Norodom Sihanouk was a Cambodian royal, politician and filmmaker, twice King and numerous times Prime Minister of Cambodia. In Cambodia, he is known as Samdech Euv; until the early years of his rule, his family ruled over the French Protectorate of Cambodia. Born to the King Norodom Suramarit and Queen Sisowath Kossamak, Sihanouk became king upon the death of his maternal grandfather King Sisowath Monivong in 1941. After the Japanese occupation of Cambodia during the Second World War, Sihanouk secured Cambodian independence from France in 1953. In 1955, he abdicated the throne and formed the political organization Sangkum, which won the 1955 general election; as Prime Minister, he governed Cambodia under one-party rule, suppressed political dissent, declared himself Head of State in 1960. Neutral in foreign relations, in practice he was closer to the communist bloc. A 1970 military coup ousted him and paved the way for the U. S.-backed Khmer Republic. Sihanouk fled to North Korea, there forming a government-in-exile and resistance movement.
After the Cambodian Civil War resulted in victory for the Khmer Rouge in 1975, Sihanouk returned to Cambodia, renamed Democratic Kampuchea, as its figurehead head of state. Although supportive of Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge, his relations with them declined and in 1976 he resigned, he was placed under house arrest until 1979. Sihanouk went into exile again, in 1981, he formed FUNCINPEC, a resistance party; the following year, Sihanouk became President of the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea, a broad coalition of anti-Vietnamese resistance factions. This coalition retained Cambodia's seat at the United Nations, making Sihanouk Cambodia's internationally recognized head of state. In the late 1980s, informal talks were carried out to end hostilities between the Vietnam-supported People's Republic of Kampuchea and the CGDK. In 1990, the Supreme National Council of Cambodia was formed as a transitional body to oversee Cambodia's sovereign matters, with Sihanouk as its president. In 1991, peace accords were signed and the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia was established the following year.
The UNTAC organised general elections in 1993, a coalition government, jointly led by his son Norodom Ranariddh and Hun Sen, was subsequently formed. In 1993, Sihanouk was reinstated as Cambodia's Head of King. In 2004, he abdicated again with Norodom Sihamoni, elected as his successor, he died in 2012. Norodom Sihanouk was the only child born of the union between Norodom Suramarit and Sisowath Kossamak, his parents, who heeded the Royal Court Astrologer's advice that he risked dying at a young age if he was raised under parental care, placed him under the care of Kossamak's grandmother, Pat. When Pat died, Kossamak brought Sihanouk to live with Norodom Sutharot. Sutharot delegated parenting responsibilities to Norodom Ket Kanyamom. Sihanouk received his primary education at the François Baudoin school and Nuon Moniram school in Phnom Penh. During this time, he received financial support from his maternal grandfather, Sisowath Monivong, to head an amateur performance troupe and soccer team. In 1936, Sihanouk was sent to Saigon, where he pursued his secondary education at Lycée Chasseloup Laubat, a boarding school.
When the reigning king Monivong died on 23 April 1941, the Governor-General of French Indochina, Jean Decoux chose Sihanouk to succeed him. Sihanouk's appointment as king was formalised the following day by the Cambodian Crown Council, his coronation ceremony took place on 3 May 1941. During the Japanese occupation of Cambodia, he dedicated most of his time to sports and the occasional tour to the countryside. In March 1945, the Japanese military, which had occupied Cambodia since August 1941, dissolved the nominal French colonial administration. Under pressure from the Japanese, Sihanouk proclaimed Cambodia's independence and assumed the position of prime minister while serving as king at the same time; as prime minister, Sihanouk revoked a decree issued by the last resident superior of Cambodia, Georges Gautier, to romanise the Khmer alphabet. Following the Surrender of Japan in August 1945, nationalist forces loyal to Son Ngoc Thanh launched a coup, which led to Thanh becoming prime minister.
When the French returned to Cambodia in October 1945, Thanh was dismissed and replaced by Sihanouk's uncle Sisowath Monireth. Monireth negotiated for greater autonomy in managing Cambodia's internal affairs. A modus vivendi was signed in January 1946 whereby Cambodia was granted full autonomy within the French Union. A joint French-Cambodian commission was set up after that to draft Cambodia's constitution, in April 1946, Sihanouk introduced clauses which provided for an elected parliament on the basis of universal male suffrage as well as press freedom; the first constitution was signed into effect by Sihanouk in May 1947. Around this time, Sihanouk made two trips to Saumur, France where he attended military training at the Armoured Cavalry Branch Training School in 1946, again in 1948, he was made a reserve captain for the French army. In early 1949, Sihanouk traveled to Paris with his parents to negotiate with the French government for more autonomy over Cambodia; the modus vivendi was replaced by a new Franco-Khmer treaty, which recognised Cambodia as "independent" within the French Union.
In practice, the treaty granted only limited self-rule to Cambodia. While Cambodia was given free rein in managing its foreign ministry and to a lesser extent, its defence, most of the other ministries remained under French control. Meanwhile, dissenting legisl
North Korea the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, with Pyongyang the capital and the largest city in the country. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. To the north and northwest, the country is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok and Tumen rivers. North Korea, like its southern counterpart, claims to be the legitimate government of the entire peninsula and adjacent islands. In 1910, Korea was annexed by Imperial Japan. After the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II in 1945, Korea was divided into two zones, with the north occupied by the Soviet Union and the south occupied by the United States. Negotiations on reunification failed, in 1948, separate governments were formed: the socialist Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, the capitalist Republic of Korea in the south.
An invasion initiated by North Korea led to the Korean War. The Korean Armistice Agreement brought about a ceasefire. North Korea describes itself as a "self-reliant" socialist state, formally holds elections, though said elections have been described by outside observers as sham elections. Outside observers generally view North Korea as a Stalinist totalitarian dictatorship noting the elaborate cult of personality around Kim Il-sung and his family; the Workers' Party of Korea, led by a member of the ruling family, holds power in the state and leads the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland of which all political officers are required to be members. Juche, an ideology of national self-reliance, was introduced into the constitution in 1972; the means of production are owned by the state through state-run enterprises and collectivized farms. Most services such as healthcare, education and food production are subsidized or state-funded. From 1994 to 1998, North Korea suffered a famine that resulted in the deaths of between 240,000 and 420,000 people, the population continues to suffer malnutrition.
North Korea follows "military-first" policy. It is the country with the highest number of military and paramilitary personnel, with a total of 9,495,000 active and paramilitary personnel, or 37% of its population, its active duty army of 1.21 million is the fourth largest in the world, after China, the United States and India. It possesses nuclear weapons; the UN inquiry into human rights in North Korea concluded that, "The gravity and nature of these violations reveal a state that does not have any parallel in the contemporary world". The North Korean regime denies most allegations, accusing international organizations of fabricating human rights abuses as part of a smear campaign with the covert intention of undermining the state, although they admit that there are human rights issues relating to living conditions which the regime is attempting to correct. In addition to being a member of the United Nations since 1991, the sovereign state is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, G77 and the ASEAN Regional Forum.
The name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel. After the division of the country into North and South Korea, the two sides used different terms to refer to Korea: Chosun or Joseon in North Korea, Hanguk in South Korea. In 1948, North Korea adopted Democratic People's Republic of Korea as its new legal name. In the wider world, because the government controls the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, it is called North Korea to distinguish it from South Korea, called the Republic of Korea in English. Both governments consider themselves to be the legitimate government of the whole of Korea. For this reason, the people do not consider themselves as'North Koreans' but as Koreans in the same divided country as their compatriots in the South and foreign visitors are discouraged from using the former term.
After the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, Korea was occupied by Japan from 1910 to 1945. Japan tried to suppress Korean traditions and culture and ran the economy for its own benefit. Korean resistance groups known as Dongnipgun operated along the Sino-Korean border, fighting guerrilla warfare against Japanese forces; some of them took part in parts of South East Asia. One of the guerrilla leaders was the communist Kim Il-sung, who became the first leader of North Korea. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Korean Peninsula was divided into two zones along the 38th parallel, with the northern half of the peninsula occupied by the Soviet Union and the southern half by the United States; the drawing of the division was assigned to two American officers, diplomat Dean Rusk and Army officer Charles Bone
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Marshal Lon Nol was a Cambodian politician and general who served as Prime Minister twice, as well as serving as Defense Minister. He led the military coup of 1970 against Prince Norodom Sihanouk and became the self-proclaimed President of the U. S.-backed Khmer Republic, ruling until 1975. He was the founder and leader of the short-lived Social Republican Party, commander-in-chief of the Khmer National Armed Forces. After the Khmer Rouge took power, Lon Nol fled to the United States, remained there until his death in 1985. Nol was born in Prey Veng Province on November 1913, to a family of mixed Khmer-Chinese descent, his father Lon Hin was the son of a Khmer Krom from Tay Ninh Province who served as a district chief in Siem Reap and Kampong Thom, after making a name for himself'pacifying' bandit groups in Prey Veng. His maternal grandfather was a Chinese immigrant from Fujian province who became the governor of Prey Veng. Nol was educated in the privileged surroundings of the Lycée Chasseloup-Laubat in Saigon, followed by the Cambodian Royal Military Academy.
Nol found employment with the French colonial civil service in 1937. He became a magistrate, soon proved himself as an efficient enforcer of French rule against a series of anti-colonial disturbances in 1939. By 1946, he had risen to the post of Governor of Kratie Province, he became an associate of King Norodom Sihanouk, by the late 1940s, when he set up a right-wing, pro-independence political group, was becoming involved in the developing Cambodian political scene. Joining the army in 1952, he carried out military operations against the Viet Minh. After independence, Nol's nationalist Khmer Renovation party became the core of the Sangkum, the organisation set up by Sihanouk to participate in the 1955 elections. Sangkum won Sihanouk became Prime Minister. Nol was appointed the Army Chief of Staff in 1955, commander-in-chief of the armed forces in 1960, as well as serving as Defence Minister. At the time, he was a trusted supporter of Sihanouk, his police being instrumental in the suppression of the small, clandestine communist movement in Cambodia.
He was appointed deputy Premier in 1963. While Sihanouk – in an attempt to distance his country from the effects of the Vietnam War – was pursuing a foreign policy of "extreme neutrality", which involved association with China and toleration of North Vietnamese activity on the eastern borders, Nol remained friendly towards the United States, indicated that he regretted the ending of US aid after 1963; the 1966 parliamentary elections represented a major shift in the balance of power towards Lon Nol and the rightist elements of the Sangkum, as conservative and right-wing candidates were overwhelmingly elected. Lon Nol became Prime Minister, the following year troops carried out a savage repression of a leftist-inspired revolt, the Samlaut Uprising, in Battambang Province. Nol was injured in a car crash in 1967, temporarily retired from politics. In 1968, however, he returned as Minister of Defence and in 1969 became Prime Minister a second time, appointing the vocally anti-Sihanouk, pro-US politician Prince Sisowath Sirik Matak as his deputy.
Sihanouk claimed that the 1970 coup against him was the result of an alliance between his longstanding enemy, exiled politician Son Ngoc Thanh and Sirik Matak, with CIA support and planning. Although there are indications that Lon Nol approached the US during 1969 to gauge the likelihood of military support for a coup against Sihanouk, there is no concrete evidence of CIA involvement, though it remains possible some military intelligence agents may have had partial responsibility, it seems that in setting in motion the events leading up to the coup, Lon Nol intended to strengthen his position against the North Vietnamese with the ultimate aim of preventing their troops from operating within Cambodian borders, wished to apply pressure on Sihanouk to achieve this. However, events developed far beyond the original plan, with the encouragement of Sirik Matak – who wished to see Sihanouk deposed as Head of State – Lon Nol was to engineer Sihanouk's removal. While Sihanouk was abroad during March 1970, there were anti-Vietnamese riots in Phnom Penh.
On 12 March, Lon Nol and Sirik Matak closed the port of Sihanoukville, through which weapons were being smuggled to the Viet Cong, to the North Vietnamese and issued an ultimatum: all North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces were to withdraw from Cambodian soil within 72 hours or face military action. Lon Nol refused to countenance Sihanouk being deposed as Head of State. However, the Prime Minister remained uncertain as to whether to instigate a vote in the National Assembly. On the night of 17 March, Sirik Matak, accompanied by three army officers, went to the Prime Minister's residence and compelled a weeping Lon Nol to sign the necessary documents at gunpoint. A vote was taken in the National Assembly on 18 March. General Lon Nol assumed the powers of the Head of State on an emergency basis. On 28 and 29 March there were large-scale popular demonstrations in favour of Sihanouk in several provincial cities, but Lon Nol's forces suppressed them, causing several hundred deaths; the Khmer Republic was formally declared that October, Sihanouk – who had formed a government-in-exile, the GRUNK, incorporating th
Norodom Sihamoni is the King of Cambodia. He became King on 14 October 2004, a week after the abdication of King Norodom Sihanouk, he is the eldest son of Queen Norodom Monineath. He was Cambodia's ambassador to UNESCO and named by a nine-member throne council to become the next king after his father Norodom Sihanouk abdicated in 2004. Before ascending the throne, Sihamoni was educated in the Czech Republic and was best known for his work as a cultural ambassador in Europe and as a classical dance instructor. Sihamoni was born in 1953, his given name, comprises two morphemes from his parent's given names and Monineath. At the time of his birth and that of his younger brother, his mother Monique Izzi, a Cambodian citizen of Corsican and Khmer ancestry, had been one of King Norodom Sihanouk's consorts after being a constant companion since the day they met in 1951, when she won first prize in a national beauty contest, she was granted the title of Neak Moneang and the name of Monineath at the time of her marriage to King Norodom Sihanouk in 1952.
Furthermore, Queen Monineath is a step-granddaughter of the late Prince Norodom Duongchak of Cambodia, the daughter of Pomme Peang and of her second husband, Jean-François Izzi, a Corsican banker. The Royal Ark website entry about the genealogy of the Cambodian royal family states that Sihanouk and Monineath were married twice, once on 12 April 1952, when she was 15, again on 5 March 1955, she is described as Sihanouk's seventh wife. Norodom Sihamoni has 14 half-sisters by his father, he has spent most of his life outside Cambodia. As a child Sihamoni was sent to Prague, in Czechoslovakia, by his father in 1962. During the 1970 coup d'état by Lon Nol, Sihamoni remained in Czechoslovakia, where he attended all three levels of education - elementary school, high school and AMU - Academy of Performing Arts in Prague, studied classical dance and music continuously until 1975, when he graduated; as he spent his entire childhood and youth in Prague, the king is fluent in the Czech language. A movie directed by Vladimir Sís was shot about the prince in Prague in 1967, under the name "The Other Little Prince.
After graduation in 1975 he left Prague and began to study filmmaking in North Korea, in 1977 returned to Cambodia. The ruling Khmer Rouge government turned against the monarchy, put the royal family including Sihamoni under house arrest until the 1979 Vietnamese invasion. In 1981 he moved to France to teach ballet, was president of the Khmer Dance Association, he lived in France for nearly 20 years visiting Prague, where he had spent his childhood and youth. In 1993 the prince was appointed Cambodia's delegate to UNESCO in Paris, where he became known for his hard work and his devotion to Cambodian culture, he had refused an appointment as Cambodia's ambassador to France. Besides his native Khmer, Norodom Sihamoni is the only ruling monarch; the king is fluent in French and is a good speaker of English and Russian. On 14 October 2004 he was selected by a special nine-member council, part of a selection process, put in place after the surprise abdication of King Norodom Sihanouk a week before.
Sihamoni's selection was endorsed by Prime Minister Hun Sen and National Assembly Speaker Prince Norodom Ranariddh, both members of the privy council. He was inaugurated and formally appointed as King on 29 October 2004. King Sihamoni and his parents, King Father Norodom Sihanouk and Queen Mother Norodom Monineath requested that the ceremonies not be lavish because they did not wish the impoverished country to spend too much money on the event. On 29 October 2014, there were celebrations to mark the 10th anniversary of his coronation. Sihamoni has no children, his father Norodom Sihanouk stated that Sihamoni "loves women as his sisters". Before he was crowned king, his royal title was: Sdech Krom Khun, equating him to the rank of "Great Prince"; as king, his title is: Preah Karuna Preah Bat Sâmdach Preah Bâromneath Norodom Sihamoni Saman Bhumichat Sasana Rakkhata Khattiya Khmeraratrat Putthintra Mohaksat Khemareacheana Samuhobhas Kampuchea Ekareacharath Bureanasanti Subheamagala Sirivibunla Khmera Sri Bireat Preah Chao Krung Kampuchea Dhibodi.
On 12 December 2008, Sihamoni selected twenty-six members of the Cambodian royal family to his advisory court, among them his half-brother Prince Norodom Ranariddh as chief advisor. Other choices included Princess Norodom Marie and Prince Sisowath Thomico. Cambodia had no lèse-majesté laws until recently. In neighboring Thailand article 7 of the Constitution states the inviolability of the king. In February 2018, Cambodia passed new legislation making it an offence to insult the king; some Cambodian opposition figures have criticized the acquiescence of the king, describing it as too lenient towards Hun Sen's deca
Phnom Penh known as Krong Chaktomuk or Krong Chaktomuk Serimongkul, is the capital and most populous city in Cambodia. Phnom Penh has been the national capital since French colonization of Cambodia, has grown to become the nation's economic and cultural center. Once known as the "Pearl of Asia," it was considered one of the loveliest French-built cities in Indochina in the 1920s. Phnom Penh, along with Siem Reap and Sihanoukville, are significant global and domestic tourist destinations for Cambodia. Founded in 1434, the city is noted for attractions. There are a number of surviving French colonial buildings scattered along the grand boulevards. Situated on the banks of the Tonlé Sap and Bassac rivers, the Phnom Penh metropolitan area is home to about 1.5 million of Cambodia's population of over 14.8 million. Phnom Penh takes its name from the present Wat Phnom. Legend has it that in 1372, a wealthy widow named Lady Penh found a Koki tree floating down the Tonle Sap river after a storm. Inside the tree were four bronze Buddha statues and a stone statue of Vishnu.
Daun Penh ordered villagers to raise the height of the hill northeast of her house and used the Koki wood to build a temple on the hill to house the four Buddha statues, a shrine for the Vishnu image lower down. The temple became known as Wat Phnom Daun Penh, now known as Wat Phnom, a small hill 27 metres in height. Phnom Penh's official name, in its short form, is Krong Chaktomok meaning "City of Four Faces". Krong Chaktomuk is an abbreviation of the full name, given by King Ponhea Yat, Krong Chaktomuk Mongkol Sakal Kampuchea Thipadei Serey Thereak Borvor Inthabot Borei Roth Reach Seima Maha Nokor; this loosely translates as "The place of four rivers that gives the happiness and success of Khmer Kingdom, the highest leader as well as unimpregnable city of the God Indra of the great kingdom". It is similar to the much more famous long name of Bangkok, which in both cases incorporates many words from Sanskrit. First recorded a century after it is said to have taken place, the legend of the founding of Phnom Penh tells of a local woman, living at Chaktomuk, the future Phnom Penh.
It was the late 14th century, the Khmer capital was still at Angkor near Siem Reap 350 km to the north. Gathering firewood along the banks of the river, Lady Penh spied a floating koki tree in the river and fished it from the water. Inside the tree she found four Buddha statues and one of Vishnu; the discovery was taken as a divine blessing, to some a sign that the Khmer capital was to be brought to Phnom Penh from Angkor. To house the new-found sacred objects, Penh raised a small hill on the west bank of the Tonle Sap River and crowned it with a shrine, now known as Wat Phnom at the north end of central Phnom Penh. "Phnom" is Khmer for "hill" and Penh's hill took on the name of the founder, the area around it became known after the hill. Phnom Penh first became the capital of Cambodia after Ponhea Yat, king of the Khmer Empire, moved the capital from Angkor Thom after it was captured and destroyed by Siam a few years earlier. There is a stupa behind Wat Phnom that houses the remains of Ponhea Yat and the royal family as well as the remaining Buddhist statues from the Angkorean era.
In the 17th century, Japanese immigrants settled on the outskirts of present-day Phnom Penh. A small Portuguese community survived in Phnom Penh until the 17th century, undertaking commercial and religious activity in the country. Phnom Penh remained the royal capital for 73 years, from 1432 to 1505, it was abandoned for 360 years by subsequent kings due to internal fighting between the royal pretenders. Kings moved the capital several times and established their royal capitals at various locations in Tuol Basan, Longvek, Lavear Em and Oudong, it was not until 1866, under the reign of King Norodom I, the eldest son of King Ang Duong, who ruled on behalf of Siam, that Phnom Penh became the permanent seat of government and capital of Cambodia, where the current Royal Palace was built. Beginning in 1870, the French colonial authorities turned a riverside village into a city where they built hotels, prisons, banks, public works offices, telegraph offices, law courts, health services buildings. In 1872, the first glimpse of a modern city took shape when the colonial administration employed the services of French contractor Le Faucheur to construct the first 300 concrete houses for sale and rental to Chinese traders.
By the 1920s, Phnom Penh was known as the "Pearl of Asia", over the next four decades, Phnom Penh continued to experience rapid growth with the building of railways to Sihanoukville and Pochentong International Airport. Phnom Penh's infrastructure saw major modernisation under the rule of Sihanouk. During the Vietnam War, Cambodia was used as a base by the North Vietnamese Army and the Viet Cong, thousands of refugees from across the country flooded the city to escape the fighting between their own government troops, the NVA/NLF, the South Vietnamese and its allies, the Khmer Rouge. By 1975, the population was 2 -- 3 million; the Khmer Rouge cut off supplies to the city f
Royal Cambodian Air Force
The Royal Cambodian Air Force (Khmer: កងទ័ពជើងអាកាស is the branch of the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces, charged with operating all military aircraft in Cambodia. The Royal Cambodian Air Force is commanded by Lieutenant General Soeung Samnang, who has four deputy commanders beneath him; the Air Force itself is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of National Defence. Air Force headquarters are located at Phnom Penh International Airport and is still sign posted Pochentong Air Base; the only operational aircraft at Pochentong Air Base are from the VIP squadron. Maintenance of helicopters is at Pochentong; the airworthy Z-9 and Mi-17 helicopters from the helicopter squadron are based at Phnom Penh International Airport and Siem Reap International Airport. During the early 1990 Mi-8, Mil Mi-26 Halo and Mi-17 helicopters entered service with the Air Force, as well as Harbin Y-12 and BN-2 Islander transport aircraft. A VIP transport unit was formed in 1995 using Beech 200 Super King Air. In 2000 a deal was made with Israeli Aircraft Industries to overhaul MiG-21s and which saw the delivery of L-39C Albatross aircraft for lead in trainers and entered service during 1995–2000.
Only the Mi-8, Mil Mi-26 Halo, Mi-17 and the Harbin Z-9 helicopters are serviceable. The VIP fleet of helicopters and passenger aircraft is under the control of the civilian authorities; the force maintains a professional association football team as one of its branches, which played in the C-League. Cambodian Civil War Khmer National Armed Forces Khmer Air Force Royal Cambodian Army Royal Cambodian Armed Forces Royal Cambodian Navy Weapons of the Cambodian Civil War Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International, 11–17 December 2012, Vol. 182 No. 5370. Pp. 40–64. ISSN 0015-3710. Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International. Vol. 194, No. 5665, 4–10 December 2018, pp. 32–60. ISSN 0015-3710 World Aircraft Information Files. Brightstar Publishing, London. File 337 Sheet 05