Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic
Hyperinflation affected the German Papiermark, the currency of the Weimar Republic, between 1921 and 1923. It caused considerable internal political instability in the country, the occupation of the Ruhr by France and Belgium as well as misery for the general populace. To pay for the large costs of the ongoing First World War, Germany suspended the gold standard when the war broke out. Unlike the French Third Republic, which imposed its first income tax to pay for the war, German Emperor Wilhelm II and the German parliament decided unanimously to fund the war by borrowing, a decision criticized by financial experts such as Hjalmar Schacht as a dangerous risk for currency devaluation; the government believed that it would be able to pay off the debt by winning the war, when it would be able to annex resource-rich industrial territory in the west and east. It would be able to impose massive reparations on the defeated Allies; the exchange rate of the mark against the US dollar thus devalued from 4.2 to 7.9 marks per dollar, a preliminary to the extreme postwar inflation.
The strategy failed. The new Weimar Republic was saddled with a massive war debt; that was worsened by the fact. The Treaty of Versailles, with its demand for reparations, further accelerated the decline in the value of the mark, so that 48 paper marks were required to buy a US dollar by late 1919. German currency was stable at about 90 marks per dollar during the first half of 1921; because the WWI Western Front had been in France and Belgium, Germany came out of the war with most of its industrial infrastructure intact. It was in a better position to become the dominant economic force on the European continent. In April 1921, the Reparations Commission announced the "London payment plan", under which Germany would pay reparations in gold or foreign currency in annual installments of 2 billion gold marks, plus 26% of the value of Germany's exports; the first payment was made when it came due in June 1921. It marked the beginning of an rapid devaluation of the mark, which fell in value to 330 marks per dollar.
The total reparations demanded were 132 billion gold marks, but Germany had to pay only 50 billion marks. Since reparations were required to be repaid in hard currency, not the depreciating paper mark, one strategy that Germany used was the mass printing of bank notes to buy foreign currency, used to pay reparations exacerbating the inflation of the paper mark. Late in 1922, Germany failed to pay France an installment of reparations on time, France responded in January 1923 by sending troops to occupy the Ruhr, Germany's main industrial region; the German government ordered a policy of passive resistance in the Ruhr. Workers were told to do nothing. What this meant in practice was a general strike, but all the workers on strike had to be given financial support. The government paid its way by printing more banknotes. Germany was soon awash with paper money; the result was a hyperinflation. A loaf of bread that in Berlin cost around 160 Marks at the end of 1922 cost 200,000,000,000 Marks less than a year From August 1921, Germany began to buy foreign currency with marks at any price, but that only increased the speed of breakdown in the value of the mark.
As the mark sank in international markets and more marks were required to buy the foreign currency, demanded by the Reparations Commission. In the first half of 1922, the mark stabilized at about 320 marks per dollar. International reparations conferences were being held. One, in June 1922, was organized by Jr.. The meetings produced no workable solution, inflation erupted into hyperinflation, the mark falling to 7,400 marks per US dollar by December 1922; the cost-of-living index was 41 in June 1922 and 685 in a 15-fold increase. By fall 1922, Germany found itself unable to make reparations payments; the mark was by now worthless, making it impossible for Germany to buy foreign exchange or gold using paper marks. Instead, reparations were to be paid in goods such as coal. In January 1923, French and Belgian troops occupied the industrial region of Germany in the Ruhr valley to ensure reparations payments. Inflation was exacerbated when workers in the Ruhr went on a general strike and the German government printed more money to continue paying for their passive resistance.
By November 1923, the US dollar was worth 4,210,500,000,000 German marks. The hyperinflation crisis led prominent economists and politicians to seek a means to stabilize German currency. In August 1923, an economist, Karl Helfferich, proposed a plan to issue a new currency, the "Roggenmark", to be backed by mortgage bonds indexed to the market price of rye grain; the plan was rejected because of the fluctuating price of rye in paper marks. Agriculture Minister Hans Luther proposed a plan that substituted gold for rye and led to the issuance of the Rentenmark, backed by bonds indexed to the market price of gold; the gold bonds were indexed at the rate of 2790 gold marks per kilogram of gold, the same as the pre-war gold marks. Rentenmarks were not redeemable in gold but only indexed to the gold bonds; the plan was adopted in monetary reform decrees, on October 13–15, 1923. A new bank, the Rentenbank, was controlled by new German Finance Minister Hans Luther. After November 12, 1923, when Hjalmar Schacht became currency commissioner, Germany's central bank was not allowed to discoun
Skansen is the first open-air museum and zoo in Sweden and is located on the island Djurgården in Stockholm, Sweden. It was opened on 11 October 1891 by Artur Hazelius to show the way of life in the different parts of Sweden before the industrial era; the name "Skansen" has been used as a noun to refer to other open-air museums and collections of historic structures in Central and Eastern Europe, but in the United States, e.g. Old World Wisconsin and Fairplay, Colorado; the 19th century was a period of great change throughout Europe, Sweden was no exception. Its rural way of life was giving way to an industrialised society and many feared that the country's many traditional customs and occupations might be lost to history. Artur Hazelius, who had founded the Nordic Museum on the island of Djurgården near the centre of Stockholm, was inspired by the open-air museum, founded by King Oscar II in Kristiania in 1881, when he created his open-air museum on the hill that dominates the island. Skansen became the model for other early open-air museums in Scandinavia and ones elsewhere.
Skansen was a part of the Nordic Museum, but became an independent organisation in 1963. The objects within the Skansen buildings are still the property of the Nordic Museum. After extensive travelling, Hazelius bought around 150 houses from all over the country and had them shipped piece by piece to the museum, where they were rebuilt to provide a unique picture of traditional Sweden. Only three of the buildings in the museum are not original, were painstakingly copied from examples he had found. All of the buildings are open to visitors and show the full range of Swedish life from the Skogaholm Manor house built in 1680, to the 16th century Älvros farmhouses. Skansen attracts more than 1.3 million visitors each year. The many exhibits over the 75 acre site include a full replica of an average 19th-century town, in which craftsmen in traditional dress such as tanners, silversmiths and glass-blowers demonstrate their skills in period surroundings. There is a small patch growing tobacco used for the making of cigarettes.
There is an open-air zoo containing a wide range of Scandinavian animals including the bison, brown bear, grey seal, otter, red fox, reindeer and wolverine. There are farmsteads where rare breeds of farm animals can be seen. In early December the site's central Bollnäs square is host to a popular Christmas market, held since 1903, attracting around 25,000 visitors each weekend. In the summer there are displays of folk dancing and concerts. Since 1897, Skansen has been served by the Skansens Bergbana, a funicular railway on the northwest side of the Skansen hill; the funicular is 196.4 meters long, with a total rise of 34.57 meters. Skansen is served by modern and vintage trams on line 7. Culture in Stockholm Royal National City Park Official website Andy Carvin's Skansen Gallery Skansen-akvariet Panoramic virtual tour of brown bear enclosure at Skansen The Skansen Funicular Railway
Prins Eugens Waldemarsudde, is a museum located on Djurgården in central Stockholm. The name is composed of Waldemar, an Old German noble male name, udde, meaning cape, it is derived from a historical name of the island Djurgården, Valmundsö It was the former home of the Swedish Prince Eugen, who discovered the place in 1892, when he rented a house there for a few days. Seven years he bought the premises and had a new house designed by the architect Ferdinand Boberg, who designed Rosenbad, erected 1903–1904. Prince Eugen had been educated as a painter in Paris and after his death the house was converted to a museum of his own and others paintings; the prince is buried by the beach close to the house. The complex consists of a castle-like main building—the Mansion—completed in 1905, the Gallery Building, added in 1913; the estate includes the original manor-house building, known as the Old House and an old linseed mill, both dating back to the 1780s. The estate is set in parkland which features centuries-old oak trees and reflects the prince's interest for gardening and flower arrangement.
The Art Nouveau interior, including the tiled stoves, by Boberg are designed in a Gustavian style and makes good use of both the panoramic view of the inlet to Stockholm and the light resulting from the elevated location of the building. Culture in Stockholm Bengt O H Johansson. "Ytterstaden". Guide till Stockholms arkitektur. Stockholm: Arkitektur Förlag AB. p. 175. ISBN 91-86050-41-9. Media related to Waldemarsudde at Wikimedia Commons Prince Eugen's Waldemarsudde Prins Eugens Waldemarsudde, swedishgardens.se
Hamn is a battlefield museum in Fisksätra, Nacka Municipality, near Stockholm, Sweden about the Battle of Stäket on 13 August 1719 when Russian force, circumventing Vaxholm Castle, attempted to pass through Baggensstäket, a narrow passage in the Stockholm archipelago. After a desperate counterattack by Södermanlands regemente the Russian force departed, it is debated. The museum was founded as a result of a still ongoing archaeological research project. In 2003, the project “Battlefield Archaeology by Stäket” was formed, consented by the Swedish National Heritage Board, the County Government and Nacka Municipality. Databases and maps etc. were studied and a reference group with scholars was formed. In spring 2004 sample examinations on the southern side, by the so-called Marsh Meadow, were initiated. During the years 2004-2010, the last five of which under the management of the Swedish National heritage Board, the battlefields were examined by the Baggensstäket inlet; the battlefields got classified as “ancient monuments”, the battlefield on the southern side was the first of its kind to be classified as such.
In total, 735000 m2 have been scanned and about 1300 objects of antiquarian and culturally historical value have been found. In June 2010, the project with the museum HAMN, financed by Nacka Municipality and the EU, was initiated. Today, a book project about the southern side of the Battle of Stäket with results from ten years of research, is ongoing
Biological museum (Stockholm)
Biologiska museet is a museum located in Djurgården in Stockholm. It exhibits a collection of stuffed European mammals in dioramas; some of the diorama backgrounds were created by artist Bruno Liljefors, known for his dramatic paintings of Scandinavian wildlife. The museum was built in 1893 after a design by architect Agi Lindegren, inspired by medieval Norwegian stave churches. Museums in Stockholm Official homepage
Swedish History Museum
The Swedish History Museum is a museum located in Stockholm, that covers Swedish archaeology and cultural history from the Mesolithic period to present day. Founded in 1866, it operates as a government agency and is tasked with preserving Swedish historical items as well as making knowledge about history available to the public; the origin of the museum is the collections of art and historical objects gathered by Swedish monarchs since the 16th century. It has a number of permanent exhibitions and annually hosts special exhibitions tied to current events; the History Museum is part of a central museum agency called the Statens historiska museer. Other institutions under the aegis of this agency are the Royal Coin Cabinet, the Tumba Papermill Museum and the Swedish Archaeology Commission; the museum is one of five so called ansvarsmuseum in Sweden. It is tasked with coordinating activities between museums, assist other museums and develop contacts between museums and other parts of the Swedish community.
The foundation for what was to become the History Museum and the Nationalmuseum, was King Gustav Vasa's 16th century art collection at Gripsholm Castle. The collection grew through acquisitions and spoils of war during the time of the Swedish Empire; some of the collections were lost during the fire in the Tre Kronor castle. During the part of the 18th century and antiquities were bought by ambassadors and members of the royal family and collected at Stockholm Palace. After the death of King Gustaf III in 1792, the collections were turned over to the Swedish government; that same year the Royal Museum opened in the palace. It was one of the first public museums in the world. In 1846–47, the museum moved from the palace to the Ridderstolp House at Skeppsbron where it resided until 1865 and the move to Nationalmuseum. Swedish archaeologist Stig Welinder argues that the History Museum was in fact founded with its establishment in the Ridderstolp House in 1847; the present-day museum was founded in 1866 by Bror Emil Hildebrand, director of its predecessor both at Stockholm Palace and Ridderstolp House.
The collections of the museum were exhibited on the ground floor of the built Nationalmuseum. The premises soon became too small for both museums; when plans for the new Nordic Museum building were made in 1876, it was suggested that the building should include the History Museum's collections. The debate about housing for the History Museum continued for decades until Sigurd Curman became Custodian of Ancient Monuments and head of the Swedish National Heritage Board on 3 July 1923, he moved the issue forward to a more permanent solution. The main objective for a new and sufficiently large building for the museum was to bring order to the collections called "The Chaos" while the unpublished research papers were referred to as "the corf". In 1929, the Swedish government suggested that the former military barracks and stables at Storgatan in the city block known as the Krubban, could be allocated to the museum. An architectural competition was held in 1930, for the proposed conversion of the block into suitable accommodation for the museum.
No winner was declared, instead it was elements from the runner-up suggestion, made by architects Bengt Romare and George Scherman with engineer Gösta Nilsson, that became the starting point for the remodeling of the area. They developed the design for the new museum in cooperation with Curman, the National Property Board and the National Heritage Board. In 1932, the Swedish government granted funds for construction of official buildings to create jobs during the depression; some of these were used to build the museum in 1934–39. The plans for the museum were not finalized until 1936; the main building, designed by Romare and Scherman 1935–1940, reflects an ambivalence between the predominant modern style of the era and the historical context given not only by the context requirements, but the 19th century barracks and stables south of the museum designed by Fredrik Blom and built in stages in 1805–1818, starting one year after the land had been appropriated by the government. The barracks are neoclassicist in style and the repetitive façades used to be exposed to Ladugårdslandsviken, part of Stockholm's main harbor up until the 19th century, while the main building forms a compact block taking a step backwards from the street to leave space for a forecourt.
The museum consists of four two- and three-story block-like buildings surrounding an inner courtyard, giving it the appearance of a fortress. The façade is austere and decorated with sculptures made by Bror Marklund and reliefs by artist Robert Nilsson. In the courtyard by a pool is a sculpture called Näcken by Carl Frisendahl. Most of the decorations of the museum were selected through a series of competitions. In 1938, Marklund won the competition for creating the main entrance to the museum; the doors, called The Gates of History, took him thirteen years to make. They were finished and inaugurated in 1952; the doors were financed by philanthropist Eva Bonnier's foundation. The doors weighs about 1 t each. Made of bronze, they were first cast at the Herman Bergman foundry and chased by Marklund. Through a series of ten fields, the doors depict the history of Sweden from the Stone Age to the Middle Ages; the left door represents the Pagan era with Odin as a central figure, while the right door depicts Ansgar and the Christian era.
A noted deviation from the historical theme, is the depiction of a standard
The Vasa Museum is a maritime museum in Stockholm, Sweden. Located on the island of Djurgården, the museum displays the only fully intact 17th century ship, salvaged, the 64-gun warship Vasa that sank on her maiden voyage in 1628; the Vasa Museum opened in 1990 and, according to the official web site, is the most visited museum in Scandinavia. Together with other museums such as the Stockholm Maritime Museum, it belongs to the Swedish National Maritime Museums. From the beginning of 1961 to 1988, Vasa was housed in a temporary structure called Wasavarvet where she was treated with polyethylene glycol. Visitors could only view the ship from two levels and the maximum distance was only 5 m. In 1981, the Swedish government decided that a permanent Vasa museum was to be constructed and a competition for the design of the museum building was organized. A total of 384 architects sent in models of their ideas and the final winners were Marianne Jakobbäck and Göran Månsson with Ask; the construction of the new building began on and around the dry dock of the old naval yard with an inauguration ceremony hosted by Prince Bertil on 2 November 1987.
Vasa was towed into the flooded dry dock under the new building in December 1987, during the summer of 1989, when visitors were allowed onto the construction site, 228,000 people visited the half-finished museum. The museum was opened on 15 June 1990. So far, Vasa has been seen by over 25 million people. In 2017, the museum had a total of 1,495,760 visitors; the main hall contains the ship itself, various exhibits related to the archaeological findings of the ships and early 17th-century Sweden. Vasa has been fitted with the lower sections of all three masts, a new bowsprit, winter rigging, has had certain parts that were missing or damaged replaced; the replacement parts have not been treated or painted and are therefore visible against the original material, darkened after three centuries under water. The new museum is dominated by a large copper roof with stylized masts that represent the actual height of Vasa when she was rigged. Parts of the building are covered in wooden panels painted in dark red, tar black, ochre yellow and dark green.
The interior is decorated, with large sections of bare, unpainted concrete, including the entire ceiling. Inside the museum the ship can be seen from six levels, from her keel to the top of the sterncastle. Around the ship are numerous exhibits and models portraying the construction, sinking and recovery of the ship. There are exhibits that expand on the history of Sweden in the 17th century, providing background information for why the ship was built. A movie theatre shows a film in alternating languages on the recovery of the Vasa; the museum is in the process of publishing an 8-volume archaeological report to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the salvage. Vasa I: The Archaeology of a Swedish Warship of 1628 was published at the end of 2006. Subsequent volumes will be published annually; the museum features four other museum ships moored in the harbour outside: the ice breaker Sankt Erik, the lightvessel Finngrundet, the torpedo boat Spica and the rescue boat Bernhard Ingelsson. Beckholmen Kvarning, Lars-Åke and Ohrelius, Bengt The Vasa - The Royal Ship ISBN 91-7486-581-1 Annual report of 2008 from Statens maritima museer Vasa Museum homepage