Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau referred to by the initials PET, was a Canadian statesman who served as the 15th prime minister of Canada. He was the third longest-serving prime minister in Canadian history, having served for 15 years, 164 days. Trudeau rose to prominence as a lawyer and activist in Quebec politics. In the 1960s he entered federal politics by joining the Liberal Party of Canada, he was appointed as Lester B. Pearson's Parliamentary Secretary and became his Minister of Justice. Trudeau became a media sensation, inspiring "Trudeaumania", took charge of the Liberals in 1968. From the late 1960s until the mid-1980s, his personality dominated the political scene to an extent never before seen in Canadian political life. Despite his personal motto, "Reason before passion", his personality and political career aroused polarizing reactions throughout Canada. Admirers praise what they consider to be the force of Trudeau's intellect and his political acumen, maintaining national unity over the Quebec sovereignty movement, suppressing a Quebec terrorist crisis, fostering a pan-Canadian identity, in achieving sweeping institutional reform, including the implementation of official bilingualism, patriation of the Constitution, the establishment of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
Critics accuse him of arrogance, of economic mismanagement, of unduly centralizing Canadian decision-making to the detriment of the culture of Quebec and the economy of the Prairies. He retired from politics in 1984, John Turner succeeded him, his eldest son, Justin Trudeau, became the 23rd and current Prime Minister as a result of the 2015 federal election and is the first prime minister of Canada to be a descendant of a former prime minister. The Trudeau family can be traced to Marcillac-Lanville in France in the 16th century and to a Robert Truteau. In 1659 the first Trudeau to arrive in Canada was Étienne Trudeau or Truteau, a carpenter and home builder from La Rochelle. Pierre Trudeau was born at home at 5779 Durocher Avenue, Montreal, on October 18, 1919, to Charles-Émile "Charley" Trudeau, a French-Canadian businessman and lawyer, Grace Elliott, of mixed Scottish and French-Canadian descent, he had an older sister named Suzette and a younger brother named Charles Jr.. The family had become quite wealthy by the time Trudeau was in his teens, as his father sold his prosperous gas station business to Imperial Oil.
Trudeau attended the prestigious Collège Jean-de-Brébeuf. Trudeau's father died; this death hit him and the family hard emotionally. Trudeau remained close to his mother for the rest of her life. According to long-time friend and colleague Marc Lalonde, the clerically influenced dictatorships of António de Oliveira Salazar in Portugal, Francisco Franco in Spain, Marshal Philippe Pétain in Vichy France were seen as political role models by many youngsters educated at elite Jesuit schools in Quebec. Lalonde asserts that Trudeau's intellectual development as an "intellectual rebel, anti-establishment fighter on behalf of unions and promoter of religious freedom" came from his experiences after leaving Quebec to study in the United States and England, to travel to dozens of countries, his international experiences allowed him to break from Jesuit influence and study French progressive Catholic philosophers such as Jacques Maritain and Emmanuel Mounier as well as John Locke and David Hume. Trudeau earned his law degree at the Université de Montréal in 1943.
During his studies, he was conscripted into the Canadian Army as part of the National Resources Mobilization Act. When conscripted, he decided to join the Canadian Officers' Training Corps, he served with the other conscripts in Canada, since they were not assigned to overseas military service until after the Conscription Crisis of 1944 after the Invasion of Normandy that June. Before this, all Canadians serving overseas were volunteers, not conscripts. Trudeau said he was willing to fight during World War II, but he believed that to do so would be to turn his back on the population of Quebec that he believed had been betrayed by the government of William Lyon Mackenzie King. Trudeau reflected on his opposition to conscription and his doubts about the war in his Memoirs: "So there was a war? Tough... if you were a French Canadian in Montreal in the early 1940s, you did not automatically believe that this was a just war... we tended to think of this war as a settling of scores among the superpowers."In an Outremont by-election in 1942 he campaigned for the anticonscription candidate Jean Drapeau.
After the war Trudeau continued his studies, first taking a master's degree in political economy at Harvard University's Graduate School of Public Administration. He studied in Paris, France in 1947 at the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris, he enrolled for a doctorate at the London School of Economics, but did not finish his dissertation. Trudeau was interested in Marxist ideas in the 1940s and his Harvard dissertation was on the topic of Communism and Christianity. Thanks to the great intellectual migration away from Europe's fascism, Harvard had become a major intellectual centre in which he profoundly changed. Despite this, Trudeau found himself an outsider – a French Catholic living for the first time outside of Quebec in the predominantly Protestant American Harvard
Grace Patricia Kelly was an American film actress who became Princess of Monaco after marrying Prince Rainier III in April 1956. After embarking on an acting career in 1950, when she was 20, Kelly appeared in New York City theatrical productions and more than 40 episodes of live drama productions broadcast during the early 1950s Golden Age of Television. In October 1953, she gained stardom from her performance in director John Ford's film Mogambo starring Clark Gable and Ava Gardner, which won her a Golden Globe Award and an Academy Award nomination in 1954. Subsequently, she had leading roles in five films, including The Country Girl with Bing Crosby, for which her deglamorized performance earned her an Academy Award for Best Actress. Other films include High Noon, with Gary Cooper. Kelly retired from acting at the age of 26 to marry Rainier, began her duties as Princess of Monaco, they had three children: Caroline, Stéphanie. Kelly retained her link to America by her dual U. S. and Monégasque citizenship.
Princess Grace died at Monaco Hospital on September 14, 1982, succumbing to injuries sustained in a traffic collision the day before. After her death the French physicians treating her reported that a CAT scan had revealed she had suffered two brain hemorrhages; the first occurred prior to the crash, is believed to have been the inciting incident that led to the crash. The second, suffered while in hospital, is believed to have been the result of physical trauma sustained in the crash. At the time of her death, she was 52 years old, she is listed 13th among the American Film Institute's 25 Greatest Female Stars of Classical Hollywood Cinema. Kelly was born on November 12, 1929, at Hahnemann University Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to an affluent and influential family, her father, Irish-American John B. Kelly Sr. had won three Olympic gold medals for sculling and owned a successful brickwork contracting company, well known on the East Coast. A registered Democrat, he was nominated to be mayor of Philadelphia for the 1935 election but lost by the closest margin in the city's history.
In years, he served on the Fairmount Park Commission and, during World War II, was appointed by President Roosevelt as National Director of Physical Fitness. His brother Walter C. Kelly was a vaudeville star, who made films for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Paramount Pictures, another named George was a Pulitzer Prize-winning dramatist and director. Kelly's mother Margaret Katherine Majer had German parents. Margaret had taught physical education at the University of Pennsylvania and had been the first woman to coach women's athletics at the institution, she modeled for a time in her youth. After marrying John B. Kelly in 1924, Margaret focused on being a housewife until all her children were of school age, following which she began participating in various civic organizations. Kelly had two older siblings and John Jr. and a younger sister, Elizabeth. The children were raised in the Catholic faith. While attending Ravenhill Academy, a prestigious Catholic girls' school, Kelly modeled fashions at local social events with her mother and sisters.
In 1942, at the age of 12, she played the lead in Don't Feed the Animals, a play produced by the East Falls Old Academy Players. Before graduating in May 1947 from Stevens School, a prominent private institution in Chestnut Hill, a neighborhood of Philadelphia, she acted and danced, her graduation yearbook listed her favorite actress as Ingrid Bergman and her favorite actor as Joseph Cotten. Written in the "Stevens' Prophecy" section was: "Miss Grace P. Kelly – a famous star of stage and screen". Owing to her low mathematics scores, Kelly was rejected by Bennington College in July 1947. Despite her parents' initial disapproval, Kelly decided to pursue her dreams of being an actress. John was displeased with her decision. To start her career, she auditioned for the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York, using a scene from her uncle George Kelly's The Torch-Bearers. Although the school had met its semester quota, she obtained an interview with the admission officer, Emile Diestel, was admitted through the influence of George.
Kelly worked diligently, practiced her speech by using a tape recorder. Her early acting pursuits led her to the stage, she made her Broadway debut in Strindberg's The Father, alongside Raymond Massey. At 19, her graduation performance was as Tracy Lord in The Philadelphia Story. Television producer Delbert Mann cast Kelly as Bethel Merriday in an adaptation of the Sinclair Lewis novel of the same name; as a theatre personality, she was mentioned in Theatre World magazine as: " most promising personality of the Broadway stage of 1950." Some of her well-known works as a theater actress were: The Father, The Rockingham Tea Set, The Apple Tree, The Mirror of Delusion, among others. Success on television brought her a role in a major motion picture. Impressed by her work in The Father, the director of the Twentieth Century-Fox film Fourteen Hours, Henry Hathaway, offered her a small role in the film. Kelly had a minor role, opposite Paul Douglas, Richard Basehart, Barbara Bel Geddes, as a young woman contemplating divorce.
Kelly's co-artist Paul Douglas commented of her acting in this film: "In two senses, she did not have a bad side – you could film her from any an
Head of the Fish
The Head Of The Fish Regatta is a rowing race held on the last weekend of October each year on Fish Creek, within Saratoga County, New York State. The race is named the "Head" of the Fish; the event is hosted by the Saratoga Rowing Association. The race is organized by volunteers. Tom Frost founded the regatta in 1986; the original vision for the regatta was one "that wouldn't take itself too seriously." Protests were forbidden and "timing errors were considered part of the regatta's charm." Winners are awarded lacquered fish heads
College rowing (United States)
Rowing is the oldest intercollegiate sport in the United States. In the 2002–03 school year there were 1,712 male and 6,690 female collegiate rowers, representing just over 2% of total college athletes. Women's college rowing is sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association, whereas men's is not. Other governing bodies of college rowing in the United States are the Intercollegiate Rowing Association and the American Collegiate Rowing Association. 1852 – Yale challenges Harvard to a rowing race and the first Harvard-Yale Boat Race is held. This is the first intercollegiate event held in the United States. Since 1864 this race has been held annually and since 1878, with few exceptions, it has been raced on the Thames River in New London, Connecticut. 1864 – Rowing became the first organized sport at Rutgers. Six mile races were held on the Raritan River among six-oared boats. 1870 – The Rowing Association of American Colleges was established by Bowdoin and Harvard Universities and Massachusetts Agricultural College, now known as the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
The first regatta was held on July 1871, at Ingleside, Massachusetts, on the Connecticut River. This can be considered to be the first collegiate athletic organization in the country and devised a primary rule of eligibility: that only undergraduate students should be eligible to represent their college in the regatta – a rule which remains in the NCAA to this day. 1870 – Rutgers held its first intercollegiate competition on the Raritan River against the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard, the top-ranked amateur crew of the time. The distance of the course was three miles. 1875 – Wellesley College established the first women's rowing program. 1878 – Columbia wins the Visitors' Challenge Cup and becomes the first foreign crew to win at the Henley Royal Regatta. 1891 -The Intercollegiate Rowing Association was founded by Cornell and Pennsylvania: its first annual regatta was hosted on June 24, 1895. Today Navy and Syracuse are members of the association. Cornell dominates the early regattas winning 14 of the first 23 varsity 8 races.
1903– The University of Washington established a men and women's rowing program, beat the University of California in their first dual. 1916 – Lightweight rowing was first introduced at the University of Pennsylvania. 1920 – Navy wins the gold medal at the 1920 Summer Olympics in the 8 man boat. US collegiate boats would win the gold medal in the 8+ at the next 7 Olympics. 1922 – The first Harvard-Yale-Princeton lightweight race is held on May 20. 1923 – Washington is the first team from the west coast to win the varsity 8 title at the IRA regatta. Between 1920 and 1950, California and Washington would dominate college rowing winning 21 of the 25 varsity titles at the IRA and 5 Olympic titles in the eight man boat. 1924 – Yale varsity men's 8 wins Olympic gold in Paris 1928 The University of California varsity men's 8 wins the Olympic Gold medal in Amsterdam. 1932 The University of California varsity men's 8 wins its 2nd Olympic Gold medal in Los Angeles. 1936 – Washington varsity men's 8 wins Olympic gold in Berlin, Germany at the'Nazi games'.
1948 – The University of California varsity men's 8 wins its 3rd Olympic gold at Henley in London. 1946 – The Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges is formed and the first Eastern Sprints is held for lightweights and heavyweights. 1956 – Yale varsity men's 8 wins Olympic gold in Melbourne Australia 1963 – Harry Parker becomes coach of Harvard. 1971 – Collegiate women begin competing in the eight oared boat at the National Women's Rowing Association Championship. 1972 – Congress passes Title IX which leads to large growth in competitive rowing. 1973 – Radcliffe College women's rowing team wins NWRA National Championship. 1975 – The University of Wisconsin women's rowing team wins NWRA National Championship. 1976 – The Yale women's rowing team strips in front of the Yale athletic director to demand equal opportunity under Title IX. The incident makes national headlines; the documentary film, A Hero for Daisy, memorializes this event. 1979 – Yale women's team claims its first national championship as top college finisher at NWRA regatta.
1980 – The first Women's National Collegiate Rowing Championship is held at Oak Ridge, sponsored by the National Women's Rowing Association. 1982 – The only Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women rowing championships was held 1983 – Boston University women's rowing team wins National Championship for a third time. 1986 – The National Women's Rowing Association dissolves and USRowing assumes responsibility as the national governing body for women's rowing. 1997 – The NCAA establishes a rowing championship for women. Washington sweeps the NCAA IRA Regatta. 2002 – The University of California Men's 8 wins its 4th straight IRA Gold medal, the first four-peat since Cornell. 2009 – Washington Sweeps the 8+ Events at the IRA Regatta, becoming the first crew to do so since they did in 1997. They won in the Varsity 8, Second Varsity 8, Freshman 8, open four and placed second in the Varsity 4 2010 – The University of California Men's 8 wins Gold at the IRAs, its 6th in 12 years and 16th overall, second only to Cornell's 22 titles.
2011 – Washington's men's 8 wins gold at the IRAs for the 14th time. 2012 – Washington's men achieve an unprecedented sweep of all five grand finals at the IRAs, setting record times in 2V8, freshmen 8, V4, open 4, as well as its 15th V8 IRA title. As men's rowing is not sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association, the de facto national championship of Division I men's rowing is the Intercollegiate Rowing Association Championships. D
University rowing (UK)
University rowing in the United Kingdom began when it was introduced to Oxford in the late 18th century. The first known race at a university took place at Oxford in 1815 between Brasenose and Jesus and the first inter-university boat race, between Oxford and Cambridge, was rowed on 10 June 1829. Today, many universities have a boat club and at some collegiate universities—Oxford, Cambridge and London—each college has its own club as well as a main university club. In contrast to the Oxford/Cambridge/Durham colleges, London colleges are members of British Universities and Colleges Sport in their own right, thus compete in inter-university competitions. In Scotland, the rowing clubs of Glasgow University and Edinburgh University initiated an annual race in 1877, making this competition the second oldest in the United Kingdom. Competitive university rowing in Northern Ireland began in the 1930s with the formation of Queen's University Belfast Boat Club in 1931, whose first inter-varsity races were a triangular tournament against Glasgow and UCD in 1934–35 and who entered the Wylie Cup from 1937 to 1938.
A 2016 article identified six university clubs which "dominate rowing among higher education institutions": Oxford Brookes, Imperial College, Newcastle and Reading. With the exception of Reading, these are all designated by British Rowing as High Performance Programmes, a scheme that involves Edinburgh as well as three non-university clubs. Most universities compete in the British Universities and Colleges Sport Championships with a number of events over the year. For non-indoor events, boats are separated into Championship and Beginner. On 16 June 2008, BUSA merged to form "BUCS" -- British Universities and Colleges Sport. Events from 2008/09 onwards therefore come under the BUCS banner, rather than BUSA, e.g. BUCS Regatta rather than BUSA regatta. BUCS events contribute "BUCS Points" towards the BUCS championship. Since 2011–12, a breakdown of points by sport has been available; the highest ranked universities in rowing since have been: The Small Boats Head is held in October. The event was introduced in 2006 and first held on the Trent in Nottingham, small boats having competed in the BUSA Championship Head.
The 2007 event, held in December, saw 4s included in the Small Boats Head and Durham compete for the first time, dominating the medal table. In 2008 the event was again held in October but moved to the Witham in Boston, where it now runs in conjunction with the GB Rowing Team 1st Senior/U23 Assessment; the 2012 head saw Durham's dominance broken as, with only the double sculls racing, Imperial topped the medal table with a single gold, a silver and a bronze. Imperial won again the following year, with only the single sculls racing. Note that as the Small Boats Head is an autumn event, the 4s and 8s Head and Regatta from the same BUCS season are held on the following year, e.g. the 2015 Small Boats Head is part of the 2015–16 BUCS season along with the 2016 4s and 8s Head and the 2016 Regatta. BUCS Rowing and British Rowing have managed an annual autumn indoor rowing series at a number of universities and other centres across the UK since 2010, when it started with 11 centres and ran from late November to mid December.
In 2016, thirteen centres hosted events from late October to the end of November. This is a 5 kilometres head race, run in February or March since 2003; the event grew becoming the largest university heads race in the world by 2007, despite the small boats being split into a separate head after the 2006 event. It was held on the River Trent in Nottingham until 2009, when the decision was made to move the event to the River Nene in Peterborough, to split the competition into 2 separate days, with Beginners racing over a shorter 3 kilometres course on one day, Seniors racing on the longer course on the other. However, due to inclement weather, the event was cancelled; the event was again held in Peterborough in 2010, 2011 and 2012, was due to be held there in 2013. However, due to flooding, the event was moved to Boston that year, with Newcastle topping the medal table; the 2014 event was cancelled due to bad weather, It was held in Boston again in 2015, with racing on Saturday only for the intermediate and championship crews.
Newcastle topped the medal table and won the men's Victor Ludorum while Durham, who were second in the medal table, took the women's Victor Ludorum and the overall Victor Ludorum. In 2015, BUCS sought a new host for a three-year period; the event subsequently moved to the Tyne, hosted by Tyne United Rowing Club, Tyne Amateur Rowing Club and Newcastle University Boat Club in 2016. Newcastle won both the overall and men's Victor Ludorum, with Edinburgh winning the women's Victor Ludorm; the first day of the 2017 event on the Tyne, had to be cancelled due to poor weather, but the second day went ahead, with London topping the medal table and taking the Victor Ludorum. The 2018 event saw separate men's and women's Victor Ludorum awards, with London taking the women's peruse and Newcastle taking the men's. From 2019, the event will be held for three years on the Gloucester and Sharpness Canal, hosted by the University of Bristol, Hartpury University Centre and Gloucester Rowing Club. A 2 km regatta held over the May Day weekend.
Points for the Victor Ludor
St. Catharines is the largest city in Canada's Niagara Region and the sixth largest urban area in Ontario, with 96.13 square kilometres of land and 133,113 residents in 2016. It lies in Southern Ontario, 51 kilometres south of Toronto across Lake Ontario, is 19 kilometres inland from the international boundary with the United States along the Niagara River, it is the northern entrance of the Welland Canal. Residents of St. Catharines are known as St. Cathariners. St. Catharines carries the official nickname "The Garden City" due to its 1,000 acres of parks and trails. St. Catharines is between the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area and the Canada–U. S. Border at Fort Erie. Manufacturing is the city's dominant industry, as noted by the heraldic motto, "Industry and Liberality". General Motors of Canada, Ltd. the Canadian subsidiary of General Motors, was the city's largest employer, a distinction now held by the District School Board of Niagara. THK Rhythm Automotive TRW, operates a plant in the city, though in recent years employment there has shifted from heavy industry and manufacturing to services.
St. Catharines lies on one of the main telecommunications backbones between Canada and the United States, as a result a number of call centres operate in the city, it is designated an Urban Growth Centre by the Growth Plan for the Greater Golden Horseshoe, intended to achieve a minimum density target of 150 jobs and residents combined per hectare by 2031 or earlier. The city was first settled by Loyalists in the 1780s; the Crown granted them land in compensation for losses in the United States. Early histories credit Serjeant Jacob Dittrick and Private John Hainer of Butler's Rangers, as among the first to come to the area, they took their Crown Patents where Dick's Creek and 12 Mile Creek merge, now the city centre of St. Catharines. Although never documented, some local St. Catharines historians speculate that Dick's Creek was named after Richard Pierpoint, a Black Loyalist and former American slave. Secondary to water routes, native trails provided transportation networks, resulting in the present-day radial road pattern from the City centre.
The surrounding land was surveyed and Townships created between 1787 and 1789. After the Butler's Rangers disbanded in 1784 and settled the area, Duncan Murray as a former Quartermaster in the 84th Regiment of Foot was appointed by the Crown to distribute free Government supplies for 2 years to the resettled Loyalists, he did this from his mill, built on the 12 Mile Creek in Power Glen. After his death in 1786, his holdings were forfeited to merchant Robert Hamilton of Queenston. Hamilton tried to operate for profit the well-established Murray's Distribution Centre and Mill under the management of his cousin. Among other ventures, Hamilton became land wealthy, expropriating lands from subsistence Loyalist settlers who were incapable of settling their debts. Murray's distribution centre Hamilton's warehouse, its location have long been a mystery. Hamilton's major profits were derived from transhipping supplies for the military and civic establishments from his Queenston enterprise, not from charitably supplying the subsistence Loyalist settlers.
Hamilton lacked interest in social development and sold his business to Jesse Thompson before the turn of the 18th century. The small settlement was known as "The Twelve" and as "Murray's District" to military and civic officials, but the local residents in 1796 and earlier referred to it as St. Catharines; this is confirmed in St. Catharines’ first history, written by J. P. Merritt: "to be accurate the name St. Catharines preceded all of these..."The Merritt family arrived after this time, among the Loyalists to relocate following the American Revolution. They were from New York state and New Brunswick. In 1796, Thomas Merritt arrived to build on his relationship with his former Commander and Queen's Ranger, John Graves Simcoe, now the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada. At an unknown early date, an inn was built by Thomas Adams on the east side of what is now Ontario Street, it became a community meeting place, election centre, stagecoach stop, mail delivery deposit. This was preceded by the church and a log school house completed before 1797, all on the east bank of the 12 Mile Creek at the extreme west end of what was known at that time as Main Street.
This was an extension of the old Iroquois Trail and was renamed St. Paul Street by the settlers and descendant by the mid-19th century. Several mills, salt works, numerous retail outlets, a ship building yard and various other businesses were developed next; the first Welland Canal was constructed from 1824 to 1833 behind what is now known as St. Paul Street, using Twelve Mile and Dick's Creek. William Hamilton Merritt worked to promote the ambitious venture, both by raising funds and by enlisting government support; the canal established St. Catharines as the hub of industry for the Niagara Peninsula. Incorporated as a village in 1845, St. Catharines had a population of about 3500 in 1846; the primary industry was flour milling. Other industry included ship repairs, four grist mills, a brewery, three distilleries, a tannery, a foundry, a machine and pump factory. There were tradesmen of many types, three bank agencies, eight taverns; the train had not yet arrived but stage coaches offered service to other towns and villages.
There were six churches or chapels, a post office that received mail daily, a grammar school and a weekly newspaper. William Hamilton Merritt played a role in making St. Catharines a centre of abolitionist activity. In 1855, the British Methodist Episcopal Church, Salem Chapel was established at the
Scottish Rowing the Scottish Amateur Rowing Association, is the governing body for the sport of rowing in Scotland. It is responsible for promoting the sport in Scotland and for selecting crews to send to the Home International Regatta and the Commonwealth Rowing Championships. In addition, Scottish Rowing runs three of the major regattas of the year, Strathclyde Park Regatta, the Scottish Rowing Championships and the Scottish Indoor Rowing Championships. Aberdeen Boat Club Aberdeen Schools Rowing Association Aberdeen University Boat Club Castle Semple Rowing Club Clyde Amateur Rowing Club Clydesdale Amateur Rowing Club Crichton University Campus Boat Club Dundee University Boat Club Edinburgh University Boat Club George Heriots School Rowing Club George Watsons College Rowing Club Glasgow Academy Boat Club Glasgow Rowing Club Glasgow Schools Rowing Association Glasgow University Boat Club Heriot-Watt University Boat Club Inverness Rowing Club Loch Lomond Rowing Club Nithsdale Amateur Rowing Club Robert Gordon University Boat Club St Andrew Boat Club Stirling Rowing Club Stirling University Boat Club Strathclyde Park Rowing Club Strathclyde University Boat Club University of St Andrews Boat Club Within the senior category of racing, depending on the average number of racing points of the crew, or the number of points of the rower, a rower may compete in a number of categories: Novice, Restricted 2, Restricted 1, Open.
There are a number of junior categories. The number represents the age competitors must be less than before the first day of September preceding the event. A rower is eligible to compete at masters level from the year. Once a rower turns 27 they can race in the category Masters A, the categories change as the crew age increases. A lightweight male is one whose individual weight does not exceed 72.5 kg and a lightweight female is one whose individual weight does not exceed 59 kg. Scottish Rowing, funded by sportscotland, invests into a number of university-based rowing programmes with a view to supporting the development of talented Under 23 rowers; the universities on this programme have made a commitment to work in partnership with Scottish Rowing to establish a high performance programme led by a full-time professional rowing coach and supported by first class support services. Admission to the rowing programme at these universities is based on merit and entry is not restricted to students.
A significant focus of the rowing programme is on talent identification and development working with the GB Rowing Team Start programme. Scottish Rowing invests in the following university rowing programmes: University of Aberdeen / Robert Gordon University University of Edinburgh University of Glasgow Scottish Rowing Scottish Rowing Scottish Rowing