Anne, Princess Royal
Anne, Princess Royal, is the second child and only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of her birth, she was third in the line of succession to the British throne, behind her mother – Princess Elizabeth – and elder brother, Charles, she rose to second after her mother's accession, but is thirteenth in line. Anne is known for her charitable work, is a patron of over 200 organisations, she is known for equestrian talents. Princess Anne is its seventh holder. Anne was married to Captain Mark Phillips in 1973, they have four grandchildren. In 1992, within months of her divorce, Anne married Commander Sir Timothy Laurence, whom she had met while he served as her mother's equerry between 1986 and 1989. Anne was born in the reign of her maternal grandfather George VI at Clarence House on 15 August 1950 at 11:50 am, as the second child and only daughter of Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. A 21-gun salute signalled the birth in Hyde Park.
Anne was baptised in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 21 October 1950, by Archbishop of York, Cyril Garbett. A governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed to look after Anne and was responsible for her early education at Buckingham Palace. After the death of George VI, Anne's mother ascended the throne as Queen Elizabeth II. Given her young age at the time, she did not attend the coronation. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company to include the Holy Trinity Brompton Brownie pack, was re-formed in May 1959 so that, as her mother and aunt had done as children, Anne could socialise with girls her own age; the Company was active until 1963. Anne enrolled at Benenden School in 1963. In 1968, she left school with six GCE O-Levels and two A-Levels. In the next couple of years, Anne started dating. In 1970, her first boyfriend was Andrew Parker Bowles, who became the first husband of Camilla Shand. Anne first met her future husband Mark Phillips at a party for horse enthusiasts in 1968.
Their engagement was announced on 29 May 1973. On 14 November 1973, Princess Anne married Mark Phillips, a lieutenant in the 1st Queen's Dragoon Guards, at Westminster Abbey in a ceremony, televised around the world, with an estimated audience of 100 million. Following the wedding and her husband lived at Gatcombe Park, he was made acting captain by the start of 1974 when he was appointed a personal aide-de-camp to Queen Elizabeth II. As was customary for untitled men marrying into the royal family, Phillips was offered an earldom, he declined this offer leading to their children being born without courtesy titles. The couple would have two children and Zara Phillips. On 31 August 1989, Princess Anne and Mark Phillips announced their intention to separate, as the marriage had been under strain for a number of years; the couple had been seen in the public together, both were romantically linked with other people. They continued to share the custody of their children, announced that "there were no plans for divorce."
They divorced on 23 April 1992. Anne and Phillips have four grandchildren; as Princess Anne and Mark Phillips were returning to Buckingham Palace on 20 March 1974, from a charity event on Pall Mall, their Princess IV car was forced to stop on the Mall by a Ford Escort. The driver of the Escort, Ian Ball, began firing a pistol. Inspector James Beaton, Anne's personal police officer, responded by getting out of the car in order to shield her and to attempt to disarm Ball. Beaton's firearm, a Walther PPK, he was shot by the assailant, as was Anne's chauffeur, Alex Callender, when he tried to disarm Ball. Brian McConnell, a nearby tabloid journalist intervened, was shot in the chest. Ball approached Anne's car and told her of his kidnapping plan, to hold her for ransom, the sum given by varying sources as £2 million or £3 million, which he claimed he intended to give to the National Health Service. Ball directed Anne to get out of the car, to which she replied: "Not bloody likely!", briefly considered hitting Ball.
She exited the other side of the limousine as had her lady-in-waiting, Rowena Brassey. A passing pedestrian, a former boxer named Ron Russell, punched Ball in the back of the head and led Anne away from the scene. At that point, Police Constable Michael Hills happened upon the situation. Detective Constable Peter Edmonds, nearby and gave chase arresting Ball. Beaton, Callender and McConnell were hospitalised, all recovered from their wounds. For his defence of Princess Anne, Beaton was awarded the George Cross by the Queen, visiting Indonesia when the incident occurred. Anne visited Beaton in hospital and thanked him for his assistance. Ball plead
Mary of Teck
Mary of Teck was Queen of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India as the wife of King George V. Although technically a princess of Teck, in the Kingdom of Württemberg, she was born and raised in England, her parents were Francis, Duke of Teck, of German extraction, Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, a granddaughter of King George III. She was informally known after her birth month. At the age of 24, she was betrothed to her second cousin once removed Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, the eldest son of the Prince of Wales, but six weeks after the announcement of the engagement, he died unexpectedly during an influenza pandemic; the following year, she became engaged to Albert Victor's next surviving brother, who subsequently became king. Before her husband's accession, she was successively Duchess of York, Duchess of Cornwall, Princess of Wales; as queen consort from 1910, she supported her husband through the First World War, his ill health, major political changes arising from the aftermath of the war.
After George's death in 1936, she became queen mother when her eldest son, Edward VIII, ascended the throne, but to her dismay, he abdicated the same year in order to marry twice-divorced American socialite Wallis Simpson. She supported her second son, George VI, until his death in 1952, she died the following year, during the reign of her granddaughter Elizabeth II, who had not yet been crowned. Princess Victoria Mary of Teck was born on 26 May 1867 at Kensington Palace, London, in the same room where Queen Victoria, her first cousin once removed, was born 48 years and two days earlier. Queen Victoria came to visit the baby, writing that she was "a fine one, with pretty little features and a quantity of hair". May would become the first queen consort born in England since Catherine Parr, her father was Prince Francis, Duke of Teck, the son of Duke Alexander of Württemberg by his morganatic wife, Countess Claudine Rhédey von Kis-Rhéde. Her mother was Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge, a granddaughter of King George III and the third child and younger daughter of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel.
She was baptised in the Chapel Royal of Kensington Palace on 27 July 1867 by Charles Thomas Longley, Archbishop of Canterbury. From an early age, she was known to her family and the public by the diminutive name of "May", after her birth month. May's upbringing was "merry but strict", she was the eldest of four children, the only daughter, "learned to exercise her native discretion and tact" by resolving her three younger brothers' petty boyhood squabbles. They played with the children of the Prince of Wales, who were similar in age, she grew up at Kensington Palace and White Lodge, in Richmond Park, granted by Queen Victoria on permanent loan, was educated at home by her mother and governess. The Duchess of Teck spent an unusually long time with her children for a lady of her time and class, enlisted May in various charitable endeavours, which included visiting the tenements of the poor. Although May was a great-grandchild of George III, she was only a minor member of the British royal family.
Her father, the Duke of Teck, had no inheritance or wealth and carried the lower royal style of Serene Highness because his parents' marriage was morganatic. The Duchess of Teck was granted a parliamentary annuity of £5,000 and received about £4,000 a year from her mother, the Duchess of Cambridge, but she donated lavishly to dozens of charities. Prince Francis was in debt and moved his family abroad with a small staff in 1883, in order to economise, they travelled throughout Europe. They stayed in Florence, for a time, where May enjoyed visiting the art galleries and museums, she was fluent in English and French. In 1885, the family lived for some time in Chester Square. May was close to her mother, acted as an unofficial secretary, helping to organise parties and social events, she was close to her aunt, the Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, wrote to her every week. During the First World War, the Crown Princess of Sweden helped pass letters from May to her aunt, who lived in enemy territory in Germany until her death in 1916.
In 1886, Princess May was introduced at court. Her status as the only unmarried British princess, not descended from Queen Victoria made her a suitable candidate for the royal family's most eligible bachelor, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, her second cousin once removed and the eldest son of the Prince of Wales. In December 1891, May and Albert Victor were engaged; the choice of May as bride for the Duke owed much to Queen Victoria's fondness for her, as well as to her strong character and sense of duty. However, Albert Victor died six weeks in a recurrence of the worldwide 1889–90 influenza pandemic, before the date was fixed for their wedding. Albert Victor's brother, Prince George, Duke of York, now second in line to the throne, evidently became close to May during their shared period of mourning, Queen Victoria still favoured May as a suitable candidate to marry a future king; the public was anxious that the Duke of York should marry and settle the succession. In May 1893, George proposed, May accepted.
They were soon in love, their marriage was a success. George wrote to May every day. May married P
Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark
Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark known as the Duchess of Kent, was a princess of the Greek royal house, who married Prince George, Duke of Kent, fourth son of King George V of the United Kingdom in 1934. They had three children: Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, Princess Alexandra, Prince Michael; the Princess was widowed in 1942. In life, she carried out many royal engagements, including the independence celebrations for Ghana and Botswana. Princess Marina was born in Athens, Greece, on 13 December 1906, her father was the third son of George I of Greece. Her mother was Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia, a granddaughter of Emperor Alexander II of Russia, she was the youngest of the couple's children. One of her paternal uncles was Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark, the father of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, she was baptised near the end of 1906, her godparents were: King George I of Greece. Marina spent her early years in Greece, lived with her parents and paternal grandparents at Tatoi Palace.
Along with her sisters, she was raised to be devout and religious, encouraged by her grandmother, Queen Olga of Greece. Marina's family travelled outside of Greece especially during the summer months, her first recorded visit to Britain was in 1910 after the death of her godfather, Edward VII. She met her other godmother and future mother-in-law, Mary of Teck, who treated Marina and her sisters like her own children; the Greek royal family was forced into exile when Marina was 11, following the overthrow of the Greek monarchy. They moved to Paris, while the Princess stayed with her extended family throughout Europe. In 1932 Princess Marina and Prince George, a second cousin through Christian IX of Denmark, met in London, their betrothal was announced in August 1934. Prince George was created Duke of Kent on 9 October 1934. Marina's engagement ring was made out of a "square-cut Kashmir sapphire set in platinum with a baton diamond on either side". On 29 November 1934, they married at London; the wedding was a grand affair, as it had been more than ten years since the last royal wedding with Prince Albert, Duke of York, Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon.
The wedding of Prince George and Princess Marina was the first royal wedding ceremony to be broadcast by wireless, with the use of other technology, such as microphones—the control room was located underneath the Unknown Warrior's tomb of Westminster Abbey. The service was broadcast locally and abroad to other nations, loudspeakers allowed spectators from outside the Abbey to hear what was going on; the wedding was followed by a Greek ceremony in the private chapel at Buckingham Palace, converted into an Orthodox chapel for the ceremony. This was the first time this had been done since the wedding of Princess Marina's great-aunt, Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia to Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, during the reign of Queen Victoria; the wedding was the most recent occasion on which a foreign-born princess married into the British Royal Family. The bride's gown was in white and silver silk brocade, designed by Edward Molyneux, worked on by a team of seamstresses including, at Marina's request, Russian émigrées.
The dress featured "sheath silhouette, a draped cowl neckline, trumpet sleeves, a wide train." A tiara, given to her as a wedding gift, secured her tulle veil. Her eight bridesmaids were her first cousins, Greek princesses Irene and Katherine, her maternal first cousin Grand Duchess Kira Kirillovna of Russia, her first cousin once removed Princess Juliana of the Netherlands, her husband's niece Princess Elizabeth of York, her husband's cousins the Lady Iris Mountbatten and Lady Mary Cambridge; the Royal School of Needlework made a quilt as a wedding gift for Princess Marina and the Duke of Kent. The Duke and Duchess set up their first home at 3 Belgrave Square, close to Buckingham Palace, she became a patroness of several organizations and charities, including the Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital, the Women's Hospital Fund, the Central School of Speech and Drama. She would continue to support these institutions for the rest of her life, she became close to her mother-in-law, Queen Mary, with whom she would spend time while her husband was off performing his own royal duties.
The couple had three children: Prince Edward, Duke of Kent he married Katharine Lucy Mary Worsley on 8 June 1961. They have three children. Princess Alexandra, The Hon. Lady Ogilvy she married Rt. Hon. Sir Angus James Robert Bruce Ogilvy, son of David Lyulph Gore Wolseley Ogilvy, 12th Earl of Airlie and Lady Alexandra Marie Bridget Coke, on 24 April 1963, they had two children. Prince Michael of Kent he married Marie Christine von Reibnitz on 30 June 1978, they have two children. The Duke of Kent was killed on 25 August 1942, in an aeroplane crash at Eagles Rock, near Dunbeath, Scotland, while on active service with the Royal Air Force; the Duchess, according to royal biographer Hugo Vickers, was "the only war widow in Britain whose estate was forced to pay death duties". During World War II, Marina was trained as a nurse for three months under the pseudonym "Sister Kay" and joined the
Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall
Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, is a member of the British royal family. She is the second wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the British throne. Instead of using the title Princess of Wales, she uses the title Duchess of Cornwall, her husband's secondary designation. In Scotland, she is known as the Duchess of Rothesay. Camilla is the eldest child of Major Bruce Shand and his wife Rosalind Cubitt, the daughter of Roland Cubitt, 3rd Baron Ashcombe, she was raised in East Sussex and South Kensington in England, was educated in England and France. In 1973, Camilla married British Army officer Andrew Parker Bowles, they divorced in 1995. Camilla was in a relationship with the Prince of Wales before and after their previous marriages; the relationship became publicised in the media and attracted worldwide scrutiny. In 2005, it culminated in a civil marriage at Windsor Guildhall, followed by a televised Anglican blessing at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle; as Duchess of Cornwall, Camilla assists the Prince of Wales on his official duties.
She is the patron, president and a member of numerous charities and organisations. Since 1994, she has taken action on earning honours and awards, she has raised awareness in areas including rape and sexual abuse, animal welfare and poverty. Camilla Rosemary Shand was born at King's College Hospital, London, on 17 July 1947, she grew up in The Laines – an 18th-century country house in Plumpton, East Sussex – and a three-storey house in South Kensington, her family's second home. Her parents were British Army officer turned his wife, Rosalind, she has a younger sister, Annabel Elliot, had a younger brother, Mark Shand. Her maternal great-grandmother, Alice Keppel, was a mistress of King Edward VII from 1898 to 1910. On 1 November 1947, Camilla was baptised at East Sussex. Camilla's mother was a housewife, while her father had various business interests after retiring from the army, he was most notably a partner in Block and Block, a firm of wine merchants in South Audley Street, Mayfair joining Ellis and Vidler of Hastings and London.
During her childhood years, Camilla became an avid reader due to the influence of her father, who read to her frequently. She grew up with dogs and cats, and, at a young age, learnt how to ride a pony by joining Pony Club camps which garnered her frequent rosettes at community gymkhanas. According to her, childhood "was perfect in every way". Biographer Gyles Brandreth describes her background and childhood:Camilla is described as having had an "Enid Blyton sort of Childhood". In fact, it was much grander than that. Camilla, as a little girl, may have had some personality traits of George, the tomboy girl among the Famous Five, but Enid Blyton’s children were middle-class children and The Shands, without question, belonged to the upper class; the Shands had position and they had help—help in the house, help in the garden, help with children. They were gentry, they opened their garden for the local Conservative Party Association summer fête. Enough said. At the age of five, Camilla was sent to a co-educational school in Ditchling village.
She left Dumbrells aged ten to attend Queen's Gate School in South Kensington. Her classmates at Queen's Gate knew her as "Milla". One of the teachers at the school was the writer Penelope Fitzgerald, who taught French and remembered Camilla as "bright and lively". Camilla left Queen's Gate with one O-level in 1964. At the age of sixteen, she travelled abroad to attend the Mon Fertile finishing school in Tolochenaz, Switzerland. After completing her course in Switzerland, she made her own decision and travelled to France to learn French and French literature at the University of London Institute in Paris for six months. On 25 March 1965, Camilla was a debutante in one of 311 that year. After moving from home, she shared a small flat in Kensington with her friend Jane Wyndham, niece of decorator Nancy Lancaster, she moved into a larger flat in Belgravia, which she shared with her landlady Lady Moyra Campbell, the daughter of the Duke of Abercorn, with Virginia Carington, daughter of the politician Lord Carrington.
Virginia was married to Camilla's uncle Henry Cubitt from 1973 until 1979. Camilla worked as a secretary for a variety of firms in the West End and was employed as a receptionist by the decorating firm Sibyl Colefax & John Fowler in Mayfair. In her spare time, she became a passionate horse-rider and attended equestrian activities, she had a passion for painting, which led to her private tutoring with an artist, although most of her work "ended up in the bin". Other interests were fishing and gardening. In the late 1960s, Camilla met Andrew Parker Bowles—then a Guards officer and lieutenant in the Blues and Royals— through his younger brother, Simon Parker Bowles, who worked for her father's wine firm in Mayfair. After an on and off relationship for years and Camilla announced their engagement in The Times in 1973,marrying on 4 July that year in a Roman Catholic ceremony at the Guards Chapel, Wellington Barracks in London. Camilla was 25 years old and Parker Bowles 33, her wedding dress was designed by British fashion house Bellville Sassoon, the bridesmaids included Parker Bowles' goddaughter Lady
Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge
Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, is a member of the British royal family. Her husband, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, is expected to become king of the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms, making Catherine a future queen consort. Catherine grew up in Chapel Row, a village near Newbury, England, she studied art history in Scotland at the University of St Andrews, where she met William in 2001. Their engagement was announced in November 2010, they married on 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey. The couple's children, Prince George, Princess Charlotte, Prince Louis of Cambridge, are third and fifth in the line of succession to the British throne, respectively; the Duchess of Cambridge's charity works focus on issues surrounding young children and art. To encourage people to open up about their mental health issues, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and the Duke of Sussex initiated the mental health awareness campaign "Heads Together" in April 2016; the media has called Catherine's impact on British and American fashion the "Kate Middleton effect".
In 2012 and 2013, Time magazine selected her as one of the 100 Most Influential People in the World. Catherine Elizabeth Middleton was born at the Royal Berkshire Hospital in Reading on 9 January 1982 into an upper-middle-class family, she was baptised at St Andrew's Bradfield, Berkshire, on 20 June 1982. She is the eldest of three children born to Michael Middleton, his wife, Carole, a former flight dispatcher and flight attendant who in 1987 founded Party Pieces, a held mail order company that sells party supplies and decorations with an estimated worth of £30 million, her father's family has ties to British aristocracy and benefited financially from trust funds which they established over 100 years ago. Her Middleton relatives were reported as having played host to British royalty "as long ago as 1926", she has a younger sister, a younger brother, James. The family lived in Amman, from May 1984 to September 1986 where her father worked for British Airways. Middleton attended an English-language nursery school.
When her family returned to Berkshire in 1986, she was enrolled aged four at St Andrew's School, a private school near Pangbourne in Berkshire. She boarded part-weekly at St Andrew's in her years, she studied at Downe House School. She was a boarder at Marlborough College, a co-educational independent boarding school in Wiltshire, graduated in 2005 from the University of St Andrews in Fife, with an undergraduate MA in the history of art. Before university, during a gap year, she travelled to Chile to participate in a Raleigh International programme, studied at the British Institute of Florence in Italy. In November 2006, Middleton worked as an accessory buyer with the clothing chain Jigsaw, where she worked part-time until November 2007, she worked until January 2011 at the family business in catalogue design and production and photography. Prior to her marriage, Middleton lived in an apartment owned by her parents in Chelsea, estimated to be worth £1–1.4 million. In 2018, Catherine's total net worth was estimated at £5–7.3 million, most of, from her parents' company.
In 2001, Middleton met Prince William while they were students in residence at St Salvator's Hall at the University of St Andrews. She caught William's eye at a charity fashion show at the university in 2002 when she appeared on the stage wearing a see-through lace dress; the couple began dating in 2003. During their second year, Middleton shared a flat with two other friends. On 17 October 2005, Middleton complained through her lawyer about harassment from the media, stating she had done nothing significant to warrant publicity. Middleton attended Prince William's Passing Out Parade at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst on 15 December 2006. Media attention increased around the time of her 25th birthday in January 2007, prompting warnings from the Prince of Wales, Prince William, Middleton's lawyers, who threatened legal action. Two newspaper groups, News International, which publishes The Times and The Sun. In April 2007, Prince William and Middleton split up; the couple decided to break up during a holiday in the Swiss resort of Zermatt.
Newspapers speculated about the reasons for the split, although these reports relied on anonymous sources. Middleton and her family attended the Concert for Diana in July 2007 at Wembley Stadium, where she and Prince William sat two rows apart; the couple were subsequently seen together in public on a number of occasions and news sources stated that they had "rekindled their relationship". On 17 May 2008, Middleton attended the wedding of Prince William's cousin Peter Phillips to Autumn Kelly, which the prince did not attend. On 19 July 2008, she was a guest at the wedding of Lady Rose George Gilman. Prince William was away on military operations in the Caribbean, serving aboard HMS Iron Duke. In 2010, Middleton pursued an invasion of privacy claim against two agencies and photographer Niraj Tanna, who took photographs of her over Christmas 2009, she obtained a public apology, £5,000 in damages, legal costs. Prince William and Catherine Middleton became engaged in October 2010, in Kenya, during a 10-day trip to the Lewa Wildlife Conservancy to celebrate his passing the RAF helicopter search and rescue course.
Clarence House announced the engagement on 16 November 2010. Prince William gave Middleton the engagement ring that had belonged to his mother, Di
Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales, was a member of the British royal family. She was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, the mother of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex. Diana was born into the Spencer family, a family of British nobility, she was the youngest daughter of Viscount and Viscountess Althorp, she grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate, was educated in England and Switzerland. In 1975, after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer, she became known as Lady Diana Spencer. Diana came to prominence in February 1981 upon engagement to Prince Charles, the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II, their wedding took place at St Paul's Cathedral on 29 July 1981 and made her Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, Countess of Chester. The marriage produced two sons, the princes William and Harry, who were respectively second and third in the line of succession to the British throne; as Princess of Wales, Diana undertook royal duties on behalf of the Queen and represented her at functions overseas.
She was celebrated for her charity work and for her support of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. Diana was involved with dozens of charities including London's Great Ormond Street Hospital for children, of which she was president from 1989, she raised awareness and advocated ways to help people affected with HIV/AIDS, mental illness. Diana remained the object of worldwide media scrutiny during and after her marriage, which ended in divorce on 28 August 1996 following well-publicised extramarital affairs by both parties. Media attention and public mourning were extensive after her death in a car crash in a Paris tunnel on 31 August 1997 and subsequent televised funeral. Diana Frances Spencer was born on 1 July 1961, in Park House, Norfolk, she was the fourth of five children of John Spencer, Viscount Althorp, his first wife, Frances. The Spencer family has been allied with the British royal family for several generations; the Spencers were hoping for a boy to carry on the family line, no name was chosen for a week, until they settled on Diana Frances, after her mother and after Lady Diana Spencer, a many-times-great-aunt, a prospective Princess of Wales.
On 30 August 1961, Diana was baptised at Sandringham. She grew up with three siblings: Sarah and Charles, her infant brother, died shortly after his birth one year before Diana was born. The desire for an heir added strain to the Spencers' marriage, Lady Althorp was sent to Harley Street clinics in London to determine the cause of the "problem"; the experience was described as "humiliating" by Diana's younger brother, Charles: "It was a dreadful time for my parents and the root of their divorce because I don't think they got over it." Diana grew up in Park House, situated on the Sandringham estate. The Spencers leased the house from its owner, Queen Elizabeth II; the royal family holidayed at the neighbouring Sandringham House, Diana played with the Queen's sons Prince Andrew and Prince Edward. Diana was seven years old, her mother began a relationship with Peter Shand Kydd and married him in 1969. Diana lived with her mother in London during her parents' separation in 1967, but during that year's Christmas holidays, Lord Althorp refused to let Diana return to London with Lady Althorp.
Shortly afterwards he won custody of Diana with support from his former mother-in-law, Ruth Roche, Baroness Fermoy. In 1976, Lord Althorp married Countess of Dartmouth. Diana's relationship with her stepmother was bad, she resented Raine, whom she called a "bully", on one occasion Diana "pushed her down the stairs". She described her childhood as "very unhappy" and "very unstable, the whole thing". Diana became known as Lady Diana after her father inherited the title of Earl Spencer in 1975, at which point her father moved the entire family from Park House to Althorp, the Spencer seat in Northamptonshire. Diana was home-schooled under the supervision of her governess, Gertrude Allen, she began her formal education at Silfield Private School in Gayton and moved to Riddlesworth Hall School, an all-girls boarding school near Thetford, when she was nine. She joined her sisters at West Heath Girls' School in Sevenoaks, Kent, in 1973, she did not shine academically. Her outstanding community spirit was recognised with an award from West Heath.
She left West Heath. Her brother Charles recalls her as being quite shy up until that time, she showed a talent for music as an accomplished pianist. Diana excelled in swimming and diving, studied ballet and tap dance. After attending Institut Alpin Videmanette for one term in 1978, Diana returned to London, where she shared her mother's flat with two school friends. In London, she took an advanced cooking course, but cooked for her roommates, she took a series of low-paying jobs. She found employment as a playgroup pre-school assistant, did some cleaning work for her sister Sarah and several of her friends, acted as a hostess at parties. Diana spent time working as a nanny for the Robertsons, an American family living in London, worked as a nursery teacher's assistant at the Young England School in Pimlico. In July 1979, her mother bought her a flat at Coleherne Court in Earl's Court as an 18
Order of the Companions of Honour
The Order of the Companions of Honour is an order of the Commonwealth realms. It was founded on 4 June 1917 by King George V as a reward for outstanding achievements and is "conferred upon a limited number of persons for whom this special distinction seems to be the most appropriate form of recognition, constituting an honour disassociated either from the acceptance of title or the classification of merit."Founded on the same date as the Order of the British Empire, it is sometimes regarded as the junior order to the Order of Merit. Now described as "awarded for having a major contribution to the arts, medicine, or government lasting over a long period of time", the first recipients, were all decorated for "services in connection with the war" and were listed in The London Gazette The Chapel Royal at Hampton Court is now the Chapel of the Order; the order consists of a maximum 65 members. Additionally, foreigners or Commonwealth citizens from outside the realms may be added as honorary members.
Membership confers no title or precedence, but those inducted into the single-class order are entitled to use the post-nominal letters CH. Appointments can be made on the advice of Commonwealth realm prime ministers. For Canadians, the advice to the Sovereign can come from a variety of officials; the order was limited to 50 ordinary members, but in 1943 it was enlarged to 65, with a quota of 45 members for the United Kingdom, seven for Australia, two each for New Zealand and South Africa, 9 for India and the other British colonies. The quota numbers were altered in 1970 to 47 for the United Kingdom, 7 for Australia, 2 for New Zealand, 9 for other Commonwealth realms; the quota was adjusted again in 1975 by adding 2 places to the New Zealand quota and reducing the 9 for the other countries to 7. While still able to nominate candidates to the Order, Australia has stopped the allocation of this award to their citizens in preference to its national awards. Margaret MacMillan, a Canadian historian, was given the award in 2017.
Dame Kiri Te Kanawa, a New Zealand soprano, was given the award in 2018. The insignia of the order is in the form of an oval medallion, surmounted by an imperial crown, with a rectangular panel within, depicting on it an oak tree, a shield with the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom hanging from one branch, and, on the left, a mounted knight in armour; the insignia's blue border bears in gold letters the motto IN ACTION FAITHFUL AND IN HONOUR CLEAR, Alexander Pope's description in his Epistle to Mr Addison of James Craggs used on Craggs' monument in Westminster Abbey. Men wear women on a bow at the left shoulder. Sovereign Queen Elizabeth II List of Members of the Order of the Companions of Honour List of honorary British knights and dames List of people who have declined a British honour