Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Vesterbrogade is the main shopping street of the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. The 1.5 km long street runs from the City Hall Square in the east to Pile Allé in Frederiksberg in the west where it turns into Roskildevej, on its way, it passes Copenhagen Central Station as well as the small triangular square Vesterbros Torv. It is one of four such -bro streets, the other being Nørrebrogade, Østerbrogade and Amagerbrogade, vesterbroghade originates in the 12th-century country road that led in and out of Copenhagens Western City Gate. The road passed Sankt Jørgens Bæk on its way to Valby, on 20 August 1624, Christian IV ordered that the road be cobbled, first to Vernedamsvej and all the way to Valby. The road was at this point called Alvejen (The Public Road= or Adelvejen and it is one of four such -bro streets. New buildings began to long the street in the 1850s. In 1866–67, Vesterbrogade was extended in a line from Tivoli to the Haymarket. The first section of the street, between the Vity Hall Square and the new Central Central Station, was out as a broad.
Among the buildings that were built along it, including Industriforeningens new Exhibition Building from 1872, at the turn of the 20th century, Vesterbros Passage was the backbone in a westward expansion of Copenhagens city centre. Most of the old buildings were replaced by new and larger ones over the course of the next decades, industriens Hus is the headquarters of the Confederation of Danish Industries. An expansion and complete make-over of the building was completed in 2013, next to the building is the main entrance of Tivoli Gardens. Saxo Towers, a complex consisting of four interconnected culinders, is currently under construction on the other side of the street. Axelborg, originally a building, now contains the headquarters of the Danish Agriculture. The former SAS Royal Hotel, now operated by Radison Blu, was designed by Arne Jacobsen and his Egg and Swan chairs were designed for the building. AArbejdernes Landsbank has their headquarters in the so-called Panoptikon Building at No.5, the small Savoy Hotel, known as Løvenborg, is one of the earliest examples of the art nouveau style in Copenhagen.
The building was designed by Anton Rosen who a few years designed the two buildings that flank thDet Ny Teater in the same style. The Association of Danish Law Firms is based at No.32, the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Societys former main building at No.59 is from 1780s. It now houses the Museum of Copenhagen, the former Vesterbro Pharmacy was built in 1853 to design by P. C
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Klampenborg is a northern suburb to Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located in Gentofte Municipality, directly on Øresund, between Taarbæk and Skovshoved, like other neighbourhoods along the Øresund coast, Klampenborg is an affluent area with many large houses. Klampenborg is known for a cluster of building projects by the Functionalist Danish architect Arne Jacobsen and these include Bellevue Beach, the Bellavista housing estate and the Bellevue Theatre, all completed between 1932–36 as some of the earliest Danish examples of Modernism. The area includes a Jacobsen-designed restaurant, now called Jacobsen, Klampenborg is the main gateway to the extensive Deer Garden forest park, one of the most popular natural areas in the Copenhagen area, known for its large deer population and ancient oak trees. The entrance, one of many, is located next to Klampenborg Station and is marked by a red-painted wooden gate. In connection with the lies the oldest operating amusement park in the world, Dyrehavsbakken
Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark
Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark, Count of Monpezat, RE, SKmd is the heir apparent to the throne of Denmark. Frederik is the son of Queen Margrethe II and Henrik. At the time of his birth, his grandfather was on the throne of Denmark. He was christened on 24 June 1968, at Holmens Kirke and he was named Frederik after his maternal grandfather, King Frederick IX, continuing the Danish royal tradition of the heir apparent being named either Frederick or Christian. His middle names honour his paternal grandfather, André de Laborde de Monpezat, his father, Prince Henrik and he became Crown Prince of Denmark when his mother succeeded to the throne as Margrethe II on 14 January 1972. Frederick attended primary school at Krebs Skole during the years 1974–1981, from 1974–1976 as a pupil at Amalienborg Palace. In the period 1982–1983, he was a boarder at École des Roches in Normandy, in 1986, Frederik graduated from the upper secondary school of Øregaard Gymnasium. In addition he is fluent in French and German, in 1989, began to study for an academic degree, when he began a course in Political Science at Aarhus University.
This included a year at Harvard University under the name of Frederik Henriksen and he took up a position for three months with the Danish UN mission in New York in 1994. In 1995, he obtained his MSc degree in Political Science from Aarhus University and he completed the course in the prescribed number of years with an exam result above average. His final paper was an analysis on the policy of the Baltic States. The prince was posted as First Secretary to the Danish Embassy in Paris from October 1998 to October 1999, Frederick has completed extensive military studies and training in all three services, notably completing education as a sailor in the naval elite special operations forces. In the period 2001 and 2002, he completed training for leaders at the Royal Danish Defence College. Reconnaissance Platoon Commander with the Royal Guard Hussars’ Regiment 1988, First Lieutenant in the Reserve 1989. First Lieutenant in the Reserve 1995, Lieutenant Commander in the Reserve 1997. Royal Danish Air Force Flying School 2000 Captain in the Reserve 2000, Command and General Staff Course, Royal Danish Defence College 2001–2002.
Staff Officer, Defence Command Denmark 2002–2003, senior lecturer with the Institute of Strategy at the Royal Danish Defence College, 2003–. Commander, senior grade, lieutenant colonel 2004, the wedding took place on 14 May 2004 at Copenhagen Cathedral, Copenhagen
Margrethe II of Denmark
Margrethe II is the Queen of Denmark. She is the authority of the Church of Denmark. Born into the House of Glücksburg, a house with origins in Northern Germany, she was the eldest child of Frederick IX of Denmark. She succeeded her father upon his death on 14 January 1972, having had become heir presumptive to her father in 1953, on her accession, Margrethe became the first female monarch of Denmark since Margaret I, ruler of the Scandinavian countries in 1375–1412 during the Kalmar Union. Having been on the Danish throne for 45 years, she is the second longest-reigning Danish monarch after her ancestor Christian IV, in 1967, she married Henri de Laborde de Monpezat, with whom she has two sons, Crown Prince Frederik and Prince Joachim. Princess Margrethe was born 16 April 1940 at Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen as the first child of Crown Prince Frederick, King Frederick IX and Crown Princess Ingrid and her birth took place just one week after Nazi Germanys invasion of Denmark on 9 April 1940.
She was baptised on 14 May in the Church of Holmen in Copenhagen, since her paternal grandfather was the King of Iceland, she was given an Icelandic name, Þórhildur. When Margrethe was four years old, in 1944, her first sister, Princess Benedikte married Prince Richard of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg and lives some of the time in Germany. Her second sister Princess Anne Marie was born in 1946, anne-Marie married Constantine II of Greece and now lives in Greece. Margrethe and her sisters grew up in apartments at Frederick VIIIs Palace at Amalienborg in Copenhagen and she spent summer holidays with the royal family in her parents summer residence at Gråsten Palace in Southern Jutland. On 20 April 1947, King Christian X died and Margrethes father ascended the throne as King Frederick IX. At the time of her birth, only males could ascend the throne of Denmark, as she had no brothers, it was assumed that her uncle Prince Knud would one day assume the throne. The process of changing the constitution started in 1947, not long after her father ascended the throne, the popularity of Frederick and his daughters and the more prominent role of women in Danish life started the complicated process of altering the constitution.
The law required that the proposal be passed by two successive Parliaments and by a referendum, which occurred 27 March 1953, Princess Margrethe therefore became heir presumptive. On her eighteenth birthday,16 April 1958, Margrethe was given a seat in the Council of State and she subsequently chaired the meetings of the Council in the absence of the King. Margrethe was educated at the private school N. Zahles School in Copenhagen from which she graduated in 1959 and she is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London. Queen Margrethe is fluent in Danish, English and German, Princess Margrethe married a French diplomat, Count Henri de Laborde de Monpezat,10 June 1967, at the Church of Holmen in Copenhagen. Laborde de Monpezat received the style and title of His Royal Highness Prince Henrik of Denmark because of his new position as the spouse of the heir presumptive to the Danish throne, Margrethe gave birth to her first child 26 May 1968
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Fortifications of Copenhagen
The fortifications of Copenhagen is the broad name for the rings of fortifications surrounding the city of Copenhagen. This stood for 200 years until it was destroyed by the Hanse in 1369 and it was replaced in 1417 by the Copenhagen Castle built by the bishop, but taken over by the king, Eric of Pomerania. The ruins of both castles are visible to the public view under the Christiansborg Palace. The city was fortified by Christian IV in the mid 17th century. To the west the city was protected by a series of ramparts and bastions northwards from the Indrehavn, the remains of these works can be seen in the parks at Tivoli, Ørstedsparken, the Botanical Garden and Østre Anlæg. To the north, at the end of the wall, a fort was built, to the east land was reclaimed from the sea to enclose the harbour, this land was fortified with a rampart and ditch and a series of bastions. This now forms the district of Christianshavn, the most recent fortification of Copenhagen dates from the late 19th century. To the west was a ring consisting of a rampart and ditch, with numerous bastions.
To the north, beyond a line of inundations around Utterslev Mose, lie 5 detached land forts, a third, outer line was added fifteen years later. The design of the forts was guided by the principles of Brialmont, the group of new coastal forts were constructed at the beginning of World War I. These were, Taarbæk Fort, connecting to the northern line, Flakfortet, at sea beyond Middelgrundsfortet. The Fortifications of Copenhagen, A Guide to 900 Years of Fortification History, The National Forest and Nature Agency, The Ministry of Environment and Energy 1998