British Armed Forces
The British Armed Forces known as Her Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies. They promote Britain's wider interests, support international peacekeeping efforts and provide humanitarian aid. Since the formation of a Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707, the armed forces have seen action in a number of major wars involving the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War, the First World War, the Second World War. Emerging victorious from conflicts has allowed Britain to establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Today, the British Armed Forces consist of: the Royal Navy, a blue-water navy with a fleet of 75 commissioned ships, together with the Royal Marines, a specialised amphibious light infantry force; the British Armed Forces include standing forces, Regular Reserve, Volunteer Reserves and Sponsored Reserves.
Its Commander-in-chief is the British monarch Queen Elizabeth II, to whom members of the forces swear allegiance. The UK Parliament approves the continued existence of the British Army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years, as required by the Bill of Rights 1689; the Royal Navy, Royal Air Force and Royal Marines among with all other forces do not require this act. The armed forces are managed by the Defence Council of the Ministry of Defence, headed by the Secretary of State for Defence; the United Kingdom is one of five recognised nuclear powers, is a permanent member on the United Nations Security Council, is a founding and leading member of the NATO military alliance, is party to the Five Power Defence Arrangements. Overseas garrisons and facilities are maintained at Ascension Island, Belize, British Indian Ocean Territory, Canada, the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Montserrat, Qatar and the United States. With the Acts of Union 1707, the armed forces of England and Scotland were merged into the armed forces of the Kingdom of Great Britain.
During the half of the seventeenth century, in particular, throughout the eighteenth century, British foreign policy sought to contain the expansion of rival European powers through military and commercial means – of its chief competitors. This saw Britain engage in a number of intense conflicts over colonial possessions and world trade, including a long string of Anglo-Spanish and Anglo-Dutch wars, as well as a series of "world wars" with France, such as. During the Napoleonic wars, the Royal Navy victory at Trafalgar under the command of Horatio Nelson marked the culmination of British maritime supremacy, left the Navy in a position of uncontested hegemony at sea. By 1815 and the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars, Britain had risen to become the world's dominant great power and the British Empire subsequently presided over a period of relative peace, known as Pax Britannica. With Britain's old rivals no-longer a threat, the nineteenth century saw the emergence of a new rival, the Russian Empire, a strategic competition in what became known as The Great Game for supremacy in Central Asia.
Britain feared that Russian expansionism in the region would threaten the Empire in India. In response, Britain undertook a number of pre-emptive actions against perceived Russian ambitions, including the First Anglo-Afghan War, the Second Anglo-Afghan War and the British expedition to Tibet. During this period, Britain sought to maintain the balance of power in Europe against Russian expansionism, who at the expense of the waning Ottoman Empire had ambitions to "carve up the European part of Turkey"; this led to British involvement in the Crimean War against the Russian Empire. The beginning of the twentieth century served to reduce tensions between Britain and the Russian Empire due to the emergence of a unified German Empire; the era brought about an Anglo-German naval arms race which encouraged significant advancements in maritime technology, in 1906, Britain had determined that its only naval enemy was Germany. The accumulated tensions in European relations broke out into the hostilities of the First World War, in what is recognised today, as the most devastating war in British military history, with nearly 800,000 men killed and over 2 million wounded.
Allied victory resulted in the defeat of the Central Powers, the end of the German Empire, the Treaty of Versailles and the establishment of the League of Nations. Although Germany had been defeated during the First World War, by 1933 fascism had given rise to Nazi Germany, which under the leadership of Adolf Hitler re-militarised in defiance of the Treaty of Versailles. Once again tensions accumulated in European relations, following Germany's invasion of Poland in September 1939, the Second World War began; the conflict was the most widespread in British history, with British Empire and Commonwealth troops fighting in campaigns from Europe and North Africa, to the Middle East and the Far East. 390,000 British Empire and Commonwealth troops lost their lives. Allied victory resulted in the defeat of the Axis powers and the
The Oriental Club in London is a Gentlemen's club established in 1824 that now admits ladies. Charles Graves describes it as fine in quality as White's but with the space of infinitely larger clubs, it is located in Stratford Place, near Oxford Street and Bond Street, London W1. The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Miscellany reported in its April, 1824, issue:An Oriental Club has just been established in London, of which the Duke of Wellington is President, upwards of forty individuals of rank and talent connected with our Eastern empire are appointed a Committee; the following is the Prospectus... The Oriental club will be established at a house in a convenient situation; the utmost economy shall be observed in the whole establishment, the subscription for its foundation and support shall not exceed fifteen pounds entrance, six pounds per annum. There will be a commodious reading room... A library will be formed, chiefly of works on oriental subjects; the coffee room of the club will be established on the most economical principles, similar to those of the United Service and Union.
There will be occasional house dinners. The qualifications for members of this club are, having been resident or employed in the public service of His Majesty, or the East-India Company, in any part of the East – belonging to the Royal Asiatic Society – being connected with our Eastern Governments at home or abroad... The British Empire in the East is now so extensive, the persons connected with it so numerous, that the establishment of an institution where they may meet on a footing of social intercourse, seems desirable, it is the chief object of the Oriental club to promote that intercourse... The founders included the Duke of Wellington and General Sir John Malcolm, in 1824 all the Presidencies and Provinces of British India were still controlled by the Honourable East India Company; the early years of the club, from 1824 to 1858, are detailed in a book by Stephen Wheeler published in 1925, which contains a paragraph on each member of the club of that period. James Grant said of the club in The Great Metropolis:The Oriental Club, corner of Hanover Square, consists of gentlemen who have resided some time in the East.
A great majority of its members are persons who are living at home on fortunes they have amassed in India. India and Indian matters form the everlasting topics of their conversation. I have thought it would be worth the while of some curious person to count the number of times the words Calcutta and Madras are pronounced by the members in the course of a day; the admission money to the Oriental Club is twenty pounds, the annual subscription is eight pounds. The number of members is 550; the finances of the Oriental are in a flourishing state, the receipts last year amounted to 5,609l, while the expenditure was only 4,923l, thus leaving a balance in favour of the club of 685l... at this rate they will get more out of debt than clubs do... Nabobs are remarkable for the quantity of snuff they take. 10s. Per annum. However, most of the members are in the habit of carrying boxes of their own... The old Smoking Room is adorned with an elaborate ram's head snuff box complete with snuff rake and spoons, though most members have forgotten its original function.
On 29 July 1844, two heroes of the First Anglo-Afghan War, Sir William Nott and Sir Robert Sale, were elected as members of the club by the Committee as an "extraordinary tribute of respect and anticipating the unanimous sentiment of the Club". On 12 January 1846, a special meeting at the club in Hanover Square presided over by George Eden, 1st Earl of Auckland, a former Governor-General of India, paid a public tribute to the dying Charles Metcalfe, 1st Baron Metcalfe, which Sir James Weir Hogg described as "a wreath upon his bier". With the formation of the East India Club in 1849, the link with the Honourable East India Company began to decline. In 1850, Peter Cunningham wrote in his Hand-Book of London:ORIENTAL CLUB, 18, HANOVER SQUARE, founded 1824, by Sir John Malcolm, is composed of noblemen and gentlemen who have travelled or resided in Asia, at St Helena, in Egypt, at the Cape of Good Hope, the Mauritius, or at Constantinople. Entrance money, 20l.. The Club possesses some good portraits of Clive, Stringer Lawrence, Sir Eyre Coote, Sir David Ochterloney, Sir G. Pollock, Sir W. Nott, Mountstuart Elphinstone, Henry Pottinger, Duke of Wellington, &c.
In 1861, the club's Chef de cuisine, Richard Terry, published his book Indian Cookery, stating that his recipes were "gathered, not only from my own knowledge of cookery, but from Native Cooks". Charles Dickens Jr. reported in Dickens's Dictionary of London:Oriental Club is "composed of noblemen, M. P.'s, gentlemen of the first distinction and character." The Committee elect by ballot, twelve are a quorum, three black balls exclude. Entrance fee, £31; when Lytton Strachey joined the club in 1922, at the age of forty-two, he wrote to Virginia WoolfDo you know that I have joined the Oriental Club? One becomes 65, with an income of 5,000 a year, directly one enters it.... Just the place for me, you see, in my present condition. I pass unnoticed with my glazed eyes and white hair, as I sink into a leather chair with a copy of The Field in hand. Excellent claret, too – one of the best cellars in London
The Royal Air Force Regiment is part of the Royal Air Force and functions as a specialist corps founded by Royal Warrant in 1942. The Corps carries out soldiering tasks relating to the delivery of air power. Examples of such tasks are Non Combatant Evacuation Operations, recovery of downed aircrew, in depth defence of airfields by way of aggressively patrolling a large area of operations outside airfields in hostile environments. In addition the RAF Regiment provides Joint Terminal Attack Controllers to the British Army and Royal Marines, provides a platoon size commitment to the Special Forces Support Group; the RAF Regiment Gunners are personnel trained in various disciplines such as infantry tactics, force protection, field craft, support Special Forces operations, CBRN defence, equipped with advanced vehicles and detection measures. RAF Regiment instructors are responsible for training all Royal Air Force personnel in basic force protection such as first aid, weapon handling and CBRN skills.
The regiment and its members are known within the RAF as "The Regiment", "Rock Apes" or "Rocks". After basic training at RAF Halton, a 20 week gunner course at RAF Honington, its members are trained and equipped to prevent a successful enemy attack in the first instance. RAF Regiment squadrons use aggressive defence tactics whereby they seek out infiltrators in a large area surrounding airfields; the genesis of the RAF Regiment was with the creation of No. 1 Armoured Car Company RAF, formed in Egypt in 1921 for operations in Iraq, followed shortly afterwards by No. 2 Armoured Car Company RAF and No. 3 Armoured Car Company RAF. These were equipped with Rolls-Royce armoured cars and carried out policing operations throughout the Middle East in the 1920s. During the Second World War, with its first headquarters established at RAF Belton Park, Lincolnshire, the RAF Regiment came into existence, in name, on 1 February 1942. From the start it had 66,000 personnel drawn from the former Defence Squadrons Nos. 701–850.
The new regiment was made up of field squadrons and light anti-aircraft squadrons, the latter armed with Hispano 20 mm cannon and the Bofors 40 mm anti-aircraft gun. Its role was to seize and defend airfields to enable air operations to take place. Several parachute squadrons were formed to assist in the capture of airfields, a capability retained by No. II Squadron, it mounted the King's Guard/Queen's Guard at Buckingham Palace for the first time on 1 April 1943. During the War the RAF Regiment grew to a force of over 80,000 men. In late June 1944, with the British Army fighting in Normandy where it was sustaining heavy losses and at the same time suffering from a severe shortage of manpower, it was decided to transfer 25,000 officers and men of the RAF Regiment to the army to the infantry and the Foot Guards, to be retrained; the Second World War campaign in north-eastern India and northern Burma was fought in jungle and mountains with few or non-existent roads and which facilitated the infiltration of enemy patrols behind front lines.
This was overcome by holding defensive "boxes" or supplied by air. The defence of forward airfields close to the main army concentrations was vital to this tactic. A training school and depot for the RAF Regiment was established at Secunderabad in October 1942, to retrain former ground defence airmen, it had an assault course considered tougher than anything the army had in India. Six field squadrons and seventy AA flights were formed, containing 160 officers and 4,000 other ranks; until mid-1944 the AA flights were equipped only with light machine guns with Hispano 20 mm cannon for the rest of the war. Regiment units defended airfields and forward mobile radar units in Arakan in the Arakan Campaign in late 1942 and early 1943. During the Battle of Imphal all supplies and reinforcements had to be flown in between 29 March and 22 June 1944 with RAF Regiment units providing vital airfield defence. Following the failure of the Japanese Operation U-Go it was decided to pursue the shattered remnants of the Japanese 15th Army into Burma during the monsoon, in average rainfall of 10 in per day and rifle flights were sometimes attached to advancing Indian Army and British East African units, to gain experience in the jungle.
Units of 1307 Wing were flown into the newly captured and tactically vital Meiktila airfield on 1 March 1945. Only a 1,076 sq yd box, shared with the army and some United States anti-aircraft artillery, could be held at night and the airfield had to be cleared of enemy each morning before flying could start; as one of the RAF Regiment's proudest battle honours, this three-week battle destroyed the Japanese hold on northern Burma. The RAF Regiment fought as field, armoured car and light anti-aircraft squadrons and flights in North Africa, the Middle East, the Balkans and North Western Europe, as well as 68 LAA squadrons defending the UK against V1 attacks as part of Operation Diver, alongside the Royal Artillery's heavy anti-aircraft and LAA batteries. Amongst other things, RAF Regiment units were the first British forces to reach Paris, amongst the first to enter Brussels, Squadron Leader Mark Hobden and his force arrested Hitler's successor as Fuhrer, Grand Admiral Karl Doenitz, at his HQ in Flensburg.
On 26 November 1944, a Me 262A-2a Sturmvogel of III/KG51 based at Hopsten/Rheine near Osnabruck was the first confirmed ground-to-air kill of a jet combat aircraft. The 262 was shot down by a 40/L60 40mm Bofors gun of B.11 Detachment of 2875 Squadro
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
An architect is a person who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e. chief builder. Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. Practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. Throughout ancient and medieval history, most of the architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder; until modern times, there was no clear distinction between engineer. In Europe, the titles architect and engineer were geographical variations that referred to the same person used interchangeably.
It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century but became available after 1500. Pencils were used more for drawing by 1600; the availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals. Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections to describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas. However, the development was gradual; until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only those qualified with an appropriate license, certification or registration with a relevant body may practice architecture.
Such licensure requires a university degree, successful completion of exams, as well as a training period. Representation of oneself as an architect through the use of terms and titles is restricted to licensed individuals by law, although in general, derivatives such as architectural designer are not protected. To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision; the term building design professional, by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession, such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect such as intern architects. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses and other smaller structures. In the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, an understanding of business are as important as design.
However, the design is the driving force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client; the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements. Throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, who must ensure that the work is co-ordinated to construct the design; the architect, once hired by a client, is responsible for creating a design concept that both meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. The architect must meet with, question, the client in order to ascertain all the requirements of the planned project; the full brief is not clear at the beginning: entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make early proposals to the client, which may rework the terms of the brief.
The "program" is essential to producing a project. This is a guide for the architect in creating the design concept. Design proposal are expected to be both imaginative and pragmatic. Depending on the place, finance and available crafts and technology in which the design takes place, the precise extent and nature of these expectations will vary. F oresight is a prerequisite as designing buildings is a complex and demanding undertaking. Any design concept must at a early stage in its generation take into account a great number of issues and variables which include qualities of space, the end-use and life-cycle of these proposed spaces, connections and aspects between spaces including how they are put together as well as the impact of proposals on the immediate and wider locality. Selection of appropriate materials and technology must be considered and reviewed at an early stage in the design to ensure there are no setbacks which may occur later; the site and its environs, as well as the culture and history of the place, will influence the design.
The design must countenance increasing concerns with environmental sustainability. The architect may introduce, to greater or lesser degrees, aspects of mathematics and a
No. 1 Group RAF
No. 1 Group of the Royal Air Force is one of the two operations groups in Air Command, the other being the No. 2 Group. Today, the group is referred to as the Air Combat Group, as it controls the RAF's combat fast-jet aircraft and has airfields in the UK, as well as RAF Support Unit Goose Bay in Canada; the group headquarters is located alongside Headquarters Air Command at RAF High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire. The current Air officer commanding No 1 Group is Air Vice-Marshal Harvey Smyth; the following stations and squadrons are under the command of No 1 Group: RAF Boulmer NATO Air Policing Area 1 - Control and Reporting Centre RAF Coningsby No 3 Squadron RAF with Typhoon FGR4 No. 11 Squadron RAF with Typhoon FGR4 No. 29 Squadron RAF Typhoon FGR4 Operational conversion unit Battle of Britain Memorial Flight RAF Fylingdales - radar base RAF Leeming No. 100 Squadron RAF with Hawk T1A Joint Forward Air Controller Training and Standards Unit RAF Lossiemouth No. 1 Squadron RAF with Typhoon FGR4 No. 2 Squadron RAF with Typhoon FGR4 No. 6 Squadron RAF with Typhoon FGR4 No. 9 Squadron RAF with Typhoon FGR4 No. 602 Squadron - Moray Flight RAF Marham No. 617 Squadron RAF with Lightning II Tactical Imagery Intelligence Wing RAF Scampton No. 1 Air Control Centre RAF Waddington No. 5 Squadron RAF with Sentinel R1 No. 8 Squadron RAF with Sentry AEW1 No. 13 Squadron RAF with MQ-9 Reaper No. 14 Squadron RAF with Shadow R1 No. 39 Squadron RAF with MQ-9 Reaper No. 51 Squadron RAF with RC-135W Airseeker No. 54 Squadron RAF ISTAR crews Operational Conversion Unit 1 Group took command of the Islander and Defender aicraft from 651 Squadron Army Air Corps.
It is as yet unknown. No 1 Group was formed on Saturday 1 April 1918 in No 1 Area, renamed the South-Eastern Area on 8 May 1918, Southern Area on 20 September 1919 and Inland Area on 1 April 1920; the Group was renumbered as No. 6 Group on 19 May 1924 at RAF Kenley, was reformed on the same day at RAF Kidbrooke. Two years on 12 April 1926 the Group disappeared from the order of battle by being renumbered as No. 21 Group. The next year the Group was reformed on 25 August 1927 by the renaming of Air Defence Group; this designation lasted until 1936. As in 1924 the Group was reformed this time as a bomber formation. By this time the Group had shrunk to ten squadrons, all equipped with Fairey Battle aircraft and located in pairs at RAF Abingdon, RAF Harwell, RAF Benson, RAF Boscombe Down and RAF Bicester. On receipt of orders to move to France in 1939, Headquarters No. 1 Group became Headquarters Advanced Air Striking Force and the station headquarters and associated squadrons became Nos. 71, 72, 74, 75 and 76 Wings respectively.
The Group re-emerged a few days within Bomber Command on 12 September, but only lasted just over three months, being dropped on 22 December 1939. It was reformed at RAF Bawtry on 22 June 1940 where No. 1 Group was based for 44 years and has been continuously active in the RAF since inception. During the Second World War, 1 Group was based at airfields in north Lincolnshire, like RAF Swinderby. Among others, No. 1 Group included Polish Bomber Squadrons Nos. 300, 301, 304, 305. During Bomber Command's Second World War campaign, No. 1 Group dropped a higher tonnage of bombs per aircraft than any other group, this was due to Air Commodore Edward Rice, determined to maximise bomb loads, though it was a policy which contributed in no small measure to No. 1 Group having higher than average losses. Rice would be involved in the development of the Rose turret, sometimes known as the "Rose-Rice turret". By June 1948 1 Group consisted of: 9 Sqn, RAF Binbrook, Avro Lincoln B.2 12 Sqn, RAF Binbrook, Lincoln B.2 101 Sqn, RAF Binbrook, Lincoln B.2 617 Sqn, RAF Binbrook, Lincoln B.2 83 Sqn, RAF Hemswell, Lincoln B.2 97 Sqn, RAF Hemswell, Lincoln B.2 100 Sqn, RAF Hemswell, Lincoln B.2 50 Sqn, RAF Waddington, Lincoln B.2 57 Sqn, RAF Waddington, Lincoln B.2 61 Sqn, RAF Waddington, Lincoln B.2 109 Sqn, RAF Coningsby, de Havilland Mosquito B.35 139 Sqn, RAF Coningsby, Mosquito B.35During the cold war, No. 1 Group operated the Thor ballistic missile between 1958 and August 1963, with ten squadrons each with three missiles being equipped with the weapon.
When Bomber Command was subsumed into the new Strike Command on 1 April 1968, No. 1 Group took on the old role of the command, holding the bomber and strike aircraft of Strike Command. In around 1984, Headquarters No. 1 Group moved from RAF Bawtry in South Yorkshire to RAF Upavon in Wiltshire. On 1 April 1996 No. 2 Group RAF was disbanded by being absorbed into No. 1 Group. In January 2000 the RAF was restructured and the Group took on its present role; the Group is responsible for UK air defence operations through QRA North at RAF Lossiemouth and QRA South at RAF Coningsby. However, since the disestablishment of Combined Air Operations Centre 9 at RAF High Wycombe, actual control of the fighters is now carried out from a NATO Combined Air Operations Centre in Denmark, CAOC 1 at Finderup. However, High Wycombe retains an air defence direction capability, the UK Representative there could take back control over QRA South if it was necessary to respond to a terrorist threat from the air. No. 1 Group has responsibility for the UK's Carrier Strike capability, with the joint RN/RAF Lightning Force planned to consist of two squadrons from the RAF and two from the Fleet Air Arm, which will be based at RAF Marham when not operating from the UK's Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers.
Air Officers Commanding have included: List of Royal Air Force groups Rawlings, J D R. The History of the Royal Air Force. Feltham, Middles
Timeline of the Royal Air Force
1901 29 October - The Aero Club of Great Britain is established. In the following years many early military pilots were trained by members of the Club. 1905 27 April - Sapper Moreton of the British Army's Balloon Section is lifted 2,600 ft by a kite at Aldershot under the supervision of the kite's designer, Samuel Cody. 1908 Samuel Cody completes the first powered flight in the UK at Farnborough. 1909 The Aero Club establishes the first British flying ground near Leysdown in Kent. 2 May - John Moore-Brabazon becomes the first Englishman to make an recognized aeroplane flight in England. 1910 The Aero Club moves its flying from Leysdown to the nearby Eastchurch. June - Charles Rolls becomes the first Englishman to fly across the Channel. 1911 1 April - Air Battalion, Royal Engineers formed at Larkhill. December - The Royal Naval Flying School formed at Eastchurch, Kent. 1912 13 April - The Royal Flying Corps is established by Royal Warrant. An Air Committee to liaise between the Admiralty and the War Office is created.
13 May - RFC assume control of Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers and the Naval Air Service. 19 June- Central Flying School is formed at Upavon. 1914 1 July - Royal Naval Air Service formed by splitting airship squadrons away from the RFC September - The first RNAS aircraft squadrons formed. 1 Squadron RNAS at Antwerp, 2 Squadron RNAS at Eastchurch, 3 Squadron RNAS at St. Pol, France. 1916 15 February - The Joint War Air Committee is established to co-ordinate the activities of the RFC and RNAS. 15 May - The Air Board replaces the ineffective Joint War Air Committee. 12 December - RFC expands to 106 front-line squadrons and 95 reserve and training squadrons. 1917 29 November - The Air Force Act passed, providing for creation of an Air Force and an Air Ministry. 1918 2 January - The Air Ministry comes into being with Lord Rothermere as Secretary of State for Air. Major-General Sir Hugh Trenchard becomes the first Chief of the Air Staff. 1 April The Royal Air Force is formed by amalgamating the RFC and RNAS.
First operational mission by the RAF carried out by 22 Squadron Women's Royal Air Force formed. 3 June - The Distinguished Flying Cross, Air Force Cross, Distinguished Flying Medal, Air Force Medal are constituted. 6 June - The Independent Air Force, the RAF's strategic bombing force, is formed. June - Royal Air Force Temporary Nursing Service formed. 19 July - The Imperial German Navy's airship base at Tønder is bombed in the Tondern raid 19 September to 1 October - Battle of Megiddo. The RAF's Palestine Brigade plays a key role in the British victory over the Ottoman Empire, including the destruction of the Ottoman Seventh Army. 11 November - At the end of the First World War, the RAF was the largest air force in the world with 27,333 officers, 263,837 other ranks, 22,647 aircraft, 103 airships, 133 front-line squadrons, 15 flights and 270 aerodromes overseas, 55 front-line squadrons, 75 training squadrons/depots, 401 aerodromes at home and 25,000 WRAF members. 1919 August - RAF officer ranks are introduced.
1920 January to February - The defeat of the "Mad Mullah". The beginnings of colonial air control as RAF aircraft acting with the Somaliland Camel Corps in British Somaliland overthrow the Dervish leader. 5 February - The RAF College Cranwell is established. WRAF disbanded. 1921 1 October - RAF military control of Mesopotamia begins. 1922 1 October - RAF Iraq Command is formed. 1925 March to May - Pink's War. The RAF carries out its first independent air action and strafing the mountain strongholds of Mahsud tribesmen in Waziristan. 1928 23 December - The Kabul Airlift. The world's first air evacuation is carried out by the RAF when the British Legation in Kabul is flown to safety. 1932 April to June - Following Sheikh Ahmad Barzani's small-scale revolt in north-east Iraq, the RAF conducts psychological and conventional air operations which result in Sheikh Ahmad's surrender. 1936 14 July - The UK's air defences are reorganised into four commands: Bomber Command, Fighter Command, Coastal Command and Training Command.
1938 1 April - Maintenance Command is formed. 1 November - Balloon Command is formed. 1939 24 August - The Advanced Air Striking Force is formed in preparation for operations on the Continent 3 September - Following the UK's declaration of war on Germany, the RAF conducts photographic reconnaissance of the German naval base at Wilhelmshaven. 29 November - RAuxAF spitfires shoot down an He 111 bomber over Lothian, the first German aircraft to be shot down over the UK in World War II. Women's Auxiliary Air Force instituted. 1940 16 May - Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh Dowding writes his letter to the Air Ministry which results in no further aircraft squadrons, earmarked for home defence, being sent to France. 10 July - The Battle of Britain begins. 13 August - Adlertag. The Luftwaffe's attempts to gain air superiority over Britain fail, with the balance of aircraft losses being in the RAF's favour. 1941 15 May - The maiden flight of first British jet aircraft, the Gloster E.28/39. 20 July - Ferry Command is formed.
24 December - The Avro Lancaster enters service with the RAF. 1942 30 May - Over 1,000 bombers set out to raid Cologne damaging the city. 1 June - Around 1,000 bombers set out to raid Essen, however many crews mistakenly bomb other cities. 25 June - Around 1,000 bombers set out to raid Bremen damaging the city and bombing the Focke-Wulf aircraft factory. 1943 5 March - In an effort to decimate the German industrial base, Bomber Command begins bombing the Ruhr region. 25 March - Transport Command is formed by redesignating Ferry Command. 16 May - Aircraft of 617 Squadron set out on Operation Chastise known as the Dambusters Raid. The Mohne and Eder dams are breached