Stanley Park is a 405-hectare public park that borders the downtown of Vancouver in British Columbia, Canada and is entirely surrounded by waters of Vancouver Harbour and English Bay. The park was one of the first areas to be explored in the city; the land was used by Indigenous peoples for thousands of years before British Columbia was colonized by the British during the 1858 Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. For many years after colonization, the future park with its abundant resources would be home to Non-Indigenous settlers; the land was turned into Vancouver's first park when the city incorporated in 1886. It was named after Lord Stanley, 16th Earl of Derby, a British politician, appointed Governor General. Unlike other large urban parks, Stanley Park is not the creation of a landscape architect, but rather the evolution of a forest and urban space over many years. Most of the manmade structures present in the park were built between 1911 and 1937 under the influence of superintendent W. S. Rawlings.
Additional attractions, such as a polar bear exhibit and miniature train, were added in the post-war period. Much of the park remains as densely forested as it was in the late 1800s, with about a half million trees, some of which stand as tall as 76 metres and are hundreds of years old. Thousands of trees were lost after three major windstorms that took place in the past 100 years, the last in 2006. Significant effort was put into constructing the near-century-old Vancouver Seawall, which can draw thousands of people to the park in the summer; the park features forest trails, lakes, children's play areas, the Vancouver Aquarium, among many other attractions. On June 18, 2014, Stanley Park was named "top park in the entire world" by TripAdvisor, based on reviews submitted. Archaeological evidence suggests a human presence in the park dating back more than 3,000 years; the area is the traditional territory of different coastal indigenous peoples. From the Burrard Inlet and Howe Sound regions, Squamish Nation had a large village in the park.
From the lower Fraser River area, Musqueam Nation used its natural resources. Where Lumberman's Arch is now, there once was a large village called Whoi Whoi, or Xwayxway meaning place of masks. One longhouse, built from cedar poles and slabs, was measured at 200 feet long by 60 feet wide; these houses were occupied by large extended families living in different quadrants of the house. The larger houses were used for ceremonial potlatchs where a host would invite guests to witness and participate in ceremonies and the giving away of property. Another settlement was further west along the same shore; this place was called meaning high bank. The site of Chaythoos is noted on a brass plaque placed on the lowlands east of Prospect Point commemorating the park's centennial. Both sites were occupied in 1888, when some residents were forcefully removed to allow a road to be constructed around the park, their midden was used for construction material; the popular landmark Siwash Rock, located near present-day Third Beach, was once called Slahkayulsh meaning he is standing up.
In the oral history, a fisherman was transformed into this rock by three powerful brothers as punishment for his immorality. In 2010, the chief of the Squamish Nation proposed renaming Stanley Park as Xwayxway Park after the large village once located in the area; the first European explorations of the peninsula occurred with Spanish Captain José María Narváez and British Captain George Vancouver. In A Voyage of Discovery, Vancouver describes the area as “an island... with a smaller island Deadman's Island lying before it,” suggesting that it was surrounded by water, at least at high tide. Captain Vancouver wrote about meeting the people living there:Here we were met by about fifty in canoes, who conducted themselves with great decorum and civility, presenting us with several fish cooked and undressed of a sort resembling smelt; these good people, finding we were inclined to make some return for their hospitality, showed much understanding in preferring iron to copper. According to historians, the natives first saw Captain Vancouver's ship from Chaythoos, a location in the future park that in today's terms lay just east of the Lions Gate Bridge.
Speaking about this event in a conversation with archivist Major Matthews, Andy Paull, whose family lived in the area, confirms the account given by Captain Vancouver:As Vancouver came through the First Narrows, the in their canoes threw these feathers in great handfuls before him. They would of course rise in the air, drift along, fall to the surface of the water, where they would rest for quite a time, it must have been a pretty scene, duly impressed Captain Vancouver, for he speaks most of the reception he was accorded. No significant contact with inhabitants in the area was recorded for decades, until around the time of the Crimean War. British admirals arranged with Chief Joe Capilano that if there was an invasion, the British would defend the south shore of Burrard Inlet and the Squamish would defend the north; the British gave his men 60 muskets. Although the attack anticipated by the British never came, the guns were used by the Squamish to repel an attack by an indigenous raid from the Euclataws.
Stanley Park was not attacked, but this was when it started to be thought of as a strategic military position. The peninsula was a popular place for gathering traditional food and materials in the 1800s, but it started to see more activity after the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush in 1858
The Colonial Office was a government department of the Kingdom of Great Britain and of the United Kingdom, first created to deal with the colonial affairs of British North America but needed to oversee the increasing number of colonies of the British Empire. Despite its name, the Colonial Office was never responsible for all Britain's Imperial territories, it was headed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies known more informally as the Colonial Secretary. Prior to 1768, responsibility for the affairs of the British colonies was part of the duties of the Secretary of State for the Southern Department and a committee of the Privy Council known as the Board of Trade and Plantations. In 1768 the separate American or Colonial Department was established, in order to deal with colonial affairs in British North America. With the loss of the American colonies, the department was abolished in 1782. Responsibility for the remaining colonies was given to the Home Office, subsequently transferred to the War Office.
The War Office was renamed the War and Colonial Office in 1801, under a new Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, to reflect the increasing importance of the colonies. In 1825 a new post of Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies was created within this office, it was held by Robert William Hay initially. His successors were James Stephen, Herman Merivale, Frederic Rogers, Robert Herbert and Robert Henry Meade. In 1854, the War and Colonial Office was divided in two, a new Colonial Office was created to deal with the affairs in the colonies and assigned to the Secretary of State for the Colonies; the Colonial Office did not have responsibility for all British possessions overseas: for example, both the Indian Empire and other British territories near India, were under the authority of the India Office from 1854. Other, more informal protectorates, such as the Khedivate of Egypt, fell under the authority of the Foreign Office; the increasing independence of the Dominions – Australia, New Zealand and South Africa – following the 1907 Imperial Conference, led to the formation of a separate Dominion Division within the Colonial Office.
From 1925 onwards the UK ministry included a separate Secretaries of State for Dominion Affairs were appointed. On 16 April 1947 the Irgun placed a bomb at the Colonial Office; the plot was linked to the 1946 Embassy bombing. After the Dominion of India and Dominion of Pakistan gained independence in 1947, the Dominion Office was merged with the India Office to form the Commonwealth Relations Office. In 1966, the Commonwealth Relations Office was re-merged with the Colonial Office, forming the Commonwealth Office. Two years this department was itself merged into the Foreign Office, establishing the Foreign and Commonwealth Office; the Colonial Office had its offices in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office Main Building in Whitehall. From 1862, the Colonial Office published historical and statistical information concerning the United Kingdom's colonial dependencies in The Colonial Office List, though between 1926 and 1940 it was known as The Dominions Office and Colonial Office List, it became known as the Commonwealth Relations Office Year Book and Commonwealth Office Year Book.
In addition to the official List published by the Colonial Office, an edited version was produced by Waterlow and Sons. It can be difficult to distinguish between the two versions in library catalogue descriptions. For example, The Sydney Stock and Station Journal of 3 December 1915 commented: This used to be the "Colonial Office Journal," but it looked – or sounded – too official, so they changed it to "The Colonial Journal." But it is still edited by Sir W. H. Mercer, K. C. M. G. One of the Crown Agents for the Colonies, it comes as near to being an "Official publication" as possible. British Empire Colonial Service List of British Empire-related topics Beaglehole, John C. "The Colonial Office, 1782–1854." Australian Historical Studies 1.3: 170-189. Egerton, Hugh Edward. A Short History of British Colonial Policy 610pp online Laidlaw, Zoë. Colonial connections, 1815-45: patronage, the information revolution and colonial government. McLachlan, N. D. "Bathurst at the Colonial Office, 1812–27: A reconnaissance∗."
Australian Historical Studies 13.52: 477-502. Manning, Helen Taft. "Who Ran the British Empire 1830-1850?." Journal of British Studies 5.1: 88-121. Shaw, Alan George Lewers. "British Attitudes to the Colonies, ca. 1820-1850." Journal of British Studies 9.1: 71-95. Bell, Kenneth Norman, William Parker Morrell, eds. Select documents on British colonial policy, 1830-1860
Henry Spencer Palmer
Major General Henry Spencer Palmer was a British army military engineer and surveyor, noted for his work in developing Yokohama harbor in the Empire of Japan as a foreign advisor to the Japanese government Palmer was born at Bangalore, British India. He was educated at private schools in Bath in England and by tutors before being admitted in January 1856 to the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Royal Engineers in December and studied for a year at the Royal Engineers Establishment, Chatham. In October 1858, he was assigned to Canada as part of a survey mission. In addition to undertaking several exploratory surveys, he laid out trails, supervised road construction, inspected road-works, he was commended for his efforts, during his stay in Canada contributed papers on British Columbia to the Royal Geographical Society in London. In November 1863, one month after their marriage, he and his 15-year-old wife, Canadian Mary Jane Pearson, the daughter of a Canadian archdeacon, sailed for England.
From 1864 and 1874 Palmer served with the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain. Palmer was well known not only as a soldier but as a scientist. From 1874, he undertook various postings as a surveyor, civil engineer, astronomer in New Zealand, Hong Kong, Japan. At some point before Palmer headed out for Japan, he and his wife parted, she returned to her native British Columbia. After retiring from the Royal Engineers in 1887, he settled in Japan, established a successful civilian practice in Yokohama, where he was hired by the Japanese government to develop designs for the harbor, Ōsanbashi Pier and the city waterworks, he was a frequent contributor of letters and articles to the Japan Times, Japan Weekly Mail and other newspapers and periodicals, was a correspondent for the London Times. He wrote a profusely illustrated guidebook to Japan, "Letters from the Land of the Rising Sun". At some point around 1890, he remarried to Uta Saito, with whom he had a daughter. After his death in 1893 from typhoid fever, he was buried at the Aoyama Cemetery in Tokyo.
A bronze bust of Palmer was unveiled by the Yokohama Water Works in 1987 to commemorate the centennial of its foundation. The Yokohama Archives of History held a special exhibition in his honor the same year. Anglo-Japanese relations O-yatoi gaikokujin'Henry Spencer Palmer, 1838-93', by Jiro Higuchi, Chapter 18, Britain & Japan: Biographical Portraits, Volume IV, edited by Hugh Cortazzi, Japan Library, 2002 ISBN 1-903350-14-X Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online Online Museum with much detailed information
Yale, British Columbia
Yale is an unincorporated town in the Canadian province of British Columbia. Located on the Fraser River, it is considered to be on the dividing line between the Coast and the Interior regions of the British Columbia Mainland. North of the town, the Fraser Canyon begins and the river is considered unnavigable past this point. Rough water is common on the Fraser anywhere upstream from Chilliwack and more so above Hope, about 20 mi south of Yale. However, steamers could make it to Yale, good pilots and water conditions permitting, the town had a busy dockside life as well as a variety of bars, hotels and various services, its maximum population during the gold rush era was in the 15,000 range. More it housed 5,000-8,000; the higher figure was counted at the time of evacuation of the Canyon during the Fraser Canyon War of 1858. Most of today's population are members of the self-governing Yale First Nation. Non-native businesses include a couple of stores, restaurants and a few motels and other services, as well as gas stations, automotive repair and rescue outfits.
The Yale area is the lowest main destination for the Fraser River rafting expedition companies. All Hallows is now a hostel. Not much of gold rush-era Yale survives, as the docks vanished long ago; the railway was built in the 1880s down the main street of. The Yale Museum is located on old Front Street, adjacent to the tracks. Next to it is the Anglican Church of St. John the Divine, among the oldest in British Columbia; the town has a spectacular natural landscape. Every summer, a historical re-enactment group visits Yale to celebrate the Royal Engineers, who had served under Richard Clement Moody during McGowan's War, they worked on the Cariboo Wagon Road and the Douglas-Lillooet Trail. The men were an integral part of Yale's life from the gold rush to the end of the 1870s; the town was founded in 1848 by the Hudson's Bay Company as Fort Yale by Ovid Allard, the appointed manager of the new post, who named it after his superior, James Murray Yale Chief Factor of the Columbia District. In its heyday at the peak of the gold rush, it was reputed to be the largest city west of Chicago and north of San Francisco.
It earned epithets such as "the wickedest little settlement in British Columbia" and "a veritable Sodom and Gomorrah" of vice and lawlessness. Yale played an important role in certain events of the gold rush period which threatened British control in the region with annexation by the United States: the Fraser Canyon War and McGowan's War; the Governor came to Yale during the first crisis, government officials Matthew Baillie Begbie, Chartres Brew and Richard Clement Moody during the second, to address American miners and take control of matters. The unrest threatened the rule of the Crown over the Mainland (or "New Caledonia" as it was called before the creation of the mainland colony.. As Yale was the head of river navigation, it was the best location to be designated for the start of the Cariboo Wagon Road, as there were no usable roads between Yale and the settlements nearer the Fraser's mouth; the Cariboo Road, built in the early 1860s, ran from Yale to Barkerville via Lytton and Quesnel.
By the start of the 1870s, an overland route from New Westminster was built - the Yale Road along the south side of the river. It was known as the Grand Trunk Road and in the 21st century as Old Yale Road, its counterpart on the north side of the river was the Dewdney Trunk Road, built in the same period in advance of railway construction in the 1880s. That road ran only to Dewdney, just east of Mission City; because of its unique role as a transshipment point for the Cariboo Road, Yale prospered for another twenty years after the gold rush. Although it declined in population, it retained some prestige and such sophistication as had grown up within the rough gold town, it was as familiar to early provincial high society as were distant Barkerville. During the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, construction ran directly through the village, built on flatland by the river, it destroyed the connection of the town life to the waterfront. As Yale was handy for travel to and from New Westminster and the railway's destination on Burrard Inlet, it became the headquarters and residence of the American railway contractor Andrew Onderdonk, who supervised its construction.
The town boomed with population and new businesses because of railway employment. Yale and nearby Emory City, in the vicinity of Hill's Bar, where the gold rush had begun, as well as all the major Canyon towns to Ashcroft, thronged with temporary residents and business of various kinds and legitimacies. Three-times daily rail service to Vancouver - begun in the early 1880s before construction in the Canyon was finished in 1885 - made Yale a popular excursion run. With construction ended, the population dropped in Yale by 1890, continued to decline afterward. Daily return service remained in effect until World War I; when Onderdonk moved on in 1886, he donated his estate for All Hallows. This was ranked as one of the main society schools in the colony and continued to operate for decades, into the 1920s. Construction of the railway destroyed parts of the Cariboo Wagon Road, severed between Yale
Colony of British Columbia (1858–1866)
The Colony of British Columbia was a crown colony in British North America from 1858 until 1866. It was founded by Richard Clement Moody, who became the first Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia from 1858 to 1863. At its creation, it physically constituted half the present day Canadian province of British Columbia, since it did not include the Colony of Vancouver Island, the vast and still uninhabited regions north of the Nass and Finlay Rivers, the regions east of the Rocky Mountains, or any of the coastal islands; the Colony of the Queen Charlotte Islands and the Stikine Territory were merged with it in 1863, it was amalgamated in 1866 with the Colony of Vancouver Island to form a new Colony of British Columbia. The explorations of James Cook and George Vancouver, the concessions of Spain in 1794 established British claims over the coastal area north of California. Similar claims were established inland via the explorations of such men as John Finlay, Sir Alexander Mackenzie, Simon Fraser, Samuel Black, David Thompson, by the subsequent establishment of fur trading posts by the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company.
However, until 1858, the region which now comprises the mainland of the Province of British Columbia was an unorganised area of British North America comprising two fur trading districts: New Caledonia, north of the Thompson River drainage. With the signing of the Treaty of Washington in 1846, which established the US border along the 49th parallel, the HBC moved the headquarters of its western operations from Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River to the newly established Fort Victoria, on the southern tip of Vancouver Island. Vancouver Island and the surrounding Gulf Islands in the Strait of Georgia were organised as a crown colony in 1849. Meanwhile, the mainland continued to function under the de facto administration of the HBC, whose chief executive, James Douglas happened to be governor of Vancouver Island; the non-aboriginal mainland population during this time never exceeded about 150 at Fort Victoria HBC employees and their families. By 1857, Americans and British were beginning to respond to rumors of gold in the Thompson River area.
Overnight, some ten to twenty thousand men moved into the region around present-day Yale, British Columbia, sparking the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Governor Douglas - who had no legal authority over New Caledonia – stationed a gunboat at the entrance of the Fraser River to exert such authority by collecting licences from prospectors attempting to make their way upstream. To normalize its jurisdiction, undercut any HBC claims to the resource wealth of the mainland, the district was converted to a Crown colony on 2 August 1858 by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, given the name British Columbia. Douglas was offered the governorship of the new colony by the colonial secretary, Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, on condition that he sever his relationship with the HBC. Douglas accepted these conditions, a knighthood; the influx of people into the new colony required Douglas to act in drawing up regulations and creating infrastructure. Magistrates and constables were hired, mining regulations drawn up, town sites surveyed at Yale and Fort Langley to discourage squatting on crown land.
In addition, roads were constructed into the areas of greatest mining exploration around Lillooet and Lytton. The colony, was not granted a representative colonial assembly, because of uncertainty as to whether the gold rush would yield a stable, settled population. Douglas, who had endured unhappy conflicts with the assembly on Vancouver Island, was relieved; the rush indeed was short lived, the exodus of miners and merchants was underway by the time the Royal Engineers had laid out the colony's new capital at New Westminster. Prospecting continued and additional finds farther inland in the Cariboo region in 1860 signalled an impending second gold rush. Provisioning was proving to be an acute problem, with more distant finds it became clear that wagon trains would have to replace pack horses, necessitating new infrastructure. Throughout his tenure, Douglas was engaged in a bitter feud with Richard Clement Moody; when news of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush reached London, Moody was hand-picked by the Colonial Office, under Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, to establish British order and to transform the newly established Colony of British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west" and "found a second England on the shores of the Pacific".
Lytton desired to send to the colony "representatives of the best of British culture, not just a police force": he sought men who possessed "courtesy, high breeding and urbane knowledge of the world" and he decided to send Moody, whom the Government considered to be the archetypal "English gentleman and British Officer" at the head of the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, created by an Act of the British Parliament on 2 August 1858. The Engineers were believed to exemplify the qualities sought by the Government. Moody and his family arrived in British Columbia in December 1858, commanding the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, he was sworn in as the first Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia and appointed Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for British Columbia. On the advice of Lytton, Moody hired Robert Burnaby as his personal secretary, the two became close friends. Moody's letter to his friend Arthur Blackwood Esq. at the Colonial Office, dated 1 February 1859, contains several passages of sublime poetical description that demonstrate the qualitie
Kingsway is a major thoroughfare that crosses through the Canadian cities of Vancouver and Burnaby, British Columbia. The road runs diagonally from northwest to southeast, emerging from Vancouver's Main Street just south of East 7th Avenue and becoming 12th Street at the Burnaby–New Westminster border. Kingsway is one of the longest roads in the Metropolitan Vancouver area and is therefore somewhat difficult to characterize. Many segments of the road offer diverse family-owned and ethnic shopping opportunities and restaurants Korean, Vietnamese, Japanese, South Asian among others. There are a number of hotels and freestanding fast-food locations along other portions of its route; the road forms the central commercial spine for Burnaby's Metrotown business district, is the principal route between Metrotown and Downtown Vancouver. Kingsway is one of the region's main public transit corridors, with numerous bus routes operating along the road. In addition, the SkyTrain tracks parallel Kingsway from Victoria Drive in Vancouver to Edmonds Street in Burnaby, crossing from the road's north side to its south side east of Boundary Road around Central Park.
Kingsway follows. When the wagon road was built over it by the Royal Engineers between Vancouver's historic Gastown waterfront and the former capital of the Colony of British Columbia at New Westminster, as recommended by Colonel Richard Moody to facilitate troops movement between the two points; the trail opened in 1860, cut diagonally across Burrard Peninsula following its gentlest incline, peaking near Metrotown in Burnaby. The road thus lies at an angle to Vancouver's street grid, which had not yet been laid when the road was first built; as Vancouver became established with a street grid beyond Gastown, the route was named Westminster Road. The stretch of the road through Burnaby was widened in 1872, became known as the Vancouver Road; this section of the road was further improved following Burnaby's municipal incorporation in 1892. The provincial and municipal governments joined forces in 1912 to improve and pave the road, which reopened on September 30, 1913 as Kingsway. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, government make-work projects saw labourers widen Kingsway so that now it has six lanes along most of its length.
The road was numbered provincial Highway 1 and Highway 99, was a component of the Trans-Canada Highway until that designation was transferred to the newly constructed freeway-standard Highway 401 in 1964. Kingsway remained as part of Highways 1 and 99 until those numbers were transferred to the new Trans-Canada Highway and the Deas Island Throughway between 1971 and 1972, at which point the road became an official alternate route for the Trans-Canada Highway and Highway 99 until those designations were cancelled in the 2000s. In October 2011, Vancouver City Council approved a motion put forward by Councillor Kerry Jang to consider designating the section of Kingsway between Fraser and Nanaimo Streets as Little Saigon; the Canadian poet Michael Turner based his book of Kingsway, on the road. Vancouver illustrator Bambi Edlund includes an Ode to Kingsway in her daily drawing project. Media related to Kingsway at Wikimedia Commons
Land grabbing is the contentious issue of large-scale land acquisitions: the buying or leasing of large pieces of land by domestic and transnational companies and individuals. While used broadly throughout history, land grabbing as used in the 21st century refers to large-scale land acquisitions following the 2007–08 world food price crisis. Obtaining water resources is critical to the land acquisitions, so it has led to an associated trend of water grabbing. By prompting food security fears within the developed world and new found economic opportunities for agricultural investors, the food price crisis caused a dramatic spike in large-scale agricultural investments foreign, in the Global South for the purpose of industrial food and biofuels production. Although hailed by investors and some developing countries as a new pathway towards agricultural development, investment in land in the 21st century has been criticized by some non-governmental organizations and commentators as having a negative impact on local communities.
International law is implicated. The term "land grabbing" is defined as large-scale land acquisitions, either buying or leasing; the size of the land deal is multiples of 1,000 square kilometres or 100,000 hectares and thus much larger than in the past. The term is itself controversial. In 2011, Borras and others wrote that "the phrase'global land grab' has become a catch-all to describe and analyze the current trend towards large scale national commercial land transactions." Ruth Hall wrote elsewhere that the "term'land grabbing', while effective as activist terminology, obscures vast differences in the legality and outcomes of commercial land deals and deflects attention from the roles of domestic elites and governments as partners and beneficiaries."In Portuguese, Land Grabbing is translated as "grilagem": "Much is said about grilagem and the term may be curious... document aged by the action of insects... However, for those who live in the interior of the country, the expression reveals a dark, violent meaning, involving abuses and arbitrary actions against the former occupants with forced loss of possession by the taking of land " The term grilagem applies to irregular procedures and / or illegal private landholding with violence in the countryside, exploitation of wealth, environmental damage and the threat to sovereignty, given their gigantic proportions.
The Overseas Development Institute reported in January 2013, that with limited data available in general and existing data associated with NGOs interested in generating media attention in particular, the scale of global land trade may have been exaggerated. They found the figures below provide a variety of estimates, all in the tens of millions of hectares; the International Food Policy Research Institute estimated in 2009 between 15 and 20 million hectares of farmland in developing countries had changed hands since 2006. As of January 2013 the Land Portal’s Land Matrix data totalled 49 million hectares of deals globally, although only 26 million hectares of these are transnational. A 2011 World Bank report by Klaus Deininger reported 56 million hectares worldwide. Friis & Reenberg reported in 63 million hectares in Africa alone; the GRAIN database published in January 2012, quantified 35 million hectares, although when stripping out more developed economies such as Australia, New Zealand, Russia and Romania, the amount in the GRAIN database reduces to 25 million hectares.
Between 1990 and 2011, in the West Bank 195 km2 of land was expropriated by Israel, without compensation for the local owners, allocated to immigrants for new settlements and for the establishment of large farms. Water for the local population became sparse. In 2016, as a part of a permanent process 300 acres of land were added. Most seem to arrive at a ballpark of 20-60 million hectares. Given that total global farmland takes up just over 4 billion hectares, these acquisitions could equate to around 1 per cent of global farmland. However, in practice, land acquired may not have been used as farmland, it may be covered by forests, which equate to about 4 billion hectares worldwide, so transnational land acquisitions may have a significant role in ongoing deforestation; the researchers thought that a sizeable number of deals remain questionable in terms of size and whether they have been finalised and implemented. The land database relies on one or two media sources and may not track whether the investments take place, or whether the full quantity reported takes place.
For example, a number of deals in the GRAIN database appear to have stalled including - 1 million hectares taken between US firms Arc Cap and Nile Trading and Development Inc in Sudan A 400,000 hectare deal between China and Colombia that seems to have stalled The 325,000 hectare investment by Agrisol in Tanzania A 324,000 hectare purchase of land by the UAE in Pakistan A suspended 320,000 hectare purchase by Chinese investors in Argentina. The researchers claim these are only those that have been checked, amount to nearly 10 per cent of the GRAIN database transnational land acquisitions. Deals are reported. For example, Indian investment in Tanzania is reported at 300,000 hectares operating on just 1,000 hectares Olam International’s investment in Gabon reported at 300,000 hectares operating on just 50,000 Three investments amounting to 600,000 hectares in Liberia, with Equatorial Palm Oil’s deal reported at 169,000 hectares, despite their plans t