Yonge Street is a major arterial route in the Canadian province of Ontario connecting the shores of Lake Ontario in Toronto to Lake Simcoe, a gateway to the Upper Great Lakes. Until 1999, the Guinness Book of World Records repeated the popular misconception it was 1,896 km long, thus the longest street in the world. Yonge Street is 56 kilometres long; the construction of Yonge Street is designated an Event of National Historic Significance in Canada. Yonge Street was fundamental in the original planning and settlement of western Upper Canada in the 1790s, forming the basis of the concession roads in Ontario today. Once the southernmost leg of Highway 11, linking the capital with northern Ontario, Yonge Street has been referred to as "Main Street Ontario". Today, no section of Yonge Street is a provincial highway; the street was named by Ontario's first colonial administrator, John Graves Simcoe, for his friend Sir George Yonge, an expert on ancient Roman roads. Yonge Street is a commercial main thoroughfare rather than a ceremonial one, with landmarks such as the Eaton Centre, Yonge-Dundas Square and the Hockey Hall of Fame along its length—and lends its name to the Downtown Yonge shopping and entertainment district.
In Toronto and York Region, Yonge Street is the north-south baseline from which street numbering is reckoned east and west. The eastern branch of Line 1 Yonge–University serves nearly the entire length of the street in Toronto and acts as the spine of the Toronto subway system, linking to suburban commuter systems such as the Viva Blue BRT. See the'Public Transit' section below. Yonge Street originates on the northern shore of Toronto Bay at Queens Quay as a four-lane arterial road proceeding north by north-west. Toronto's Harbourfront is built on landfill extended into the bay, with the former industrial area now converted from port and industrial uses to a dense residential high-rise community; the street passes under the elevated Gardiner Expressway and the congested rail lines of the Toronto viaduct on their approach to Union Station. The road rises near Front Street, marking the pre-landfill shoreline. Here, at the southern edge of the central business district, is the Dominion Public Building, the Sony Centre for the Performing Arts and the Hockey Hall of Fame, the latter housed in an imposing former Bank of Montreal office, once Canada's largest bank branch.
Beyond Front Street the road passes through the east side of the Financial District, within sight of many of Canada's tallest buildings, fronting an entrance to the Allen Lambert Galleria. Between Front Street and Queen Street, Yonge Street is bounded by historic and commercial buildings, many serving the large weekday workforce concentrated here. Yonge Street's entire west side, from Queen Street to Dundas Street, is occupied by the Eaton Centre, an indoor mall featuring shops along its Yonge Street frontage and a Nordstrom anchor store at the corner of Dundas Street; the east side has two historic performance venues, the Ed Mirvish Theatre and the Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres. In addition, Massey Hall is just to the east on Shuter Street. Opposite the Eaton Centre lies Yonge-Dundas Square; the area now comprising the square was cleared of several small commercial buildings and redeveloped in the late 1990s and early 2000s, with large video screens, retail shopping arcades and seating in a bid to become "Toronto's Times Square".
It is used for numerous public events. Another stretch of busy retail lines both sides of Yonge Street north of Dundas Street, including Sam the Record Man until its closure on June 30, 2007; the density of businesses diminishes north of Gerrard Street. The Art Deco College Park building, a former shopping complex of the T. Eaton Company, occupies most of the west side of Yonge Street from Gerrard Street north to College Street, it was converted into a commercial complex after the building of the Eaton Centre. From College Street north to Bloor Street, Yonge Street serves smaller street-level retail in two- to three-storey buildings of a hundred years' vintage; the businesses here, unlike the large chains which dominate south of Gerrard Street, are small independent shops and serve a dense residential community on either side of Yonge Street with amenities such as convenience stores. The intersection of Yonge and Bloor Streets is a major crossroads of Toronto, informally considered the northern edge of the downtown core.
Subway Line 2 Bloor–Danforth intersects the Yonge line here, with the resulting transfers between lines making Bloor-Yonge Station the busiest in the city. The Hudson's Bay Centre and Two Bloor West office towers dominate the corner, visible both from downtown and beyond, with the south-east corner earmarked for a major condominium development; the Mink Mile's borders extend from Yonge to Avenue Road along Bloor. The intersection of Yonge and Bloor Streets is itself a "scramble"-type intersection allowing pedestrians to cross from any corner to any other corner. North of Bloor, the street is part of the old town of Yorkville, today a major shopping district extending west of Yonge Street along Cumberland and Bloor Streets. North of Yorkville and traffic decrease somewhat and the speed limit increases as Yonge Street forms the main street of Summerhill, which together with Rosedale to the east is noted for its opulent residences; the area is marked by the historic North Toronto railway station served by the Canadian Pacific
The Toronto–Dominion Centre, or TD Centre, is a cluster of buildings in downtown Toronto, Ontario owned by Cadillac Fairview. It has a pavilion covered in bronze-tinted glass and black painted steel, it serves as the global headquarters of the Toronto-Dominion Bank, provides office and retail space for many other businesses. About 21,000 people work in the complex; the project was the inspiration of Allen Lambert, former President and Chairman of the Board of the Toronto-Dominion Bank. Phyllis Lambert recommended Ludwig Mies van der Rohe as design consultant to the architects, John B. Parkin and Associates and Bregman + Hamann, the Fairview Corporation as the developer; the towers were completed between 1967 and 1991. An additional building was built outside the campus and purchased in 1998. Part of the complex, described by Philip Johnson as "the largest Mies in the world", was designated under the Ontario Heritage Act in 2003 and received an Ontario Heritage Trust plaque in 2005; as Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was given "virtually a free hand to create Toronto-Dominion Centre", the complex, as a whole and in its details, is a classic example of his unique take on the International style and represents the end evolution of Mies's North American period, which began with his 1957 Seagram Building in New York City.
As with the Seagram Building and a number of Mies's subsequent projects, the Toronto–Dominion Centre follows the theme of the darkly coloured, rigidly ordered and glass edifice set in an open plaza, itself surrounded by a dense and erratic, pre-existing urban fabric. The TD Centre, comprises a collection of structures spread across a granite plinth, all regulated in three dimensions and from the largest scale to the smallest, by a mathematically ordered, 1.5 m2 grid. Three structures were conceived: a low banking pavilion anchoring the site at the corner of King and Bay Streets, the main tower in the centre of the site, another tower in the northwest corner, each structure offset to the adjacent by one bay of the governing grid, allowing views to "slide" open or closed as an observer moves across the court; the rectilinear pattern of Saint-Jean granite pavers follows the grid, serving to organize and unify the complex, the plaza's surface material extends through the glass lobbies of the towers and the banking pavilion, blurring the distinction between interior and exterior space.
The remaining voids between the buildings create space for a formal plaza to the north, containing Al McWilliam's Bronze Arc, an expanse of lawn to the south, featuring Joe Fafard's sculpture The Pasture. Phyllis Lambert wrote of the centre and the arrangement of its elements within the site: With the Toronto-Dominion Centre, Mies realized an architecture of movement, yet at the same time, through proportional relations among parts and whole, through the restrained use of fine materials, this is an architecture of repose; the light as it moves across the building surfaces, playing the mullions like stringed instruments, the orchestration of the various buildings are together paradigmatically symphonic. More towers were added over the ensuing decades, outside the periphery of the original site—as they were not part of Mies's master plan for the TD Centre—but still positioned close enough, in such locations, as to visually impact the sense of space within areas of the centre, forming Miesian western and southern walls to the lawn and a tall eastern flank to the plaza.
The height of each of Mies's two towers is proportioned to its width and depth, though they, as well as those based on his style, are of different heights. All, save for 95 Wellington Street West, are of a similar construction and appearance: the frame is of structural steel, including the core, floor plates are of concrete poured on steel deck; the lobby is a double height space on the ground floor, articulated by large sheets of plate glass held back from the exterior column line, providing for an overhang around the perimeter of the building, behind which the travertine-clad elevator cores are the only elements to touch the ground plane. Above the lobby, the building envelope is curtain wall made of bronze coloured glass in a matte-black painted steel frame, with exposed I-sections attached to the vertical mullions and structural columns. On the topmost accessible floor of the Toronto-Dominion Bank Tower was a large indoor observation platform; as the tower was, when completed, the tallest in the city, this promontory once allowed uninterrupted views of the quickly developing downtown core and of Lake Ontario to the south.
This floor has since been converted to leased office space. On the level below is a restaurant on the south side and the Toronto-Dominion Bank corporate offices and boardroom are on the north; the interiors of the latter spaces were designed by Mies and included his signature broad planes of rich, unadorned wood panelling, freestanding cabinets as partitions, wood slab desks, some of his furniture pieces, such as the Barcelona chair, Barcelona ottoman, Brno chair. Adjacent to the main boardroom at the northeast corner of the floor plate and the Thompson Room at the northwest corner, service areas are concealed within the wood panelled walls behind secret panels; the Ernst & Young Tower contains in its base the former Toronto Stock Exchange building, built in 1937. The new edifice deviates from the strict Miesian aesthetic of all the previous
Trader's Bank Building
Trader's Bank Building is a 15-storey, 55.39 m early skyscraper, completed in 1906 at 67 Yonge Street in Toronto, Canada. The building was designed by Carrère and Hastings, with construction beginning in 1905, it was the tallest building in the British Commonwealth until the Royal Liver Building was completed in 1911. It remains one of Canada's few surviving skyscrapers of the early 20th Century; the building was assembled using two million bricks and 1700 tons of steel beams riveted using compressed air. The building was designed to be fireproof, thanks to the steel frame. In the event of a fire, fire doors would shut the elevators and staircases, with two large fire escapes in the rear. Steam heat on a vacuum system would warm the interior. Electric lights throughout and telephone cables on each floor were touted as features; when described in a period newspaper, it was to have a flag pole 200 feet above street level and four high-speed elevators going up 187 feet. It was projected to hold 1500 people.
The exterior was to be made of stone and terra cotta with limestome casings. The floors are made of Canadian Portland cement; the only use of wood was in the windows and frames. The roof was to have a promenade, with the owner unsure; the bank would occupy the first two storeys. Construction of the building was marked by one fatality. An engineer was scalded by a faulty steam injector in November 1905; the building was innovative in its leasing arrangements. It was the first major Toronto building to introduce the New York system of leasing by the square foot; the building was completed by early December 1906, the bank shortly moved into its new headquarters. The Traders Bank was based with strong roots in rural Ontario; the building's height was controversial at the time. A number of the city's public intellectuals and many of its architects expressed dismay at the prospect of skyscrapers, it would overload the property values and shade the streets, trapping the disease-causing "miasmas" that still lurked in the public imagination.
The Globe newspaper complained: "in the next ten or fifteen years.... The chief retail thorofares will look like a Colorado canyon." Other editorials on the skyscraper theme compared Toronto to New York:but if the skyscraper habit grows, as there is every indication it will … the lower end of Yonge street and the central portion of King street will become dim sunless canyons such as one sees in the financial centre of New York. The tall building did change the customary wind patterns at Colborne. There were signs of urban canyon effect winds by the spring of 1909; the City Architect in November 1907 promised it would not start a trend: There would be strict enforcement of the 200 foot height limit, still taller than the building itself. As it turned out, city council was persuaded to waive the height limits downtown, the Traders' Bank was shortly overtaken by taller buildings; the property is designated under Part IV of the Ontario Heritage Act since 1976. The City notes it was first known as the Traders Bank Building Montreal Trust.
It was built in 1905-06, designed by Carrere & Hastings in association with F. S. Baker. Part of the property to be known as 6-8 Colborne Street was removed from the designated property in 1999, not being of architectural merit; the designation notes: " The Montreal Trust Building the Traders Bank Building, Nos. 61-67 Yonge Street at 4 Colborne Street, 1905 by Carriere & Hastings. The building was, when finished, the tallest building in the British Empire and it still plays an important part in the streetscape of Yonge Street." "Toronto's Edwardian Skyscraper Row" in JSSAC 40 - 2015
Ontario Heritage Act
The Ontario Heritage Act, first enacted on March 5, 1975, allows municipalities and the provincial government to designate individual properties and districts in the Province of Ontario, Canada, as being of cultural heritage value or interest. Once a property has been designated under Part IV of the Act, a property owner must apply to the local municipality for a permit to undertake alterations to any of the identified heritage elements of the property or to demolish any buildings or structures on the property. Part V of the Act allows for the designation of heritage conservation districts; until 2005, a designation of a property under the Act allowed a municipality to delay, but not prevent, the demolition of a heritage property. Heritage advocates were critical of the 180-day "cooling off" period provided for under the legislation, intended to allow time for municipalities and landowners to negotiate an appropriate level of heritage preservation, but simply resulted in the landowner "waiting out the clock" and demolishing the heritage building once the protection of the Ontario Heritage Act had expired.
In 2005, the provincial government enacted changes to strengthen the Act. Under the amended legislation, a landowner, refused a demolition permit under the Act no longer has an automatic right to demolish a designated building once the cooling off period has expired. Instead, the landowner has the option to appeal the permit refusal to the Conservation Review Board for individual properties or the Ontario Municipal Board for properties within a Heritage Conservation District and the appropriate board would make the final decision on whether or not a demolition permit is issued. Where the OMB refuses to issue a permit, the landowner would have no choice but to preserve the heritage building; the amended legislation contains provisions which enable municipalities to enact by-laws to require owners of designated buildings to maintain the structures and their heritage elements. Such by-laws are intended to prevent "demolition by neglect", although the collapse of Walnut Hall in Toronto demonstrates that such buildings are still at risk.
Heritage designation is not universally welcomed. Because it imposes restrictions, or at least delay, on alteration or demolition of protected properties, some owners and would-be developers feel their property rights are compromised.. There is concern that the restrictions will make it more difficult to sell and/or develop affected properties, with a negative impact on market values. Ottawa: As part of the city’s heritage inventory project, the city is reviewing properties in Old Ottawa East and Old Ottawa South and placing those considered to have “cultural heritage value” on a registry. Owners will be required to give 60 days notice to the city before demolishing a listed property. Rockcliffe Park: The entire village, now part of the City of Ottawa, became a Heritage Conservation District in 2016; the objective is not just conservation of individual buildings but of the park-like qualities of the area as a whole. This means that lot sizes, spacings between houses, streetscapes are protected.
There is a current appeal by a home-owner, a developer. Pending the outcome of a September 2017 hearing before the Ontario Municipal Board, City of Ottawa policy is to continue to apply the Heritage Conservation Plan. Experience with the new provisions of the Act has been mixed. Municipalities, who were given greater authority with the amendments, have, in some cases, used the authority to prevent or delay development proposals, with questionable intent. In one case a golf course was designated when the local Council received a proposal to develop it for housing. Another flashpoint has been proposals to develop or alter church properties; the government of Ontario has published a guideline that provides a context for the inherent conflict between religious beliefs and the civil authority over religious property, enabled by the Act. The "Guide to Conserving Heritage Places of Worship in Ontario Communities" is part of the Ontario Heritage Toolkit; the Guide provides an understanding of how religious and heritage preservation goals can be balanced.
Properties under federal jurisdiction are problematic. Various federal private member's bills attempt to restrict demolition of historic properties, but all are narrow in scope and provide no protection against demolition by neglect. Archaeology in Ontario List of designated heritage properties in Ottawa Ontario Heritage Trust the Ontario Heritage Foundation Archaeology in Ontario Ontario Heritage Act Canadian Register of Historic Places, search for sites designated under the Ontario Heritage Act Ontario Heritage Toolkit List of designated heritage properties in Toronto
Fairmont Royal York
The Fairmont Royal York and known as the Royal York, is a large historic luxury hotel in Toronto, Canada. Located along Front Street West, the hotel is situated at the southern end of the Financial District, in Downtown Toronto; the Royal York was designed by Ross and Macdonald, in association with Sproatt and Rolph, built by the Canadian Pacific Railway company. The hotel is presently managed by Fairmont Hotels and Resorts. Opened on 11 June 1929, the Châteauesque-styled building is 124-metre-tall, contains 28 floors, it is considered one of Canada's grand railway hotels. After its completion, the building was the tallest building in Toronto, as well as the tallest building in the country, the British Empire, until the nearby Canadian Bank of Commerce Tower was built the following year; the building has undergone several extensive renovations since it first opened, with its first major renovation in 1972. An underground walkway linking the hotel with the Royal Bank Plaza and Union Station form part of the Toronto's PATH underground city system.
The Royal York Hotel sits at 100 Front Street West at the southern end of the Financial District, a business district in Downtown Toronto. The hotel property is bounded by Piper Street to the north, York Street to the west, whereas its eastern portion is bounded by Royal Bank Plaza, an office complex that serves as the operational headquarters of the Royal Bank of Canada. Union Station, the city's main intermodal transportation hub, is located south of the hotel, across Front Street West; the Royal York was not the first hotel built on the site. The first hotel was built in 1843 and was known as the Ontario Terrace, it consisted of four brick houses, was occupied by Knox College, a seminary. The former hotel was demolished to make way for the Royal York. Located at the southern end of the Financial District, near Bay Street, the hotel is situated within Canada's financial centre, its southerly location within the Financial District places the hotel near several downtown neighbourhoods. Southwest of the Financial District is the Entertainment District, whereas the neighbourhoods of St. Lawrence and South Core are located to the east, south of the Financial District.
The hotel building forms a part of the Union Station Heritage Conservation District, a historic district surrounding Union Station. The creation of the historic district was through the Ontario Heritage Act, was enacted by Toronto City Council on July 2006. Given its overlap with the Financial District, the historic district is an eclectic collection of buildings, with structures dating from the 1850s to the present day. Historic buildings within this district include the Dominion Public Building, The Toronto Club. Shortly after acquiring the property, Canadian Pacific Hotels, a division of the Canadian Pacific Railway, announced its plan to demolish the Queen's Hotel in order to construct a new hotel; the building's was design by a Canadian architectural firm and Macdonald, in association with Sproatt and Rolph. Both firms had designed buildings for Canadian Pacific Hotels prior to the Royal York Hotel; the building design went through several drafts before its final draft, "H plan," was adopted.
The plan saw the development of a towering central element, in an effort to distinguish itself from the buildings of the nearby Eaton's Annex. The building's towering design enabled most rooms and public spaces to face either the downtown core of the city, or the Toronto waterfront and Lake Ontario. Completed in 1929, the Châteauesque-styled hotel includes a row of pointed arches on the third story, a small peaked roof with tiny dormers at the top of the pitched roof. In addition, grotesques shaped as griffins are present at various corners of the hotel; the building's exterior is made of Indiana Limestone, which encases the hotel's 28-story steel frame. Along with traditional features found on most Chateauesque-styled hotel, the building incorporated an Art Deco setback and Romanesque-inspired decor; the balanced design of the building was achieved through the application of semi-neoclassical motifs, groups of arcaded windows. The interior of the building was created in an Edwardian architectural style.
Its interior features a number of crystal chandeliers, a hand-carved wood lobby ceiling. The building stands 124-metre-tall, containing 28 floors made up of guest rooms and other hotel amenities. After the building's completion, it was the tallest building in the British Empire, Canada; the building would lose the record the following year, with the erection of the nearby Canadian Bank of Commerce Tower on King Street. Work to enlarge the hotel commenced in 1957, was completed in 1959; the new east wing expansion was designed by the architecture firm Ross, Townsend, & Fish, in association with Charles B. Dolphin; when the Royal York first opened, the hotel included 1,048 guest suites. When the hotel first opened, it featured; as of 2014, the hotel expanded the number of its guest rooms and suites to 1,363. Types of guest rooms include Luxury, along with an array of eight types of suites. In addition to lodgings, the hotel offers a number of event spaces; the hotel features an entire floor of function rooms used for conferences.
A notable room at the hotel includes the Ballroom, which features an oil-painted ceiling from the hotel's opening. The Concert Hall is another event space at the hotel, outfitted with a Casavant Frères pipe organ. With five manuals and one-hundred-and-seven stops, it was the largest pipe organ in Canada. Another notable event space within the hotel is th
The Beard Building was a seven-storey, 25.38 m Richardsonian Romanesque highrise in Toronto, Canada. Designed by E. J. Lennox, completed in 1894, Initial plans were for a nine-storey, iron-framed structure, but a more traditional wood/brick combination with seven storeys was settled upon; the Beard Building was a bank at street level, a commercial and office tower, a hotel. The hotel never opened due to the design of the building; the building was named after the original landowner of the site. The Beard Building was demolished in 1935 and was replaced by a gas station a few years after being demolished. Litvak, Marilyn M.. "The City Hall Years". Edward James Lennox: "Builder of Toronto". Toronto: Dundurn Press. P. 37. ISBN 9781554881505. Retrieved 6 August 2013
Canadian Pacific Building (Toronto)
The Canadian Pacific Building is a 15-storey highrise at 69 Yonge Street in the city's downtown core of Toronto, Canada designed by the architectural firm of Darling and Pearson. When completed in 1913 as corporate headquarters for the Canadian Pacific Railway, it was the tallest building in Canada and the British Empire; the Canadian Pacific Building was erected at a time when "the Canadian Pacific Railway was enjoying its greatest period of prosperity under the leadership of Sir Thomas Shaugnessy". The railway wanted to incorporate various corporate offices around the city in one location; the location contained a ticket office for the convenience of customers, to avoid them having to head down to Union Station to purchase tickets. Construction started in 1911 and was completed by 1913; the ground floor contained a two-story marble ticket office as described above. Above the ticket office were various other company functions, including the lucrative telegraph business; the railway had plenty of space left in the building available to be leased out to other business tenants.
Built in an Edwardian Style, it was a "dramatic change from CPR's Chateau-style of architecture". The building was one of four erected at the corner of King and Yonge Streets in Toronto around the same period, all of which still exist, they have since been eclipsed by much taller buildings in the area. The structure featured "cream enamel terra cotta on four elevations, manufactured by Northwestern Terra Cotta Co. Chicago". By 1929, its original ornate terracotta exterior proved to be unable to sufficiently withstand Canadian winters. Over the course of one year and a half, under the supervision of its original architects Darling and Pearson, it was reclad with Indiana Limestone from the fourth floor up, with the original granite on the first three floors untouched; the Canadian Pacific Railway name no longer adorns the building, but traces of the name still remain on the walls. The building remained in railway hands until it was sold in 1988 to H&R Development, who renovated it; as of 2017, the property owned by H&R Real Estate Investment.
The 15 storey building was "designed in the Rennaissance Revival style according to Beaux Arts principles". It has a fire-proof steel skeleton, designed with a shaft and an attic. On the plinth are Doric piers and cornice, four entrance doors with moulded surrounds and oversized transoms. We notice clerestory windows; the tall shaft of the building shows balanced fenestration, pilaster strips, pinnacles. Further up, the attic storey features an arcade of paired windows with balustrades, topped off with a parapet roof decorated at the four corner towers with cupolas; the building is protected under Part IV of the Ontario Heritage Act, designated by the City of Toronto since 1990. Media related to Canadian Pacific Building at Wikimedia Commons Canadian Pacific Building, Toronto "Toronto's Edwardian Skyscraper Row" in JSSAC 40 - 2015