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Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew is a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom sponsored by the Department for Environment and Rural Affairs. An internationally important botanical research and education institution, it employs 1,100 staff, its board of trustees is chaired by Dame Amelia Fawcett. The organisation manages botanic gardens at Kew in Richmond upon Thames in southwest London, at Wakehurst, a National Trust property in Sussex, home to the internationally important Millennium Seed Bank, whose scientists work with partner organisations in more than 95 countries. Kew, jointly with the Forestry Commission, founded Bedgebury National Pinetum in Kent in 1923, specialising in growing conifers. In 1994 the Castle Howard Arboretum Trust, which runs the Yorkshire Arboretum, was formed as a partnership between Kew and the Castle Howard Estate. In 2018 the organisation had 1,858,513 public visitors at Kew, 354,957 at Wakehurst, its 326-acre site at Kew has 40 important buildings. The collections at Kew and Wakehurst include over 27,000 taxa of living plants, 8.3 million plant and fungal herbarium specimens, over 40,000 species in the seed bank.

Kew is governed by a board of trustees. Ten members and the chairman are appointed by the Secretary of State for Environment and Rural Affairs, her Majesty the Queen appoints her own trustee on the recommendation of the Secretary of State. As of 2019 the Board members are: Dame Amelia Fawcett Nick Baird Professor Liam Dolan Catherine Dugmore Sarah Flannigan Valerie Gooding Krishnan Guru-Murthy Professor Sue Hartley Ian Karet Jantiene Klein Roseboom van der Veer Michael Lear Sir Derek Myers The Director of Science is Professor Alexandre Antonelli. Professor Monique Simmonds is Deputy Director of Science. Professor Mark Chase is Senior Research Professor. Professor Phil Stevenson is the Senior Research Leader and Head of the Biological Chemistry and In Vitro Research; the group has four Research Leaders, Dr Melanie Howes, Dr Vis Sarasan, Dr Moses Langat and Dr Tom Prescott. The Harvard University Herbaria and the Australian National Herbarium co-operate with Kew in the IPNI database, a project, launched in 1999 to produce an authoritative source of information on botanical nomenclature including publication details.

The IPNI includes information from the Index Kewensis, a project which began in the 19th century to provide an "Index to the Names and Authorities of all known flowering plants and their countries". Kew cooperates with the Missouri Botanical Garden in a related project called The Plant List; the Plant List is an Internet encyclopedia project, launched in 2010 to compile a comprehensive list of botanical nomenclature. The Plant List has 1,064,035 scientific plant names of species rank of which 350,699 are accepted species names. In addition, the list has 17,020 plant genera. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew's two main sites: Kew Gardens Wakehurst Botanists active at Kew Gardens Curtis's Botanical Magazine, an illustrated publication which began in 1787 and is published by Wiley-Blackwell for the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Directors of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew GrassBase Index Kewensis, a massive index of plant names started and maintained by Kew Gardens Joseph Dalton Hooker, who succeeded his father, William Jackson Hooker, as director in 1865 Kew Bulletin, a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media on behalf of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew The Great Plant Hunt, a primary school science initiative created by Kew Gardens and funded by the Wellcome Trust Kew Gardens Act 2019, an Act of Parliament relating the Gardens Official website BBC A Year at Kew documentary behind the scenes at Kew Gardens Kew Diploma students talk about the course and their allotments which form part of the course

Kenneth Creasy

Kenneth Burton Creasy was a member of the Ohio House of Representatives. Kenneth B. Creasy grew up in Turkey Creek, the oldest son of a coal miner. In 1940 his family moved to Delaware, Ohio so his father, John Samuel Creasy, could take advantage of factory work in Central Ohio, his mother, Pauline Hammond Creasy, worked as a court recorder in Union County, where her father was a judge. The economic difference between Pauline and John posed a problem for Pauline's father; the extended Creasy family's experience in the coal mines, including the death of Kenneth's grandfather in a mine collapse, led to his lifelong interest in improving conditions for coal miners and their communities, in education, in assisting children caught in the poverty cycle. As chairman of the state welfare committee in the House of Representatives, he authored Medicaid and food stamp legislation that expanded aid to Ohio residents; as chairman of the Natural Resources Committee, Creasy launched Ohio's state park system and authored Ohio's 1972 law requiring strip mining companies to reclaim land damaged by surface mining, paving the way for the national Surface Mining and Reclamation Act of 1977.

After seven terms in the Ohio House of Representatives, Creasy retired and resumed his career as an educator, teaching social studies and government at Rutherford B. Hayes High School. In 1977, at age 44, Creasy was named Director of the Ohio Department of Public Welfare, where he served until his retirement. After retiring, he was elected a Delaware County Commissioner, served in this post until he died unexpectedly of a heart attack in 1992. Creasy credited much of his political success to his participation on the high school debate team, coached by Mrs. Doris Evans, with whom Creasy maintained a lifelong friendship, he attended Ohio Wesleyan University on a debate scholarship from 1951-1955, winning two national debate titles during his time on the OWU debate team, coached by Dr. Roy Diem. Creasy became the first international president of Circle K International from 1953-1954, was a member of Phi Delta Kappa fraternity, was elected student body president at Ohio Wesleyan from 1954-1955.

Creasy married his high school sweetheart Juddean Ferguson and, after a year of graduate school at The Ohio State University ran for City Council while teaching social studies at Olentangy High School. In 1958, at age 26, he became the Ohio House of Representatives' youngest member. Ken and Juddean had two daughters, author/professor Kenda Creasy Dean, a United Methodist pastor, music professor/novelist Kathy Creasy Mittelman. Http://www.circlek.org/AboutUs/History.aspx 107th Ohio General Assembly William Roy Diem and Rollin Clarence Hunter, The Story of Speech at Ohio Wesleyan, 1964. "Kenneth Creasy, 44, a Former Seven-Term Member of the Ohio House, Is Appointed As Director of Ohio Department of Public Welfare," The Columbus Dispatch Duane St. Clair, "Kenneth B. Creasy, the State's Latest Welfare Director, Is No Stranger to the Public Eye," The Columbus Dispatch Obituary, The Columbus Dispatch

All Light Will End

All Light Will End is a 2018 American thriller film written and directed by Chris Blake, in his feature-length directorial debut, starring Ashley Pereira, Sam Jones III, Sarah Butler, John Schuck, Andy Buckley. Young, successful horror novelist Savannah Martin's new book is taking the genre by storm, her father, the police chief of her small hometown, investigates murders and foul play too grim for their bucolic life. As she and her friends settle in for a relaxing weekend at her childhood home, the dark secret at the crux of Savannah's success stirs in her dreams and seeps into her reality. Amidst sexual tensions and fireside stories, Savannah's despondency and her father's case collide with gruesome and horrifying reveals, leaving little distinction between the subconscious and reality. Ashley Pereira as Savannah Alexandra Harris as Faith Sam Jones III as Adam Sarah Butler as Diana Andy Buckley as Chief David John Schuck as The Psychiatrist Ted Welch as Jack Graham Outerbridge as Paul Michael James Thomas as Leeland Katie Garfield as Kelly Rae Rich Redmond as Chris Issac Aaron Munoz as Stache Briana Tedesco as Young Savannah Iain Tucker as The Lineman Brothers Bill Billions as Bill The film was shot on location in various areas of Nashville, Tennessee.

The film premiered on March 24, 2018, at the HorrorHound Film Festival in Cincinnati, Ohio held its Canadian premiere at the Toronto International Spring of Horror on April 8, 2018. It was announced that the film would screen at the Tupelo Film Festival on April 19 and April 21, 2018, as well as the International Horror Hotel Film Festival in June; the film was acquired for distribution by Gravitas Ventures and is set for release in November 2018. Best Original Screenplay, Toronto International Spring of Horror Best Feature Film, Tupelo Film Festival 2nd Place for Suspense-Thriller, International Horror Hotel Film Festival Official website All Light Will End on Facebook All Light Will End on IMDb

Barbara J. Collins

Barbara Jane Collins was an author, geologist and professor. She was the founder of the Barbara Collins Arboretum at the campus of California Lutheran University where she was a professor for 50 years, she was instrumental in the preservation of Wildwood Mesa and received a commendation from the Mayor of Thousand Oaks, California for her preservation efforts. At Cal Lutheran, she created a website which cataloged over 3,000 plant species and was the sole member of the Interdisciplinary Major Committee for thirty years, she was among the first faculty at both California Lutheran University and California State University, Northridge. Collins was the first woman to earn a doctorate's degree in geology from the University of Illinois. Collins received the national Sears Roebuck Foundation Teaching Excellence and Campus Leadership Award in 1991, she was named Professor of the Year in 1996 and received the President's Award for Teaching Excellence in 2007. She received an Honorary Alumna Award from Cal Lutheran's Alumni Association in 2008.

Collins was inducted in Ventura County Educators' Hall of Fame in 2013. Born in Passaic, New Jersey on April 29, 1929, she grew up in New Jersey. Collins earned a bachelor's degree from a master of arts from Smith College, she was the first female to earn a doctorate in geology from University of Illinois, where she completed her master of science and doctorate in botany after two years in Germany. She joined the faculty at San Fernando Valley State College, which became California State University, soon after it was founded in 1958. After three years of teaching botany at the college, she became one of the first faculty members at California Lutheran College in 1963. During her tenure at Cal Lutheran she brought her students along on scientific trips to Hawai'i, New Zealand and deserts and mountains of California, she created an online directory for the university which included over 3,000 species. Collins identified over a hundred plants for the university's arboretum, named in honor of Collins.

In the mid-1980s, she helped with the preservation of Wildwood Mesa by discovering three endangered species in an area, about to be developed: Conejo dudleya, Conejo buckwheat and Lyon's pentachaeta. The city and the Conejo Recreation and Park District gained control of 228 acres of the Wildwood Mesa, consolidated with the existing Wildwood Regional Park. Collins received a commendation from the city mayor for her preservation efforts. California Plant and Animal Communities Story of Our Earth Exploring and Understanding Beyond the Solar System Exploring and Understanding Insects Exploring and Understanding the Human Body Wildflowers and Shrubs of Holden Village Key to Coast and Chaparral Flowering Plants of Southern California Key to Trees and Wildflowers of the Mountains of Southern California Key to Trees and Shrubs of the Deserts of Southern California Key to Wildflowers of the Deserts of California Central Coast Wildflowers: Monterey, San Luis Obispo, & Santa Barbara Counties of California You Lead A Mean Trail: Life Adventures and Fifty Years of Teaching The Twilight Years and Looking Back

Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve

Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve is a U. S. National Monument and national preserve in the Snake River Plain in central Idaho, it is along US 20, between the small towns of Arco and Carey, at an average elevation of 5,900 feet above sea level. The protected area's features are volcanic and represent one of the best-preserved flood basalt areas in the continental United States; the Monument was established on May 2, 1924. In November 2000, a presidential proclamation by President Clinton expanded the Monument area; the National Park Service portions of the expanded Monument were designated as Craters of the Moon National Preserve in August 2002. It lies in parts of Blaine, Lincoln and Power counties; the area is managed cooperatively by the Bureau of Land Management. The Monument and Preserve encompass three major lava fields and about 400 square miles of sagebrush steppe grasslands to cover a total area of 1,117 square miles; the Monument alone covers 53,571 acres. All three lava fields lie along the Great Rift of Idaho, with some of the best examples of open rift cracks in the world, including the deepest known on Earth at 800 feet.

There are excellent examples of every variety of basaltic lava, as well as tree molds, lava tubes, many other volcanic features. Craters of the Moon is in south-central Idaho, midway between Yellowstone National Park; the lava field reaches southeastward from the Pioneer Mountains. Combined U. S. Highway provides access to it. However, the rugged landscape of the monument itself remains remote and undeveloped, with only one paved road across the northern end; the Craters of the Moon Lava Field spreads across 618 square miles and is the largest Holocene-aged basaltic lava field in the contiguous United States. The Monument and Preserve contain more than 25 volcanic cones, including outstanding examples of spatter cones; the 60 distinct solidified lava flows that form the Craters of the Moon Lava Field range in age from 15,000 to just 2,000 years. The Kings Bowl and Wapi lava fields, both about 2,200 years old, are part of the National Preserve; this lava field is the largest of several large beds of lava that erupted from the 53-mile south-east to north-west trending Great Rift volcanic zone, a line of weakness in the Earth's crust.

Together with fields from other fissures they make up the Lava Beds of Idaho, which in turn are in the much larger Snake River Plain volcanic province. The Great Rift extends across the entire Snake River Plain. Elevation at the visitor center is 5,900 feet above sea level. Total average precipitation in the Craters of the Moon area is between 15–20 inches per year. Most of this is lost in cracks in the basalt, only to emerge in springs and seeps in the walls of the Snake River Canyon. Older lava fields on the plain have been invaded by drought-resistant plants such as sagebrush, while younger fields, such as Craters of the Moon, only have a seasonal and sparse cover of vegetation. From a distance this cover disappears entirely, giving an impression of utter black desolation. Repeated lava flows over the last 15,000 years have raised the land surface enough to expose it to the prevailing southwesterly winds, which help to keep the area dry. Together these conditions make life on the lava field difficult.

Paleo-Indians visited the area about 12,000 years ago but did not leave much archaeological evidence. Northern Shoshone created trails through the Craters of the Moon Lava Field during their summer migrations from the Snake River to the camas prairie, west of the lava field. Stone windbreaks at Indian Tunnel were used to protect campsites from the dry summer wind. No evidence exists for permanent habitation by any Native American group. A hunting and gathering culture, the Northern Shoshone pursued elk, American bison and bighorn sheep — all large game who no longer range the area; the most recent volcanic eruptions ended about 2,100 years ago and were witnessed by the Shoshone people. Shoshone legend speaks of a serpent on a mountain who, angered by lightning, coiled around and squeezed the mountain until liquid rock flowed, fire shot from cracks, the mountain exploded. Pioneers traveling in wagon trains on the Oregon Trail in the 1850s and 1860s followed an alternative route in the area that used old Indian trails that skirted the lava flows.

This alternative route was named Goodale's Cutoff and part of it is in the northern part of the monument. The cutoff was created to reduce the possibility of ambush by Shoshone warriors along the Snake River such as the one that occurred at Massacre Rocks, which today is memorialized in Idaho's Massacre Rocks State Park. After gold was discovered in the Salmon River area of Idaho, a group of immigrants persuaded an Illinois-born trapper and trader named Tim Goodale to lead them through the cutoff. A large wagon train met up with more wagons at Craters of the Moon Lava Field. Numbering 795 men and 300 women and children, the unusually large group was unmolested during its journey and named the cutoff for their guide. Improvements to the cutoff such as adding a ferry to cross the Snake River made it into a popular alternative route of the Oregon Trail. In 1879, two Arco cattlemen named Arthur Ferris and J. W. Powell became the first known people to explore the lava fields, they were investigating its possible use for grazing and watering cattle but found the area to be unsuitable and left.

U. S. Army Captain and western explorer B. L. E. Bonneville visited

Cormac Mác Shamhradháin

Cormac Mác Shamhradháin O. S. A. B. c.1410-d.1476, was the Roman Catholic Bishop of Ardagh diocese in Ireland from 1444 to 1476. Cormac Mác Shamhradháin was a member of the McGovern clan, rulers in the Middle Ages of the tuath of Teallach n-Eachach in Breifne, he was born c. 1410 in or near Drumlane Abbey, County Cavan, where his father, Piaras Mág Shamhradháin O. S. A. was the Prior until his death in 1431. As the son of a priest, Cormac was definitionally illegitimate at birth. Cormac was descended from the chief who ruled Tullyhaw from 1258–1272, Donnchadh ‘Cime’ Mág Samhradháin, his pedigree is Cormac mac Piaras mac Aindriu mac Cleiminnt mac Tomás Amhlaoibh mac Mac Craithe mac Donnchadh ‘Cime’ Mág Samhradháin. Cormac was educated at Drumlane Abbey, founded about the 6th century AD by Saint Columba; the abbey was a chapter house of the Augustinian Abbey of Kells, County Meath, dedicated to Saint Mary. Cormac was joined the Augustinian Order, becoming a canon. On 10 April 1430 Cormac was awarded the rectory of Templeport on the death of the previous holder, Renaldus McGovern.

The Papal Registers state- To the prior of Inchmacnerin in the diocese of Elphin. Mandate to collate and assign to Cormac Magamrughan, Augustinian canon of St. Mary's de Kenlys in the diocese of Meath, of noble race, the rectory, value not exceeding 20 marks, wont to be held by canons of St. Mary's, of Teallacheach and Mageangady in the diocese of Kilmore, void by the death of Renaldus Magamrugham and removing the abbot and convent of the said monastery, who have unduly detained possession for more than two years, whom he fears to meet within the city or diocese, he is hereby dispensed on account of his illegitimacy as the son of a canon of the said order, a priest, an unmarried woman. On the death of his father Piaras in 1431, Cormac succeeded to the post of Prior of Drumlane due to hereditary succession rights, he would have been in his early twenties at the time. The McGovern clan, through the ages, were associated with Drumlane and, in the 15th century alone, at least five of its members were appointed Prior.

The ecclesiastical offices in Drumlane were split between the McGoverns who were the hereditary erenachs, the O'Farrellys who were the hereditary coarbs of Drumlane. In Canon Law, the right to appoint the Prior was reserved to the Pope and so in 1436, the matter of succession was submitted to Pope Eugene IV, he appointed the Archdeacon of Hainault in Liege to settle the matter by examining Cormac and other witnesses. As a result, Cormac was deprived of the office and Patrick O'Farrelly was appointed. O'Farrelly died c.1439 and Cormac reclaimed possession of the Priory on the plea dispositionis ordinarie. On Cormac's 1444 elevation to the See of Ardagh, the Pope appointed Thady Magauran as Prior of Drumlane. On the death of Risdeárd Ó Fearghail, the Bishop of Ardagh, in 1444, the local Ardagh clergy selected "the young official MacMuircherty" as their candidate for bishop and forwarded their recommendation to the Pope; this proposal was rejected by the Vatican and Cormac Mác Shamhradháin was appointed on 6 November 1444 by Pope Eugene IV.

Cormac secured a dispensation from the illegitimacy that would have barred him from episcopal office. On 19 November 1444, Cormac was licensed to be consecrated by bishops of his choice. Cormac evidently won the appointment because he travelled to Rome to plead his case, while MacMuircherty remained in Ireland. Cormac used his influence with the Augustinians to support his petition; the Pope may have offered the office of Drumlane Prior to the Pope as a quid pro quo for the Ardagh bishopric. Cormac returned to Ireland in 1445, paid a fee of 33 florins for his appointment on 19 February 1445; the Ardagh clergy accepted his authority. MacFirbis Annals for 1445 state “The Bishop Magsamhradhan came from Rome and obtained the episcopacie of Ardachadh, the Quire of Ardachadh, young Officiall mcMuircherty, elected afore him, obeyed him haveing the Popes authoritie from Rome.” This state of affairs did not last long, as he was not a native of the diocese and throughout his tenure they attempted to have him deposed.

At the end of 1451, Cormac was excommunicated by the Archbishop of Armagh John Mey, for his failure to pay metropolitan dues and submit to the Archbishop's Visitation and for fornication. Two of the Ardagh clergy were appointed by Mey to publicise the excommunication and offer absolution. On 9 June 1460 Cormac attended the Provincial Synod of Armagh held under Archbishop John Bole at St. Peter's Church, Drogheda. In 1463 Seaán Ó Fearghail went to Rome to ask the pope to confirm him as bishop of Ardagh in lieu of Cormac and a writ of King Edward III of England dated 1463 describes Sean as bishop-elect of Ardagh, but he was never consecrated because of his role at the same time in attempting to remove the Bishop of Cork and Cloyne Jordan Purcell using forged documents. Matters came to a head when Cormac offered his resignation to Pope Paul II in 1467 and on 12 October 1467 Donnchadh O'Fearghail was appointed Bishop of Ardagh, but he died before the Papal Bull was expedited; the diocese was without an appointed bishop until 28 July 1469, when Seaán Ó Fearghail was appointed Bishop of Ardagh.

However, these latter two appointments may not have reflected the actual situation in Ardagh diocese. There is evidence that Cormac reigned as bishop until his death in 1476 and only did Fearghail take over. For example, in April–May 1470 Archbishop Bole stated that Cormac was bishop of Ardagh and th