1000 de La Gauchetière
1000 de la Gauchetière is a skyscraper in Montreal, Canada. It is named for its address at 1000 De la Gauchetière Street West in the city's downtown core, it is Montreal's tallest building. It rises to the maximum height approved by the city at 51 floors. A popular feature of this building is its atrium; the building was designed by Lemay & Associates and Dimakopoulos & Associates architects, built in 1992 at the same time as the nearby 1250 René-Lévesque which rises at 47 floors. It is an example of postmodern architecture, with a distinctive triangular copper roof as well as four copper-capped rotunda entrances at the tower base corners; those were inspired from the Mary, Queen of the World, Cathedral on the north side of the building, following the trend set by Place de la Cathédrale of Montreal skyscrapers borrowing some of their design from that of the nearest church. The semi-spherical corner caps mirror the shape of the half-circular windows of neighbouring Marriott Château Champlain hotel, which were themselves inspired by the arches of the adjoining Windsor Station.
The 1000 de la Gauchetière was built by Pomerleau Inc. the largest construction company in Quebec and one of the top General Contractors in Canada. When it was built, 1000 de la Gauchetière was owned jointly by Bell Teleglobe. In 2002, SITQ, a division of the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec, bought the building for $184 million CAD. With the merger of all CDPQ real estate assets in 2011, the ownership has been transferred to Ivanhoé Cambridge. To be precise, the tower is Montreal's tallest; when viewed as part of the skyline, 1000 de la Gauchetière appears from certain angles to be shorter. The building's structural core is with steel making up the rest of the floorplates, it is serviced by 22 elevators, its recessed corners allow up to twelve corner offices per floor. The building's architecture is similar to that of the Chase Tower in Dallas, United States, but with the street-level architecture projecting out in a distinct style, reducing the visual and psychological impact of the entire building from this viewpoint.
Such details are features of postmodern architecture. In addition to its office space and shopping areas, it includes a full-size indoor ice skating rink, a physical fitness centre, a major bus terminal serving RTL city and commuter buses to Longueuil and other South Shore communities, links to other underground city buildings, Central Station, Lucien L'Allier Station and the Bonaventure Metro station. Analysis Group, Inc. Borden Ladner Gervais LLP BDO De Grandpré Chait LLP Fidelity Investments Osler, Hoskin & Harcourt LLP McCarthy Tétrault LLP RBC Dominion Securities Raymond James Regus Rogers Communications Boston Consulting Group Miller Thomson LLP List of tallest buildings in Montreal List of skyscrapers Official website 1000 de La Gauchetière at Emporis "1000 de La Gauchetière". SkyscraperPage. 1000 de La Gauchetière at IMTL.org
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
Saint Jacques Street
Saint Jacques Street, or St. James Street, is a major street in Montreal, Canada; the street is known by two names, "St. James Street" in English and rue Saint-Jacques in French. Both names are used in English and French, although Saint-Jacques is the most common for geographical reference. St. James Street is used in reference to the street's historic importance as a financial district. A main thoroughfare passing through Old Montreal, the street was first opened in 1672; the portion between McGill Street and place Saint Henri was called Bonaventure Street. This name has passed down to Place Bonaventure, Bonaventure Expressway, Bonaventure Metro station, despite the disappearance of their original referents. In the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, St. James Street was the centre of Montreal's financial district and where several major English insurance and trust companies built their Canadian head offices. Prior to World War I, Canadian and major municipal governments along with important industries such as the railways, public utility and canal companies obtained most of their capital financing in the United Kingdom or the United States.
At the end of the War, St. James Street grew and although by the 1920s there were stock exchanges in Toronto, Winnipeg and Vancouver, St. James Street's stock brokerage houses and the Montreal Stock Exchange were the most important in all of Canada. At the time of its construction in 1928, the Royal Bank of Canada's new headquarters at 360 St. James Street was the tallest building in the British Empire; the St James St. area was the head office of the Bank of Montreal, the informal head office of the Bank of Nova Scotia. It was home to the major brokerage houses such as Nesbitt and Company, MacKay, Royal Securities Corporation and others; some companies and present, located on St. James Street are: 50: Ottawa Hotel, Montreal 60: Canfone.com - Versailles Building 100: New York Life Insurance Company 105-107: Royal Trust 119: Bank of Montreal main Montreal branch 201-215: Canadian Pacific Express 210-212 Yorkshire Insurance Co. 215: McMaster Meighen, lawyers 225: National Trust Co. 231-235: Montreal Star 240: Guardian Trust Co.
- The Dominion Bank 244: Royal Securities Corporation 249-251: Jones-Heward Financial Services 262-266: Montreal City and District Savings Bank 265: Canadian Bank of Commerce 275: Canada Life 278-288: Molson Bank 355: Merchants' Bank of Canada 360: Royal Bank of Canada 388-390: Sovereign Bank of Canada Union Bank and Commercial Union Assurance Co. 393: Crown Trust Co. 437: Eastern Townships Bank the Commercial Union Assurance Co. and the Bank of Nova ScotiaEast of Place d'Armes square, the street was home to two French-Canadian financial institutions, the Banque Canadienne Nationale and the Banque du Peuple, long gone now. A steady erosion of its status as Canada's financial centre began with the opening of the Saint Lawrence Seaway in 1959, followed by the political uncertainty as a result of the election of the separatist Parti Québécois provincial government in 1976, all served as a catalyst for financial institutions to locate elsewhere. A number chose to move their official head offices to Toronto, while others shifted all future expansion to Toronto or other major Canadian centres.
As a result, the St. James Street financial district has all but disappeared. During the 1990s, the Montreal Expos baseball club unveiled plans to build a new stadium in downtown Montreal, right off St. Jacques Street, just south of the Bell Centre; when provincial funding for the new building fell through, the Expos did not continue with their plan and sold the property to developers. That stretch of Saint Jacques is now undergoing considerable gentrification. Today, the stretch of St. Jacques Street between McGill Street and Saint Laurent Boulevard is still notable for its grand Neo-Classical buildings on the part of the street running through the Old Montreal district; these include Bank of Montreal's domed Montreal Main Branch, the former headquarters of Royal Bank of Canada, the Canadian Bank of Commerce, the Molson Bank and the Canada Life Insurance Company. More modern buildings include the Stock Exchange Tower. Farther west, St. Jacques Street runs through the residential neighbourhoods of Little Burgundy, Saint-Henri, Notre-Dame-de-Grâce and Lachine.
Lionel-Groulx and Place-Saint-Henri Metro stations are located on St. Jacques in the South West borough; the McGill University Health Centre superhospital will front Saint-Jacques in Notre-Dame-de-Grâce. City of Montreal website for St. James St
Halifax, Nova Scotia
Halifax, formally known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. It had a population of 403,131 with 316,701 in the urban area centred on Halifax Harbour; the regional municipality consists of four former municipalities that were amalgamated in 1996: Halifax, Dartmouth and Halifax County. Halifax is a major economic centre in Atlantic Canada with a large concentration of government services and private sector companies. Major employers and economic generators include the Department of National Defence, Dalhousie University, Saint Mary's University, the Halifax Shipyard, various levels of government, the Port of Halifax. Agriculture, mining and natural gas extraction are major resource industries found in the rural areas of the municipality. Halifax is located within the traditional ancestral lands of the Mi'kmaq indigenous peoples, known as Mi'kma'ki; the Mi'kmaq have resided in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island since prior to European landings in North America in the 1400s and 1500s to set up fisheries.
The Mi'kmaq name for Halifax is K'jipuktuk, pronounced "che-book-took". The first permanent European settlement in the region was on the Halifax Peninsula; the establishment of the Town of Halifax, named after the 2nd Earl of Halifax, in 1749 led to the colonial capital being transferred from Annapolis Royal. The establishment of Halifax marked the beginning of Father Le Loutre's War; the war began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports and a sloop of war on June 21, 1749. By unilaterally establishing Halifax, the British were violating earlier treaties with the Mi'kmaq, which were signed after Father Rale's War. Cornwallis brought along their families. To guard against Mi'kmaq and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax, Bedford and Lawrencetown, all areas within the modern-day Regional Municipality. St. Margaret's Bay was first settled by French-speaking Foreign Protestants at French Village, Nova Scotia who migrated from Lunenburg, Nova Scotia during the American Revolution.
December 1917 saw one of the greatest disasters in Canadian history, when the SS Mont-Blanc, a French cargo ship carrying munitions, collided with the Belgian Relief vessel SS Imo in "The Narrows" between upper Halifax Harbour and Bedford Basin. The resulting explosion, the Halifax Explosion, devastated the Richmond District of Halifax, killing 2,000 people and injuring nearly 9,000 others; the blast was the largest artificial explosion before the development of nuclear weapons. Significant aid came from Boston; the four municipalities in the Halifax urban area had been coordinating service delivery through the Metropolitan Authority since the late 1970s, but remained independent towns and cities until April 1, 1996, when the provincial government amalgamated all municipal governments within Halifax County to create the Halifax Regional Municipality. The municipal boundary thus now includes all of Halifax County except for several First Nation reserves. Since amalgamation, the region has been known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, although "Halifax" has remained in common usage for brevity.
On April 15, 2014, the regional council approved the implementation of a new branding campaign for the region developed by the local firm Revolve Marketing. The campaign would see the region referred to in promotional materials as "Halifax", although "Halifax Regional Municipality" would remain the region's official name; the proposed rebranding was met with mixed reaction from residents, some of whom felt that the change would alienate other communities in the municipality through a perception that the marketing scheme would focus on Metropolitan Halifax only, while others expressed relief that the longer formal name would no longer be primary. Mayor Mike Savage defended the decision, stating: "I'm a Westphal guy, I'm a Dartmouth man, but Halifax is my city, we’re all part of Halifax. Why does that matter? Because when I go and travel on behalf of this municipality, there isn’t a person out there who cares what HRM means." Unlike most municipalities with a sizeable metropolitan area, the Halifax Regional Municipality's suburbs have been incorporated into the "central" municipality by referendum.
For example, the community of Spryfield, in the Mainland South area, voted to amalgamate with Halifax in 1968. The most recent amalgamation, which brought the entirety of Halifax County into the Municipality, has created a situation where a large "rural commutershed" area encompasses half the municipality's landmass; the Halifax Regional Municipality occupies an area of 5,577 km2, 10% of the total land area of Nova Scotia. The land area of HRM is comparable in size to the total land area of the province of Prince Edward Island, measures 165 km in length between its eastern and western-most extremities, excluding Sable Island; the nearest point of land to Sable Island is not in HRM, but rather in adjacent Guysborough County. However, Sable Island is considered part of District 7 of the Halifax Regional Council; the coastline is indented, accounting for its length of 400 km, with the northern boundary of the municipality being between 50–60 km inland. The coast is rock with small isolated sand beaches in sheltered bays.
The largest coastal features include St. Margarets Bay, Halifax Harbour/Bedford Basin, Cole Harbour, Musquodoboit Harbour, Jeddore Harbour, Ship Harbour, Sheet Harbou
Royal Bank Plaza
Royal Bank Plaza is a skyscraper in Toronto, Canada that serves as the de facto operational headquarters of the Royal Bank of Canada. The building shares with the Fairmont Royal York Hotel; the block in Toronto's financial district is bordered by Bay, Front and Wellington streets. It is owned by the real estate firm Oxford Properties. Built to be the new main office of the Royal Bank after its decision to move its centre of operations from Place Ville Marie in Montreal to Toronto in the late 1970s, Royal Bank Plaza consists of a South Tower and a North Tower; the South Tower, a skyscraper, is the taller of the two at 180 m. The structures each sit on opposing corners of the square site; the exteriors of the structures are covered with gold-bronze glass with tan granite accents. Together, both towers contain more than 14,000 windows which project from the facade to form angular bays set into brushed aluminum frames. Six bays are grouped between piers; the upper stories contain three larger angled-bays between the piers.
The double-height entry is recessed from the facade and covered in dark-tinted glass set into dark aluminum frames. The glass for the body of the building was manufactured by Canadian Pittsburgh Industries and was coloured using 2,500 oz of gold, valued at CA$70 per pane at the time of installation. In addition to office space and the Toronto Main Branch of the Royal Bank, Royal Bank Plaza contains a shopping concourse, part of the PATH network, linking directly to the TD Centre as well as Union Station, Brookfield Place and the Fairmont Royal York; the concourse merchants mall and tower lobbies underwent extensive renovations between 2005 and 2007. The building was constructed with a large atrium above the main banking hall that linked the two towers, but in the 1990s a trading floor was added, closing the open space; the bank maintains a presence in a number of other towers in the downtown core, including the Royal Bank Building at 20 King Street West adjacent to Scotia Plaza, the RBC Centre at 155 Wellington Street West, the building complex at 310, 315, 320 and 330 Front Street West, next to the Metro Toronto Convention Centre, owned by Oxford.
Royal Bank of Canada Norton Rose Fulbright Vale S. A. JPMorgan Chase Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ Interac Corporation List of tallest buildings in Toronto List of tallest buildings in Canada Royal Bank Plaza North at Oxford Properties Group Royal Bank Plaza South at Oxford Properties Group
Molson Bank Building, Montreal
The Molson Bank Building was built at the corner of St. Peter and St. James streets in Old Montreal as the headquarters of the Molson Bank in 1866 by order of founder William Molson, it was the first building in Montreal to be built in the Second Empire style, designed by George Browne working with his son John James George Browne. The bank merged with Bank of Montreal in 1925. Old Royal Bank Building, Montreal Tour CIBC Bank of Montreal Head Office, Montreal Old Canadian Bank of Commerce Building, Montreal Rémillard, François, Old Montreal - A Walking Tour, Ministère des Affaires culturelles du Québec, 1992
CIBC Tower is a 187 m forty-five-storey skyscraper in Montreal, Quebec. With the communications antenna on the roof, the total height is 225 m; the International Style office tower was built by Peter Dickinson, with associate architects Ross, Fish and Barrett, was the city's tallest building from 1962 to 1963. The building holds offices for the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, the corporate law firm Stikeman Elliott, as well as numerous other businesses; the building is located at 1155 René Lévesque Boulevard West next to Dorchester Square facing the imposing but dwarfed Sun Life Building. Part of the fire-damaged Windsor Hotel was demolished to make room for construction, with the remaining portion being converted to offices in the 1980s; the project was initiated by the Canadian Bank of Commerce and announced in 1959. While the building was under construction, the Bank of Commerce merged with the Imperial Bank of Canada to form the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, effective June 1, 1961.
The Imperial Bank abandoned its concurrent plan for a new head office at 612 McGill Street. Completed in 1962 only a few months before Place Ville-Marie, the CIBC Tower was the tallest building in Canada and the entire Commonwealth of Nations when it was first built, until being surpassed that year by Place Ville-Marie where a penthouse was added by the competing Royal Bank for that express purpose; the Consulate of Israel was on the 26th floor of the building and as such, it was sometimes the site of demonstrations related to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The consulate has since relocated to Westmount Square in Westmount; the tower is exceptionally slender with only 1,400 m2 of gross floor area per floor, because of a zoning regulation limiting the total building floor area to twelve times the property area. Its façade is more ornamental than that of the average International style tower, with horizontal strips of glass curtain wall alternating with spandrels of various types of stone, including green slate, quarried in Wales.
The building was renovated in 1991, the visible CIBC logo at the top was redesigned in 2004 and again in 2013. Inside, levels 15 and 29 are transfer floors. Levels 42-44 are mechanical floors; the top 7 m of the tower are an open-air raised partition, built sometime after construction, that hides the rooftop elevator control rooms. Without this extra structure, the actual roof height is 184 m, 187 m when counting the elevator penthouse, it is the fifth tallest building in Montreal, but an antenna raises the total height to 250 m, the tallest pinnacle in Montreal. French-language radio station CKOI-FM transmits its 307,000 watt signal atop that building. Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Euler Hermes Macquarie Group Russell Investments Stikeman Elliott LLP Vilaron Corporation Linkeo.com MNP LLP ACE Aviation Holdings List of tallest buildings in Montreal Old Royal Bank Building, Montreal Molson Bank Building, Montreal Bank of Montreal Head Office, Montreal Old Canadian Bank of Commerce Building, Montreal Commerce Court, Toronto Commerce Place I and Commerce Place II Official website