Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden
Carl XVI Gustaf is the King of Sweden. He ascended the throne on the death of his grandfather, King Gustaf VI Adolf, on 15 September 1973, he is the youngest child and only son of Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten, Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. His father died on 26 January 1947 in an airplane crash in Denmark when Carl Gustaf was nine months old. Upon his father's death, he became second in line to the throne, after his grandfather, the Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf. Following the death of King Gustaf V in 1950, Gustaf Adolf ascended the throne and thus Carl Gustaf became Sweden's new crown prince and heir apparent to the throne at the age of four. A short while after he became king in 1973, the new 1974 Instrument of Government took effect, formally stripping Carl XVI Gustaf of any role in the legislative process, several other duties accorded to a head of state, such as the formal appointment of the prime minister, signing off legislation, being commander-in-chief of the nation's military.
The new instrument explicitly limits the king to ceremonial functions and, among other things, to be informed of affairs of state. As head of the House of Bernadotte Carl Gustaf has been able to make a number of government-supported decisions about the titles and positions of its members; the king's heir apparent, after passage on 1 January 1980 of a new law establishing absolute primogeniture, is Crown Princess Victoria, the eldest child of the King and his wife, Queen Silvia. Before the passage of that law, Crown Princess Victoria's younger brother, Prince Carl Philip, was the heir apparent, as of his birth in May 1979. Carl XVI Gustaf is the longest-reigning monarch in Swedish history, having surpassed King Magnus IV's reign of 44 years and 222 days on 26 April 2018. Carl Gustaf was born on 30 April 1946 at 10:20 in Haga Palace in Stockholm County, he was the youngest of five children and the only son of Sweden's Prince Gustaf Adolf and Princess Sibylla. He was christened at the Royal Chapel on 7 June 1946 by the Archbishop of Erling Eidem.
He was baptised in Charles XI's baptismal font, which stood on Gustav III's carpet and he lay in Charles XI's cradle with Oscar II's crown beside him. The same christening gown in white linen batiste which the prince carried had been worn by his father in 1906 and would be worn by his three children, his godparents were the Crown Prince and Crown Princess of Denmark, the Crown Prince of Norway, Princess Juliana of the Netherlands, the King of Sweden, the Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the Crown Prince and Crown Princess of Sweden, Count Folke and Countess Maria Bernadotte af Wisborg. Prince Carl Gustaf was given the title of the Duke of Jämtland, his father, Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten was killed in an airplane crash on 26 January 1947, at Copenhagen Airport. His father's death had left the nine-month-old prince second in line for the throne, behind his grandfather Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf; when his paternal great-grandfather Gustaf V died in 1950, the four-year-old prince became the heir apparent of Sweden.
Carl Gustaf was seven years old before he was told about his father's death, he expressed his feelings about growing up without knowing his father in a speech in 2005. His earliest education was received at the Royal Palace; the young prince was sent to Broms school, on to Sigtuna boarding school. After graduating from high school in 1966, Carl Gustaf completed two and a half years of education in the Swedish Army, the Royal Swedish Navy, the Swedish Air Force. During the winter 1966-1967 he took part in a round-the-world voyage with the mine-laying vessel Älvsnabben; the Crown Prince received his commission as an officer in all three services in 1968 rising to the rank of captain and lieutenant, before his ascension to the throne. He completed his academic studies in history, political science, tax law, economics at Uppsala University and Economics at Stockholm University. To prepare for his role as the head of state, Crown Prince Carl Gustaf followed a broad program of studies on the court system, social organisations and institutions, trade unions, employers' associations.
In addition, he studied the affairs of the Riksdag and Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The Crown Prince spent time at the Swedish Mission to the United Nations and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, worked at a bank in London and at the Swedish Embassy in there, at the Swedish Chamber of Commerce in France, at the Alfa Laval Company factory in France. In 1970 he represented the King at the head of the Swedish delegation to the World Exposition in Osaka, Japan. Since his youth the present monarch has been a strong supporter of the Scout Movement in Sweden. On 15 September 1973, Carl Gustaf became King of Sweden upon the death of his grandfather, Gustaf VI Adolf. On September 19, he took the required regal assurance during an extraordinary meeting of the cabinet. Afterwards, he appeared before the parliament, diplomatic corps, etc. in the Hall of State at the Royal Palace where he gave a speech. Both the cabinet meeting and ceremony at the Hall were broadcast live on television.
Following the ceremonies, he appeared on the balcony to acknowledge gathered crowds. At the cabinet meeting, the King declared that his name would be Carl XVI Gustaf and that his title would be King of Sweden, he adopted, "For Sweden – With the times" as h
Margot Elisabeth Wallström is a Swedish politician, member of the Swedish Social Democratic Party. She has served as Deputy Prime Minister of Sweden, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Minister for Nordic Cooperation since October 2014, she served as the first United Nations Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict from 2010 to 2012, as Vice-President of the European Commission and European Commissioner for Institutional Relations and Communication Strategy from 2004 to 2010, European Commissioner for the Environment from 1999 to 2004, Minister for Consumer Affairs from 1988 to 1991 and Member of the Riksdag for Värmland from 1982 to 1999. Born in Skellefteå, Wallström is a high school graduate without academic degrees. In 1973, she started her career as a banking clerk at the Alfa Savings bank in Karlstad, she worked there from 1977 to 1979, as an accountant from 1986 to 1987. Wallström was the CEO of a regional TV network in Värmland, Sweden from 1993 to 1994. Before taking up her appointment as EU Commissioner she was executive vice-president of Worldview Global Media in Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Wallström has had a long career in politics in the Swedish parliament, the Swedish government, the European Commission. At 25, she was elected to parliament, she was Environment Commissioner from 1999 to 2004, in the Swedish government she was Minister for Consumer Affairs and Youth from 1988 to 1991, Minister for Culture from 1994 to 1996, Minister for Social Affairs from 1996 to 1998. During her time in office, Wallström pushed the European Commission's initial proposal for REACH, a regulation requiring manufacturers of industrial chemicals to test and register their products with the European Chemicals Agency before they can be used. In 2004, she approved the importation of a genetically modified corn from the United States for animal feed after a six-year moratorium, arguing in a statement that the corn produced by biotechnology company Monsanto, known as NK603 maize, had been rigorously tested and was considered “as safe as any conventional maize.” In 2004, Wallström became the first member of the European Commission to operate a blog.
The comments section of her site became a hotspot for arguments concerning the policies of the European Union. After the rejection of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe by French and Dutch voters, Wallström pushed forward her "plan D" to reconnect Citizens with the Union, her work on such platforms, including the backing of the oneseat.eu petition, has given her a good reputation in some quarters being dubbed "the Citizens Commissioner" – but has earned her names like "the Propaganda Commissioner" as well from political opponents. The Economist listed her among the least effective commissioners in 2009. In 2006, Wallström presented her a plan to transform the EU's Europe by Satellite video-broadcast service into an EU news agency. Following Sweden's 2006 election, in which the Social Democratic Party lost power, former Prime Minister Göran Persson announced his withdrawal from politics in March 2007. Wallström was regarded as the favourite candidate to succeed Persson as Social Democratic party leader, but made clear that she did not wish to be considered for the position.
The post instead went to Mona Sahlin. Between 2006 and 2007, Wallström served as member of the Amato Group, a group of high-level European politicians unofficially working on rewriting the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe into what became known as the Treaty of Lisbon following its rejection by French and Dutch voters. After the election of Mona Sahlin as party leader, Wallström accepted a membership in a group working to develop political strategies for the upcoming election to the European Parliament in 2009; the membership in this group was considered by Swedish liberal Carl B Hamilton to constitute a breach of the oath every member of the European Commission gives, which states that any member of the commission should work for the community's best interest with no influence from politicians. European Commission spokespeople Mikolaj Dowgielewicz and Pia Ahrenkilde-Hansen stated that her new assignment was not in conflict with her commissioner position. In December 2006, Wallström was voted the most popular woman in Sweden, beating royals and athletes in a survey carried out by ICA-kuriren and Sifo.
In the previous year she had attained second place. Wallström was modest in response stating that "it might be because I'm so far away". On 16 November 2007, Margot Wallström, became Chair of the Council of Women World Leaders Ministerial Initiative; this position was held by former U. S. Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright. On 31 January 2010, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Ban Ki-moon, announced at the African Union summit in Ethiopia his intention to nominate Wallström as his first United Nations Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict; as a reaction, Wallström said that she felt "honoured" and "humble" to have been chosen for the job, which she started in April 2010. In August 2010, Ban sent Wallström to the Democratic Republic of the Congo to help investigate claims that rebel fighters raped more than 150 women and baby boys over four days within miles of a UN base in the country. Wallström addressed the United Nations Security Council in a September 2010 session on the use of sexual violence as a weapon by both rebel militias and government troops in the eastern provinces of the DRC.
In her speech, she demonstrated that the rapes in the North Kivu and South Kivu pro
2006 Swedish general election
General elections were held in Sweden on 17 September 2006, to elect members to the Riksdag, the Swedish national legislature. All 349 seats were up for election: 310 fixed seats in 29 constituencies and 39 adjustment seats, used to ensure that parties have representation in the Riksdag proportional to their share of the national vote; the electoral system used was semi-open list proportional representation using the Sainte-Laguë method of allocating seats. Elections for County and Municipal councils were held on the same day. Fredrik Reinfeldt from the Moderate Party was able to form a majority government together with the Centre Party, Liberal People's Party and the Christian Democrats following the election; the Social Democrats were ousted after twelve years in power. It was the country's first majority government since the second Fälldin cabinet fell in 1981; the minority government of Göran Persson's Social Democratic Party attempted, failed, to gain enough seats to form a majority government, to continue as a minority or to govern in a red-green coalition government.
His party had been in power since the 1994 election, Persson had been Prime Minister since 1996. The Social Democrats before the election had an agreement with the Left Party and the Green Party that gave them an influence on government policy in exchange for their support. However, both the Left Party and the Green Party insisted that any red-green government formed after the election would need to include them in a coalition; the four centre-right parties – The Moderate Party, The Liberal People's Party, The Christian Democrats, The Centre Party – united in Alliance for Sweden succeeded in gaining enough seats to form a coalition government. The four parties had presented a joint election manifesto, their candidate for Prime Minister was Fredrik Reinfeldt. The campaigning for the 2006 election began early, as the opposition decided to present itself as a viable alternative government by forming an alliance: Alliance for Sweden; this alliance was negotiated at a meeting held in the village of Högfors, home to the chairman of the Centre Party, Maud Olofsson.
The meeting ended on 31 August 2004 with the presentation of a joint declaration outlining the principles under which the four parties intended to run in the election. One year a similar meeting was held at Bankeryd, home of Göran Hägglund, leader of the Christian Democrats. See Alliance for Sweden for further information; the Alliance enjoyed a leading position for over a year over the red-green parties, according to most polls. However the gap between the two blocs began to close in January 2006, the red-green parties took the lead in May 2006. However, there was a late shift in opinion back to the Alliance during the summer: in mid-August all polls showed the Alliance leading the red-green parties comfortably; the regime shift that occurred in the 2006 election, can be traced to changes in popularity between the party - blocs prior to the campaign started and to the timing of two extreme natural disasters that combined had a dramatic impact on the Swedish political landscape. In a dissertation from the Department of Government at Uppsala University, entitled "Natural Disasters and National Election", PhD Lina M. Eriksson found in her research that the Indian Ocean’s 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami and 2005 Storm Gudrun, which struck only two weeks following the tsunami, impacted on the 2006 historic regime shift that occurred in the 2006 Swedish parliamentary election.
The results from this research show that the 2002-2006 incumbent Social Democratic Party's poor crisis response to Gudrun, the hitherto most costly natural disaster in Swedish history, alone has an estimated effect of a magnitude, crucial to the 2006 historic regime shift. In the abstract to the thesis one can read "The 2002-2006 incumbent Social Democratic Party received its lowest voter support since 1914 as 150,000, or 8%, of the 2002 S voters went to the main opposition, the conservative Moderate Party; this became the most decisive factor in ousting S from power after 12 years of rule. As a result, the M-led Alliance with the People's Party, the Center Party, the Christian Democrats won the election. Natural Disasters and National Election makes the novel contribution of proposing two natural disasters, the Indian Ocean’s 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami and 2005 Storm Gudrun, which struck only two weeks following the tsunami, as major events that impacted government popularity in the 2006 election and contributed to the redistribution of voter support and across party-blocs.
The core findings from this thesis show that the S government’s poor crisis response to Gudrun, the hitherto most costly natural disaster in Swedish history, alone has an estimated effect of a magnitude that contributed to the 2006 historic regime shift, while the tsunami seems to have mattered. The tsunami is interesting, as S’s poor international crisis response to the event constitutes the first natural disaster situation to knowingly have affected an election on the other side of the planet. Moreover, to some degree voters recognized the active opposition by C as effective representation and rewarded the party for its strong stance on the poor handling of both events by S. In fact, the active voice of C concerning these disasters helped move the party from the periphery of party politics to becoming the third-largest party in Swedish politics. In sum, this research investigates accountability and effective pa
Politics of Sweden
Politics of Sweden takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy. Executive power is exercised by the government, led by the Prime Minister of Sweden. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament, elected within a multi-party system; the Judiciary is independent, employed until retirement. Sweden is a monarchy. Sweden has a typical Western European history of democracy, beginning with the old Viking age Ting electing kings, ending with a regular royal power in the 14th century, that in periods became more or less democratic depending on the general European trends; the current democratic regime is a product of a stable development of successively added democratic institutions introduced during the 19th century up to 1921, when women's suffrage was introduced. The Government of Sweden has adhered to parliamentarism — de jure since 1975, de facto since 1917. Since the Great Depression, Swedish national politics has been dominated by the Social Democratic Workers' Party, which has held a plurality in parliament since 1917.
The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Sweden as "full democracy" in 2016. The Constitution of Sweden consists of four fundamental laws; the most important is the Instrument of Government of 1974 which sets out the basic principles of political life in Sweden, defining rights and freedoms. The Act of Succession is a treaty between the old Riksdag of the Estates and House of Bernadotte regulating their rights to accede to the Swedish throne; the four fundamental laws are: Instrument of Government Act of Succession Freedom of the Press Act Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression King Carl XVI Gustaf of the House of Bernadotte became king in 1973. His authority is formal and representational. Heiress apparent to the throne is Crown Princess Victoria since 1980. Following the general elections held on 26 September 2014, Stefan Löfven of the Swedish Social Democratic Party was elected Prime Minister of Sweden by the new parliament on 2 October. Together with the Green Party, Löfven presides over a minority government.
The Deputy Prime Minister is Isabella Lövin of the Green Party. The highest executive authority of the State is vested in the Government, which consists of a Prime Minister and 22 Ministers who head the ministries; the Ministers are appointed at the sole discretion of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is appointed following a vote in the Riksdag itself; the Monarch plays no part in this process. The only way to get rid of a government is through a motion of no confidence in the Riksdag; this motion must get a majority of the total number of votes in the Riksdag. Another example of the power the legislature has given the Government is the adoption of the budget in the Riksdag; the Government's proposition to budget is adopted, unless a majority of the members of the Riksdag vote against it. This is to make it possible to govern in minority; the unicameral Riksdag has 349 members, popularly elected every 4 years. It is in session from September through mid-June. Legislation may be initiated by members of the Riksdag.
Members are elected on the basis of proportional representation for a four-year term. The Riksdag can alter the Constitution of Sweden, but only with approval by a supermajority and confirmation after the following general elections; the Swedish Social Democratic Party has played a leading political role since 1917, after Reformists confirmed their strength and the revolutionaries left the party. After 1932, the Cabinets have been dominated by the Social Democrats. Only five general elections have given the centre-right bloc enough seats in the Riksdag to form a government; this is considered one reason for the Swedish post-war welfare state, with a government expenditure of more than 50% of the gross domestic product. Swedish law, drawing on Germanic and Anglo-American law, is neither as codified as in France and other countries influenced by the Napoleonic Code, nor as dependent on judicial practice and precedents as in the United States. Courts: Civil and criminal jurisdiction Supreme Court or Högsta domstolen Courts of appeal or Hovrätter District courts or Tingsrätter Administrative Courts: Litigation between the Public and the Government.
The Supreme Administrative Court or Högsta förvaltningsdomstolen Administrative courts of appeal or Kammarrätter Administrative courts or Förvaltningsrätt Ombudsman: The Parliamentary Ombudsman or Justitieombudsmannen The Chancellor of Justice or Justitiekanslern Sweden has a history of strong political involvement by ordinary people through its "popular movements", the most notable being trade unions, the women's movement, the temperance movement, — more — sports movement. Election turnout in Sweden has always been high in international comparisons, although it has declined in recent decades, is around 87%; some Swedish political figures that have become known worldwide include Joe Hill, Carl Skoglund, Raoul Wallenberg, Folke Bernadotte, Dag Hammarskjöld, Olof Palme, Carl Bildt, Hans Blix, Anna Lindh. According to a survey investigation by the sociologist Jenny Hansson, Swedish national parliamentarians have an average work week of 66 hours, including side responsibilities. Hansson's investigation further reports that the average Swedish national parliamentarian sleeps 6.5 hours per night.
Sweden is divided
Löfven I Cabinet
The first cabinet of Stefan Löfven was the cabinet of Sweden between 2014 and 2018. It was a coalition government, consisting of two parties: the Green Party; the cabinet was installed on 3 October 2014, following the 2014 general election. It lost a vote of no confidence following the 2018 election, but remained in office as a caretaker government. With only 37.9% of the popular votes in 2014 and 138 out of 349 seats in the Riksdag, the “red-green” coalition began as one of the weakest minority governments in Swedish history and relied on support from other parties in the Riksdag. At the 2018 election it became weaker. On 25 September 2018 the Riksdag passed a motion of no confidence in it by 204 votes to 142, Löfven resigned. However, the Speaker invited him to stay on as acting Prime Minister of a caretaker government.2014 was the first time that the Green Party had been part of a government, the first time in 57 years that the Social Democrats had formed a coalition cabinet. From on, this was led by Prime Minister Stefan Löfven, leader of the Social Democrats.
The cabinet consisted of 12 women. The cabinet was installed following a formal government meeting with King Carl XVI Gustaf on 3 October 2014. Stefan Löfven had announced his cabinet ministers at 09:00 AM on the same day. In May 2016, Löfven reshuffled his cabinet. In July 2017, three cabinet ministers were challenged by a vote of confidence by the opposition and a majority in the Riksdag. Löfven subsequently removed Johansson and Ygeman from office, but retained Hultqvist, the no-confidence motion against Hultqvist collapsed in September 2017 after the Centre Party and Liberals dropped their support for it; the cabinet ruled out cooperation with the Sweden Democrats. The numbers below refer to the composition of the cabinet at its formation on 3 October 2014. Number of ministers: 24 Number of women: 12 Number of men: 12 Average age: 45,4 Youngest minister: Aida Hadžialić Oldest minister: Kristina Persson Number of foreign-born ministers: 4 Party breakdown of cabinet ministers: On 3 December, 2014, the proposed budget of the Löfven Cabinet failed in the Riksdag due to the Sweden Democrats siding with the centre-right opposition Alliance's budget.
Prime Minister Löfven announced plans to call for fresh elections in March 2015. However, on 27 December, the early election was cancelled after the governing parties signed an agreement with the four parties in the opposition Alliance. Under the "Decemberöverenskommelsen", the six parties agreed not to vote against a budget proposed by the government for the next eight years; the December Agreement fell in October 2015. The government has announced the outline of its policy on 3 October 2014. Plans included reducing unemployment to the lowest level in the EU by 2020, reducing deficits, phasing out nuclear energy, reducing emissions from fossil fuels and having a more liberal asylum policy. In its statement the government identified as feminist, it aims to increase gender equality, reduce the gender wage gap and introduce quota if female representation on governing boards is below 40% by 2016. It promised to increase penalties for aggravated sexual offences; the government's foreign policy will consist of pursuing membership of the Security Council and remaining outside NATO.
The government said it opposes ISIL. It was the first EU government to recognise the State of Palestine in view to "facilitate a peace agreement by making the parties less unequal", resulting in that Israel the same day recalled its ambassador for consultations. Prime Minister Stefan Löfven lost the motion of no confidence against him and his cabinet on 25 September 2018. 142 members of parliament voted for retaining Löfven's cabinet. Löfven stated in a subsequent press conference that he will not be stepping down as Social Democratic party leader and that he is willing to partake in talks regarding the formation of a new government, but insists that it is up to the Speaker of the Riksdag. Löfven stated that he finds it unbelievable that the Alliance could form a government, if they intend on holding their promise of not co-operating with the Sweden Democrats. Löfven and his cabinet will continue to serve as a caretaker government until a new cabinet is elected
Monarchy of Sweden
The Monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden, a constitutional and hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary system. The Kingdom of Sweden has been a monarchy since time immemorial. An elective monarchy, it became an hereditary monarchy in the 16th century during the reign of Gustav Vasa, though all monarchs before that belonged to a limited and small number of families which are considered to be the royal dynasties of Sweden. Sweden in the present day is a representative democracy in a parliamentary system based on popular sovereignty, as defined in the current Instrument of Government; the monarch and the members of the Royal Family undertake a variety of official and other representational duties within Sweden and abroad. Carl XVI Gustaf became King on 15 September 1973 on the death of Gustaf VI Adolf. Scandinavian peoples have had kings since prehistoric times; as early as the 1st century CE, Tacitus wrote that the Suiones had a king, but the order of Swedish regnal succession up until King Eric the Victorious, is known exclusively through accounts in controversial Norse sagas.
The Swedish king had combined powers limited to that of a war chief, a judge and a priest at the Temple at Uppsala. However, there are thousands of runestones commemorating commoners, but no known chronicle about the Swedish kings prior to the 14th century, there is a small number of runestones that are thought to mention kings: Gs 11, U 11 and U 861. About 1000 A. D. the first king known to rule both Svealand and Götaland was Olof Skötkonung, but further history for the next two centuries is obscure, with many kings whose tenures and actual influence/power remains unclear. The Royal Court of Sweden, does count Olof's father, Eric the Victorious, as Sweden's first king; the power of the king was strengthened by the introduction of Christianity during the 11th century, the following centuries saw a process of consolidation of power into the hands of the king. The Swedes traditionally elected a king from a favored dynasty at the Stones of Mora, the people had the right to elect the king as well as to depose him.
The ceremonial stones were destroyed around 1515. In the 12th century, the consolidation of Sweden was still affected by dynastic struggles between the Erik and Sverker clans, which ended when a third clan married into the Erik clan and the House of Bjelbo was established on the throne; that dynasty formed pre-Kalmar Union Sweden into a strong state, king Magnus IV ruled Norway and Scania. Following the Black Death, the union weakened, Scania reunited with Denmark. In 1397, after the Black Death and domestic power struggles, Queen Margaret I of Denmark united Sweden and Norway in the Union of Kalmar with the approval of the Swedish nobility. Continual tension within each country and the union led to open conflict between the Swedes and the Danes in the 15th century; the union's final disintegration in the early 16th century led to prolonged rivalry between Denmark-Norway and Sweden for centuries to come. Catholic bishops had supported the King of Denmark, Christian II, but he was overthrown in a rebellion led by nobleman Gustav Vasa, whose father had been executed at the Stockholm bloodbath.
Gustav Vasa was elected King of Sweden by the Estates of the Realm, assembled in Strängnäs on 6 June 1523. Inspired by the teachings of Martin Luther, Gustav I used the Protestant Reformation to curb the power of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1527 he persuaded the Estates of the Realm, assembled in the city of Västerås, to confiscate church lands, which comprised 21% of the country's farmland. At the same time, he broke with the papacy and established a reformed state church: the Church of Sweden. Throughout his reign, Gustav I suppressed both aristocratic and peasant opposition to his ecclesiastical policies and efforts at centralisation, which to some extent laid the foundation for the modern Swedish unitary state. Sweden has only been a hereditary monarchy since 1544 when the Riksdag of the Estates, through Västerås arvförening, designated the sons of King Gustav I as the heirs to the Throne. Tax reforms took place in 1538 and 1558, whereby multiple complex taxes on independent farmers were simplified and standardised throughout the district and tax assessments per farm were adjusted to reflect ability to pay.
Crown tax revenues increased, but more the new system was perceived as fairer. A war with Lübeck in 1535 resulted in the expulsion of the Hanseatic traders, who had had a monopoly on foreign trade. With its own burghers in charge, Sweden's economic strength grew and by 1544 Gustav controlled 60% of the farmlands in all of Sweden. Sweden now built the first modern army in Europe, supported by a sophisticated tax system and an efficient bureaucracy. At the death of King Gustav I in 1560, he was succeeded by his oldest son Eric XIV, his reign was marked by Sweden's entrance into the Northern Seven Years' War. The combination of Eric's developing mental disorder and his opposition to the aristocracy led to the Sture Murders in 1567 and the imprisonment of his brother John, married to Catherine Jagiellon, sister of King Sigismund II of Poland