind an autobiography by Peter Nichols, Weidenfeld & Nicolson ISBN 0-297-78392-0'Whatever interest my life may have had must have been exhausted. Yet there were better reasons than vanity – I needed the advance the publishers offered, far more generous than any given to me for a play. Peter Nichols: Diaries 1969–1977 by Peter Nichols, Nick Hern Books ISBN 1-85459-474-5"Did you know that Maggie Smith once accused Laurence Olivier of having "a tin ear and two left feet"? That's one of many enjoyably acerbic snippets in Peter Nichols' Diaries 1969–77, a period that stretches from the composition of his The National Health to the conception of his masterpiece, Passion Play....
Nichols tends to be touchy, disappointed with himself....yet wonderfully observant and likeable." Benedict Nightingale The Times 13 December 2000. Theatre Record and its annual indexes London Stage in the 20th Century by Robert Tanitch, Haus Books ISBN 978-1-904950-74-5 The National: The Theatre and its work 1963–1997 by Simon Callow, Nick Hern Books ISBN 1-85459-323-4 http://www.alanbrodie.com/thumbnails/hrm8qmpl403/Peter-Nichols Interview with Peter Nichols for the Theatre Archive Project.'Peter Nichols' in The Literary Encyclopedia. British Library Podcast Peter Nichols discusses the archiving of his own papers in the British Library Manuscripts Collections as part of the international Manuscripts Matter conference. Peter Nichols at the Internet Broadway Database https://www.theguardian.com/stage/peternichols https://www.theguardian.com/culture/2016/apr/10/jonathan-meades-on-my-radar-vladimir-nabokov-marty-feldman-thomas-hardy https://www.thestage.co.uk/features/2017/peter-nichols-at-90-playwriting-was-my-dream-acting-was-just-a-stopgap/