Kongens Nytorv is a public square in Copenhagen, centrally located at the end of the pedestrian street Strøget. The largest square of the city, it was out by Christian V in 1670 in connection with a major extension of the fortified city. Outside the gate, an undulating terrain extended towards the sea, as part of Christian IVs ambitious plans to strengthen Copenhagen as a regional centre, he wanted to double the area of the fortified city, he acquired 200 hectares of land outside Østerport in 1606. To protect the new city district, called New Copenhagen or Saint Annes Town, he started construction of a redoubt, Saint Annes Post, in 1627 a customs house was added at the site. According to a masterplan created by the fortification engineer Axel Urups. Shortly after Christian V was crowned in 1670, he decided to level and this decision was taken mainly for military reasons, its strategic location with almost the same distance to all points along the ramparts of the city making it well suited as a central alarm square.
In the same time, the square was to serve as a place royale with inspiration from France, land around the new square was distributed among interested wealthy citizens, including people from the new ranks. Buildings facing the square were required to be in at least two stories and meet certain standards, in 1688, a baroque garden complex with trees around a parterre and a gilded equestrian statue of Christian V in its centre, was inaugurated. In 1747 the entire square was rebuilt by Frederik V as a drill and ceremony ground for the Kings troops until 1908. The equestrian statue of Christian V was created by the French sculptor Abraham-César Lamoureux, dating from 1688, it is the oldest equestrian statue in Scandinavia. Originally made in gilded lead, it was recast in bronze 1939, at the foot of the plinth, Lamoureux placed four allegorical statues. This happened from 1939 to 1942 and the new cast was inaugurated on 22 May 1946, Krinsen is an old form of the Danish word Krans, meaning circle or wreath.
It is an elliptical parterre surrounding the statue of Christian V, the ellipse was a favoured geometrical shape at the time, an obvious example bing the elliptical pattern in the paving around the Marcus Aurelius statue at Piazza del Campidoglio. Around the parterre, two rows of trees were planted, some of the trees were dug up and reused for the establishment of the avenue Østre Allé. New rows of elm trees were planted around the statue in 1855-56, in 2001,80 lime trees were planted as part of a major refurbishment of the square. On the square stands an old kiosk and telephone stand from 1913 and it is built in Baroque Revival style with a copper-clad roof and hand-carved ornamentation. It used to offer the first public telephonic connection in Copenhagen from where it was possible to every day except Sunday from 10 am to 8 pm. Today it houses a small café with outdoor service,1, Charlottenborg Palace Herdorffs House, at No
Taastrup Teater is a theatre in Taastrup in the western suburbs of Copenhagen, Denmark. Taastrup Theatre was founded by a group of residents in 1970. It received its current name and engaged an artistic director in 1987, the theatre is based in a community centre from the 1970s which was expanded several times during the 1990s. COBE was expanded the theatre with a new foyer and it consists of a curtain that slope away from the existing building. It consists of translucent and clear acrylic triangles which are illuminated by red lights from within when the theatre is sold out
It was temporarily closed by residents in April 2011 while discussions continued with the Danish government about its future, but re-opened to the public. Christiania has been a source of controversy since its creation in a military area in 1971. Its cannabis trade was tolerated by authorities until 2004, in the years following 2004, measures for normalizing the legal status of the community led to conflicts, police raids and negotiations. The area of Christiania consists of the military barracks of Bådsmandsstræde. The ramparts and the borough of Christianshavn were established in 1617 by King Christian IV by reclaiming the low beaches, after the siege of Copenhagen during wars with Sweden, the ramparts were reinforced during 1682 to 1692 under Christian V to form a complete defence ring. The western ramparts of Copenhagen were demolished during the 19th century and they are today considered among the finest surviving 17th century defence works in the world. The barracks of Bådsmandsstræde housed the Royal Artillery Regiment, the Army Materiel Command and ammunition laboratories, less used after World War II, the barracks were abandoned between 1967 and 1971.
The adjacent area to the north, was Denmarks main naval base until the 1990s and it is an area in development, home to the new Copenhagen Opera House and schools. An area further north is used by the navy. The outermost defence line, has been renamed Dyssen in Christiania language and it is connected to central Christiania by a bridge across the main moat or can be reached by the path beginning at Christmas Møllers Plads. Four gunpowder storehouses line the redans and they were built 1779-80 to replace a storage in central Copenhagen, at Østerport, which exploded infamously in 1770, killing 50 people. The buildings are renamed Aircondition, Autogena and Kosmiske Blomst and have, although protected, the last Danish execution site, active from 1946 to 1950, can still be seen on the Second Redan close to the building called Aircondition. The wooden execution shed is gone, but the concrete foundation, in total,29 World War II criminals were executed on the site. The last was Ib Birkedal, a high-level Danish Gestapo collaborator, in 2007, the National Heritage Agency proposed protection status for some of the ancient military buildings, now in Christiania.
Some of the buildings have been altered somewhat after Christianias takeover. After the military moved out, the area was guarded by a few watchmen. On 4 September 1971, inhabitants of the surrounding neighborhood broke down the fence to take parts of the unused area as a playground for their children. Although the takeover was not necessarily organized in the beginning, some claim this happened as a protest against the Danish government, at the time there was a lack of affordable housing in Copenhagen
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, and limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people. The International Fire Code, portions of which have adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction. It specifies, For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms and it requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating. Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the size of the venue. For sports venues, the decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors, chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area.
Seating capacity of venues plays a role in what media they are able to provide, in contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed. Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be used, the seating capacity must be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums generally advertise their seating capacity, seating capacity is an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas. The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as covers, a restaurant that can seat 99 is said to have 99 covers, seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Use of the term public capacity indicates that a venue is allowed to more people than it can actually seat.
Again, the total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law
Architecture of Denmark
The architecture of Denmark has its origins in the Viking period, richly revealed by archaeological finds. It became firmly established in the Middle Ages when first Romanesque, Gothic churches and it was during this period that, in a country with little access to stone, brick became the construction material of choice, not just for churches but for fortifications and castles. In parallel, the style became popular for ordinary dwellings in towns. Late in his reign, Christian IV became a proponent of Baroque which was to continue for a considerable time with many impressive buildings both in the capital and the provinces. Neoclassicism came initially from France but was adopted by native Danish architects who increasingly participated in defining architectural style. A productive period of Historicism ultimately merged into the 19th century National Romantic style and it was not, until the 1960s that Danish architects entered the world scene with their highly successful Functionalism. Archaeological excavations in parts of Denmark have revealed much about the way the Vikings lived.
One of the most notable sites is Hedeby, located some 45 km south of the Danish border near the German town of Schleswig, it probably dates back to the end of the 8th century. The houses are deemed to be among the most sophisticated dwellings of their time, oak frames were used for the walls, and the roofs were probably thatched. Viking ring houses, such as those at Trelleborg, near Slagelse on the Danish island of Zealand, have a different, ship-like shape. Each house consisted of a central hall,18 m ×8 m. Those at Fyrkat in the north of Jutland were 28.5 m long,5 m wide at the ends and 7.5 m in the middle, the walls consisted of double rows of posts with planks wedged horizontally between them. A series of posts slanted towards the wall were possibly used to support the building like buttresses. Denmarks first churches from the 9th century were built of timber and have not survived, hundreds of stone churches in the Romanesque style were built in the 12th and 13th centuries. They had a nave and chancel with small rounded windows.
Among the finest examples of brick Romanesque buildings are St. Bendts Church in Ringsted, the church at Østerlars on the island of Bornholm was built around 1150. Like three other churches on the island, it is a round church, the three-storeyed building is supported by a circular outer wall and an exceptionally wide, hollow central column. Construction of Lund Cathedral in Scania started in about 1103 when the region was part of the Kingdom of Denmark and it was the first of great Danish Romanesque cathedrals in the shape of a three-aisled basilica with transepts
Carlsberg is an area located straddling the border of Valby and Vesterbro districts in central Copenhagen, Denmark approximately 2.4 km from the City Hall Square. The area emerged when J. C. Jacobsen founded his brewery in the district in 1847. The first brewing took place on November 11,1847, and production took place continuously ever since, until October 30,2008, the Jacobsen House Brewery is however still located in the district and produces specialty beers. The entire brewery grounds spread over more than 30 hectares and is currently being transformed into a new city district in Copenhagen, the area is dominated by numerous historic and restored 19th- and early 20th-century buildings, many of which have lavish ornamentations, as well as two historic gardens. The buildings have served a wide array of functions, some of which are not immediately associated with the production of beer. These include a lighthouse, Italianate villas and a museum, after the decision was made to close the brewery, plans were launched to redevelop the area into a new district. A master plan for the area draws on inspiration from classical, dense city centers with short, winding streets, passageways and it will feature ten slim towers.
The planned district will aim at sustainability and an urban life. The plan won the master planning category at the 2009 World Architecture Festival, Carlsberg covers an area of 33 hectares and lies at the junction of four districts. It is bordered by Vesterbro to the east, Valby to the west, Frederiksberg Municipality to the north, in search of better water supplies and more space, J. C. Jacobsens brewery located at the current site in 1847, after receiving a license from the King, construction of the new brewery started in January 1847 and the first batch of beer was brewed on 10 November 1847. Carlsbergs main building, today known as the Carlsberg Academy was inaugurated in 1853, in 1857 the brewery was devastated by a fire but the buildings were rebuilt the same year. In 1870 the brewery was extended with a brewery, which was leased by J. C. Jacobsens son Carl Jacobsen after disagreements with his father, Jacobsen established the Carlsberg Foundation and the Carlsberg Laboratory. Jacobsen terminated his sons lease and Carl founds his own brewery on a neighbouring premises, with his fathers consent he named it Ny Carlsberg, while Carlsbergs name was changed to Gammel Carlsberg.
Jacobsen died and his Carlsberg Foundation inherited his brewery, over the next decades, the Carlsberg Breweries are continuously extended with new buildings. In 1892 the Dipylon building is added, in 1987 the Carlsberg Laboratory building, in 1902, Carl Jacobsen founded the Ny Carlsberg Foundation as a subsidy under the Carlsberg Foundation, resulting in common ownership. The breweries built a joint tapping plant in 1903 and in 1906 they were merged under the name Carlsberg Breweries
Lorry is a former entertainment venue in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It takes its name after its founder, Frederik Laurentius Feilberg, the listed building complex now houses TV2/Lorry, TV2s local news station for the Copenhagen area, a small theatre, and a café. Lorrys history as an entertainment venue goes back to 1834 when the country house Enighedslyst was converted into a tea garden, in the mid-1860s it became an entertainment venue where female singers performed in front of an audience consisting mainly of local craftsmen. The restaurateur Carl Kehlet took the place over in 1877 and his business enabled him to purchase the entire property. He turned the floor into a restaurant and moved the singing girls upstairs to Café Chantant. The establishment gradually began to attract a larger audience, among the well-known guests were the writer and painter Holger Drachmann, who found his muse, among the singers. In 1896, Kehlet sold his establishment to Frederik Laurentius Feilberg, known as Lorry and he changed the name of Café Chantant inro Operetten.
The tradition with singing girls was discontinued in 1914 when Operetten was renamed Riddersalen and it served as a venue for cabarets. In 1909 and 1913, he acquired two neighbouring buildings for expanding his entertainment establishment, in 1910, he expanded the ground floor into a new venue, Landsbyen. The interior walls were painted as facades of half-timbered farmhouses and there were a forge, a farmers kitchen, the audience was seated at small tables spread out across the floor. In 1913, Kehlet opened Drachmenn Kroen, a popular restaurant named after a former guest who had died in 1909. The room was decorated with a series of paintings by Aksel Jørgensen which incorporated Drachmann, Drachmann had plans to convert it into an elegant hall where afternoon guests could have tea accompanied by subtle music while it could be rented out for private celebrations in the evening. However, due to an illness which prompted him to sell, Feilberg never put his plans through but they were realized by his successor, Valdemar Nielsen, the Landsbyen venue saw another expansion in 1929.
The decorations were adapted to resemble tyrolean houses with balconies and murals of snow-capped mountains painted on the rear walls, an expansion of the stage created room both for an orchestra and soloists. The inspiration was Haus Vaterland on Potsdamer Platz in Berlin, in 1945, Landsbyen was hit by Schalburgtage but it was rebuilt just a few month later. TV2/Lorry rented the complex from its establishment and purchased it from Frederiksberg Municipality in 1999 and they now have their television studios in Landsbyen while Guldaldersalen and Drachmann Kroen serve as editorial rooms. It has been run by Jytte Abildstrøn since 1970, dating from 1881,11 Allégade now houses a café, Café Grock. Danish Revue Museum TV2 Lorry clip about Aksel Jørgensens paintings PDF about the locality Aksel Hørgensens paintings in Drachmannskroen
Bremen Teater (Copenhagen)
Bremen Teater is a Danish theatre seating 648 people in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is used as a venue for everything from comedy shows and concerts to theatre, the building which contains Hotel Mercur was completed in 1956. The building was designed by Danish architect Otto Frankild, the Mercur Theater was opened by Aage Stentoft in 1965. It was both used as a venue for touring companies and made its own productions. Preben Kaas succeeded Aage Stentoft as theatre director, in 1971 the Danish charter travel tycoon Simon Spies, who owned the building, took over the theatre. He used it as a cinema for erotic films and night club. A private elevator connected the theatre to his office on the first floor, Simon Spies gave up the theatre in 1980 and it was used by Det Ny Musikteater until 1984. In 1985 it changed its name to Privat Teatret with Niels-Bo Valbro as theatre director and he chose to close the theatre in 2007 due to economic difficulties. In 2009 the venue was revived under its current name by a group of people from the Danish entertainment industry, including Casper Christensen, Frank Hvam, Simon Kvamm, the theatre has been known under its current navn, Bremen Teater, since September 2009.
For some time the hosted the sketch show Live fra Bremen. In addition Bremen Teater has had a number of names on the stage. The variety of events at Bremen Teater includes comedy, concerts, award shows, film screenings, talks, conferences, in September 2012 the theatre opened up a bar called Natbar, which won the reputable Politiken Ibyen Award 2012 for bar of the year. Natbar has since established itself as a significant part of Copenhagen night life. The theatre was until summer 2013 operated by day-to-day management Mai Manaa Kristensen, Morten Manaa Kristensen, the managing director of Bremen Teater is Jesper Majdall