Nagoya is the largest city in the Chūbu region of Japan. It is the third-most-populous urban area, it is located on the Pacific coast on central Honshu. It is the capital of Aichi Prefecture and is one of Japan's major ports along with those of Tokyo, Kobe, Yokohama and Kitakyushu, it is the center of Japan's third-largest metropolitan region, known as the Chūkyō metropolitan area. As of 2015, 2.28 million people lived in the city, part of Chūkyō Metropolitan Area's 10.11 million people. It is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world; the city's name was written as 那古野 or 名護屋. One possible origin is the adjective nagoyaka, meaning'peaceful'; the name Chūkyō, consisting of chū + kyō is used to refer to Nagoya. Notable examples of the use of the name Chūkyō include the Chūkyō Industrial Area, Chūkyō Metropolitan Area, Chūkyō Television Broadcasting, Chukyo University and the Chukyo Racecourse. Oda Nobunaga and his protégés Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu were powerful warlords based in the Nagoya area who succeeded in unifying Japan.
In 1610, Tokugawa Ieyasu moved the capital of Owari Province from Kiyosu, about seven kilometers away, to a more strategic location in present-day Nagoya. During this period Nagoya Castle was constructed, built from materials taken from Kiyosu Castle. During the construction, the entire town around Kiyosu Castle, consisting of around 60,000 people, moved from Kiyosu to the newly planned town around Nagoya Castle. Around the same time, the nearby ancient Atsuta Shrine was designated as a waystation, called Miya, on the important Tōkaidō road, which linked the two capitals of Kyoto and Edo. A town developed around the temple to support travelers; the castle and shrine towns formed the city. During the Meiji Restoration Japan's provinces were restructured into prefectures and the government changed from family to bureaucratic rule. Nagoya was proclaimed a city on October 1, 1889, designated a city on September 1, 1956, by government ordinance. Nagoya became an industrial hub for the region, its economic sphere included the famous pottery towns of Tokoname and Seto, as well as Okazaki, one of the only places where gunpowder was produced under the shogunate.
Other industries included cotton and complex mechanical dolls called karakuri ningyō. Mitsubishi Aircraft Company was established in 1920 in Nagoya and became one of the largest aircraft manufacturers in Japan; the availability of space and the central location of the region and the well-established connectivity were some of the major factors that lead to the establishment of the aviation industry there. Nagoya was the target of US air raids during World War II; the population of Nagoya at this time was estimated to be 1.5 million, fourth among Japanese cities and one of the three largest centers of the Japanese aircraft industry. It was estimated. Important Japanese aircraft targets were within the city itself, while others were to the north of Kagamigahara, it was estimated that they produced between 40% and 50% of Japanese combat aircraft and engines, such as the vital Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter. The Nagoya area produced machine tools, railway equipment, metal alloys, motor vehicles and processed foods during World War II.
Air raids began on April 18, 1942, with an attack on a Mitsubishi Heavy Industries aircraft works, the Matsuhigecho oil warehouse, the Nagoya Castle military barracks and the Nagoya war industries plant. The bombing continued through the spring of 1945, included large-scale firebombing. Nagoya was the target of two of Bomber Command’s attacks; these incendiary attacks, one by day and one by night, devastated 15.3 square kilometres. The XXI Bomber Command established a new U. S. Army Air Force record with the greatest tonnage released on a single target in one mission—3,162 tons of incendiaries, it destroyed or damaged twenty-eight of the numbered targets and raised the area burned to one-fourth of the entire city. Nagoya Castle, being used as a military command post, was hit and destroyed on May 14, 1945. Reconstruction of the main building was completed in 1959. In 1959, the city was flooded and damaged by the Ise-wan Typhoon. Nagoya lies north of Ise Bay on the Nōbi Plain; the city was built on low-level plateaus to ward off floodwaters.
The plain is one of the nation's most fertile areas. The Kiso River flows to the west along the city border, the Shōnai River comes from the northeast and turns south towards the bay at Nishi Ward; the man-made Hori River was constructed as a canal in 1610. It flows as part of the Shōnai River system; the rivers allowed for trade with the hinterland. The Tempaku River feeds from a number of smaller river in the east, flows south at Nonami and west at Ōdaka into the bay; the city's location and its position in the centre of Japan allowed it to develop economically and politically. Nagoya has 16 wards: Nagoya has a humid subtropical climate with hot summers and cool winters; the summer is noticeably wetter than the winter. One of the earliest censuses, carried out in 1889, counted 157,496 residents; the population reached the 1 million mark in 1934 and as of December 2010 had an estimated population of 2,259,993 with a population density of 6,923 persons per km2. As of December 2010 an estimated 1,019,859 households resided there—a significant increase from 153,370 at the end of World War II in 1945.
The area i
Brussels International 1910
Exposition Universelle et Internationale was a world's fair held in Brussels in 1910 from 23 April to 1 November. This was just thirteen years, it covered 220 acres and lost 100,000 Belgian Francs. A major site for the exhibition was the Mont des Arts, although the site was demolished during the post-war construction process of Brusselization. 26 countries participated, including France and Germany whose Attaché des Reichskommissars was Heinrich Albert. The fine art section included modern art loaned by the French including 3 works each by Monet and Renoir and 2 works by Matisse. Painters who participated included the Belgian Aloïs Boudry who won a silver medal, the French Adrien Karbowsky; the altarpiece of the St. Jan Berchmans Church, Brussels was presented; the Belgian engineer Jean-Baptiste Flamme exhibited his new Type 10 pacific locomotive. There was a big fire on 15 August which gutted several pavilions; the Hotel Astoria, Brussels was built for the fair, is now a protected monument. Colonial exhibition Human zoo Official website of the BIE 1910 Brussels, a section of Jon Paul Sank's World's Fairs page.
The section has about 50 links, including websites and pages, maps and texts. Retrieved March 29, 2019
The Centennial International Exhibition of 1876, the first official World's Fair in the United States, was held in Philadelphia, from May 10 to November 10, 1876, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia. Named the International Exhibition of Arts and Products of the Soil and Mine, it was held in Fairmount Park along the Schuylkill River on fairgrounds designed by Herman J. Schwarzmann. Nearly 10 million visitors attended thirty-seven countries participated in it; the Great Central Fair, Pennsylvania held in 1864, one of the many sanitary fairs held during the Civil War, anticipated the combination of public and commercial efforts that were necessary for the Centennial. The Great Central Fair, held on Logan Square, had a similar gothic appearance, the waving flags, the huge central hall, the "curiosities" and relics and industrial exhibits, a visit from the President and his family, provided a creative and communal means for ordinary citizens to promote the welfare of Union soldiers and dedicate themselves to the survival of the nation.
They made Philadelphia a vital center in the Union war effort. The idea of the Centennial Exposition is credited to John L. Campbell, a professor of mathematics, natural philosophy and astronomy at Wabash College, Indiana. In December 1866, Campbell suggested to Philadelphia Mayor Morton McMichael that the United States Centennial be celebrated with an exposition in Philadelphia. Detractors said the project would not be able to find funding, other nations might not attend, U. S. exhibitions might compare poorly to foreign exhibits. The Franklin Institute became an early supporter of the exposition and asked the Philadelphia City Council for use of Fairmount Park. With reference to the numerous events of national importance that were held in the past and related to the City of Philadelphia, the City Council resolved in January 1870, to hold the Centennial Exposition in the city in 1876; the Philadelphia City Council and the Pennsylvania General Assembly created a committee to study the project and seek support of the U.
S. Congress. Congressman William D. Kelley spoke for the city and state and Daniel Johnson Morrell introduced a bill to create a United States Centennial Commission; the bill, which passed on March 3, 1871, provided that the U. S. government would not be liable for any expenses. The United States Centennial Commission organized on March 3, 1872, with Joseph R. Hawley of Connecticut as president; the Centennial Commission's commissioners included one representative from each state and territory in the United States. On June 1, 1872, Congress created a Centennial Board of Finance to help raise money; the board's president was John Welsh, brother of philanthropist William Welsh, who had raised funds for The Great Sanitary Fair in 1864. The board was authorized to sell up to $10 million in stock via $10 shares; the board sold $1,784,320 worth of shares by February 22, 1873. Philadelphia contributed $1.5 million and Pennsylvania gave $1 million. On February 11, 1876, Congress appropriated $1.5 million in a loan.
The board thought it was a subsidy, but after the Centennial ended, the federal government sued for the money back, the United States Supreme Court forced repayment. John Welsh enlisted help from the women of Philadelphia who had helped him in The Great Sanitary Fair. A Women's Centennial Executive Committee was formed with Elizabeth Duane Gillespie, a descendant of Benjamin Franklin, as president. In its first few months, the group raised $40,000; when the group learned the planning commission was not doing much to display the work of women, the group raised $30,000 for a women's exhibition building. In 1873, the Centennial Commission named Alfred T. Goshorn as the director general of the Exposition; the Fairmount Park Commission set aside 450 acres of West Fairmount Park for the exposition, dedicated on July 4, 1873, by Secretary of the Navy George M. Robeson; the Commission decided to classify the exhibits into seven departments: agriculture, art and science, machinery and mining and metallurgy.
Newspaper publisher John W. Forney agreed to head and pay for a Philadelphia commission sent to Europe to invite nations to exhibit at the exposition. Despite fears of a European boycott and high American tariffs making foreign goods not worthwhile, no European country declined the invitation. To accommodate out-of-town visitors, temporary hotels were constructed near the Centennial's grounds. A Centennial Lodging-House Agency made a list of rooms in hotels, boarding houses and private homes and sold tickets for the available rooms in cities promoting the Centennial or on trains heading for Philadelphia. Philadelphia streetcars increased service and the Pennsylvania Railroad ran special trains from Philadelphia's Market Street, New York City and Pittsburgh; the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad ran special trains from the Center City part of Philadelphia. A small hospital was built on the Exposition's grounds by the Centennial's Medical Bureau, but despite a heat wave during the summer, no mass deaths or epidemics occurred.
Philadelphia passed an ordinance that authorized Mayor William S. Stokley to appoint five hundred men as centennial guards for the exposition. Among soldiers and local men hired by the city was Frank Geyer, best known for investigating one of America's first serial killers, H. H. Holmes. Centennial guards policed exhibits, kept the peace, reunited lost children, received and when possible, returned lost items, the most unusual of which were front hair pieces and false te
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The Exposition Universelle of 1900, better known in English as the 1900 Paris Exposition, was a world's fair held in Paris, from 14 April to 12 November 1900, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next. The style, universally present in the Exposition was Art Nouveau; the fair, visited by nearly 50 million, displayed many machines and architecture that are now nearly universally known, including the Grande Roue de Paris Ferris wheel, Russian nesting dolls, diesel engines, talking films and the telegraphone. The staging of the first Exposition Universelle was motivated by a desire to re-establish pride and faith in the nation after a period of war; the succession of expositions followed the same theme: the regeneration of nationality after war. Eight years before the launch of the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle, the Republic of France announced the exhibition to be one that welcomed and celebrated the coming of a new century. Countries from around the world were invited by France to showcase their achievements and lifestyles.
It presented the opportunity for foreigners to realize the similarities between nations as well as their unique differences. New cultures were experienced and an overall better understanding of the values each country had to offer was gained; the learning atmosphere aided in attempts to increase cultural tolerance, deemed necessary after a period of war. The early announcement and the massively positive response disenchanted the interest, circling around the first German International Exposition. Support for the exhibition was widespread, it is suspected that the Exposition Universelle did not do as well financially as expected because the general public did not have the funds to participate in the fair. The 1900 Paris Exposition was so expensive to organize and run that the cost per visitor ended up being about six hundred francs more than the price of admission; the exhibition lost a grand total of 82,000 francs after six months in operation. Many Parisians had invested money in shares sold to raise money for the event and therefore lost their investment.
With a much larger expected turnout the exhibit sites had gone up in value. Continuing to pay rent for the sites became hard for concessionaires as they were receiving fewer customers than anticipated; the concessionaires went on strike, which resulted in the closure of a large part of the exposition. To resolve the matter, the concessionaires were given a fractional refund of the rent; the financial consequences of the 1900 Exposition Universelle were devastating for many Parisians and led to the decision to end the streak of international fairs with the 1900 loss. The 1900 Paris Exposition was where talking films and escalators were first publicized, where Campbell's Soup was awarded a gold medal. At the exposition Rudolf Diesel exhibited his diesel engine. Brief films of excerpts from opera and ballet were the first films exhibited publicly with projection of both image and recorded sound; the exposition featured many panoramic paintings and extensions of the panorama technique, such as the Cinéorama and Trans-Siberian Railway Panorama.
The centrepiece of the Palais de l'Optique was the 1.25-metre-diameter "Great Exposition Refractor". This telescope was the largest refracting telescope at that time; the optical tube assembly was 60 meters long and 1.5 meters in diameter, was fixed in place due to its mass. Light from the sky was sent into the tube by a movable 2-meter mirror; the Exposition included "The Exhibit of American Negroes", during which photos by Frances Benjamin Johnston, a friend of Booker T. Washington, of his black students of the Hampton Institute were presented. Organized by Booker Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois, this exhibition aimed at showing African Americans' positive contributions to American society. Many of the buildings constructed for the Exposition Universelle were demolished after the conclusion of the exposition. Many of the buildings were built on a framework of wood, covered with staff, formed into columns, walls, etc. After the fair was over, the buildings were demolished and all items and materials that could be salvaged and sold were "recycled".
The Finnish Pavilion at the Exposition was designed by the architectural firm of Gesellius and Saarinen. A special committee, led by Gustave Eiffel, awarded a gold medal to Lavr Proskuryakov's project for the Yenisei Bridge in Krasnoyarsk. Russian sparkling wine defeated all the French entries to claim the internationally coveted "Grand Prix de Champagne"; the exposition was the showcasing of another Russian entry, the famous matryoshka doll. The Art Nouveau style began to develop in the 1880s and became fashionable in Europe and the United States during the 1890s; the art form takes inspiration from the natural world, drawing references from botanical studies and deep sea organisms. Fluid twisting, curving lines and a "whiplash" effect are the trademarks of the natural art form; the art form took shape in works ranging from painting to sculpture and most notably architecture, appearing throughout the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle. Structures such as the Porte Monumentale entrance, the Pavillon Bleu and the Grand and Petit Palais were lar
Chiang Mai Province
Jiang Mai or Chiang Mai is the second-largest province of Thailand. It is in the country's north, it is bordered by Chiang Rai to the northeast and Lamphun to the south, Tak to the southwest, Mae Hong Son to the west, Shan State of Burma to the north. The capital, Chiang Mai, is 685 km north of Bangkok. Chiang Mai Province is about 685 km from Bangkok in the Mae Ping River basin and is on average at 300 m elevation. Surrounded by the mountain ranges of the Thai highlands, it covers an area of 20,107 km2; the mountains of the Daen Lao Range at the north end of the province, the Thanon Thong Chai Range stretching in a north-south direction, the Khun Tan Range in the east of the province are covered by rain forest. The Mae Ping, one of the major tributaries of the Chao Phraya River, originates in the Daen Lao mountains; the highest mountain in Thailand, Doi Inthanon at 2,565 metres, is in Chiang Mai Province. Several other national parks are in the province: Doi Suthep-Pui, Ob Luang, Sri Lanna, Huai Nam Dang, Mae Wang, Pha Daeng.
Chiang Mai the capital of Chiang Mai Province was capital of the Lanna Kingdom after its founding in 1296, during the same period of time as the establishment of the Sukhothai Kingdom. From Chiang Mai not only became the capital and cultural core of the Lanna Kingdom, it was the centre of Buddhism in northern Thailand and King Meng Rai built innumerable temples. In 1599, the kingdom became part of the Ayutthaya Kingdom; this ended the dynasty founded by an era that last 300 years. The Burmese occupiers, had a powerful Burmese influence on the architecture which can still be seen today, it was only in the late 18th century that Burma was defeated with the leadership of King Taksin. In 1932 the Chiang Mai province moved up to the second level subdivision of Thailand when the administrative unit of Monthon Phayap, the remains of the Lanna Kingdom, was dissolved. 13.4 percent of the population in the province are members of hill tribes, among them the Hmong, Lahu, Lisu and Karen. The seal of the province shows a white elephant in a glass pavilion.
The white elephant is a royal symbol in Thailand, it is depicted to remember the offering of a white elephant by Thammalangka, a ruler of Chiang Mai, to his overlord, King Rama II of Bangkok. The pavilion symbolizes that Buddhism prospered in Chiang Mai when in 1477 the teachings of Buddha, the Tripitaka, were reviewed; the provincial flower and tree is the "flame of the forest". The provincial slogan is In the shadow of Mount Doi Suthep, blessed with rice customs and traditions, beautiful wild flowers, magnificent Nakhon Phing. Chiang Mai is subdivided into 25 districts; the districts are further subdivided into 204 subdistricts and 2,066 villages. Chiang Mai has a tropical wet and dry climate, tempered by the low latitude and moderate elevation, with warm to hot weather year-round, though nighttime conditions during the dry season can be cool and are much lower than daytime highs; the maximum temperature recorded is 42.4 °C in May 2005. Since 2003, United Nations Development Programme in Thailand has tracked progress on human development at sub national level using the Human achievement index, a composite index covering all the eight key areas of human development.
Chiang Mai province, with a HAI value of 0.6493, takes 17th place in the rankings. This is "high" between the values of 0.6342 and 0.6516. Car: Chiang Mai is on Highway 11. Train: Chiang Mai railway station is the northern terminus of the Northern Line, operated by the State Railway of Thailand. Songthaew Samlor: Samlors can be found in the urban core. Tuk-tuks are used for short distances. Buses: Chiang Mai is served by buses from Bangkok and many other cities. Bicycle and motorbike: Both forms of transport can be hired in Chiang Mai city. Air: Chiang Mai International Airport is one of the seven Thai international airports under the aegis of the Airports of Thailand Public Company Limited; as Chiang Mai International Airport is the major gateway to northern Thailand, it plays an important role in promoting travel and tourism throughout the northern region. Today, 14 airlines serve the airport and more than 3,000,000 passengers, 15,000 flights, 16,000 tons of cargo are handled annually. Chiang Mai Province is the tourist hub of the north and one of Thailand's most important tourist destinations.
It is considered one of the most scenic provinces in the country due to its mountain ranges, valleys and fauna. Unlike most of Thailand, in some months the climate in the north and Chiang Mai is cool and misty; each amphoe of Chiang Mai has its own hospital, but among the largest are located in Mueang Chiang Mai District and include Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital and Nakornping Hospital. Chiang Mai is a handicrafts centre, with a variety of antiques, silver jewellery, embroidery, Thai silks and cottons, celadon, furniture, lacquerware and parasols. Chiang Mai products include: Cotton and silk textiles Umbrellas/ parasols: These are inextricably associated with Bo Sang where villagers have been engaged in their manufacture for at least 200 years. All materials, cottons, Sa paper, bamboo are produced or found locally. Silverware: Traditional skills and a guaranteed content of at least 92.5% pure silver invest bowls and decorative items. Lacquer ware: Made of wood, metal and baked clay, in th
1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition
The 1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition was Spain's first International World's Fair and ran from May 20 to December 9, 1888. It was the first of the two held in Barcelona. Eugenio Serrano de Casanova tried to launch an exposition in 1886, when that failed, the Mayor of Barcelona, Francesc Rius i Taulet, took over the planning of the project; the fair was hosted on the reconstructed 115-acre site of the city's main public park, the Parc de la Ciutadella, with Vilaseca's Arc de Triomf forming the entrance. More than 2 million people from Spain, the rest of Europe, other international points of embarkation visited the exhibition, which made the equivalent of 1,737,000 United States dollars; the fair was opened by Maria Christina of Austria. Twenty-seven countries participated, including China and the United States; the piano manufacturer Erard sponsored a series of 20 concerts featuring Isaac Albéniz, a Catalan pianist and composer best known for his piano works based on folk music idioms. The main legacy of the 1888 World Fair is the Ciutadella Park: the World Fair served as the opportunity for Barcelona to rid itself of the hated citadel and transform it into a central park for the city's denizens.
The entire Ciutadella Park in its present layout is a product of the World Fair, with its monumental fountain and small ponds, its Castell dels tres dracs built by Domènech i Montaner to house the World Fair's café / restaurant, which served to house the Zoology Museum, the classicist Geology Museum and the Umbracle. Another product of the World Fair is the Modernista or Neo-Mudéjar Arc de Triomf, the Fair's former gateway, presiding over Passeig de Lluís Companys; the Columbus Monument, a 60 m tall monument to Christopher Columbus, was built for the exposition on the site where Columbus returned to Europe after his first voyage to the Americas. It remains standing today. 1929 Barcelona International Exposition 1992 Summer Olympics 2004 Universal Forum of Cultures L'Esquella de la Torratxa Official website of the BIE THE WORLD’S FAIR 1888 Overview / brief history of the 1888 Barcelona Universal Expo on the GenCat website
2003 World Horticultural Exposition
The 2003 World Horticultural Exposition was organized in the City of Rostock in Germany. It was the 17th international horticultural exposition recognized by the Bureau International des Expositions; the park was created in a derelict area around ruins of the former village of Schmar on the banks of the river Warnow. This made it possible to have a connection between water and gardens; the project was more than the World Horticultural Exposition. The access roads to the newly built Warnow Tunnel, the new trade fair and congress centre, the integration of the historical ship type Frieden as a wharf museum, the reuse of the park after the exhibition and the improvement of infrastructure in Rostock were part of the project as well. Thirty-two countries were represented with a national garden: Austria, Bulgaria, Colombia, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Indonesia, Japan, Latvia, Mauritania, North Korea, Poland, Spain, South Africa, South Korea, Tanzania, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam; the preparation and furnishing of the terrain cost 62 million euros, the trade fair 32 million euros.
The bills were paid by the City of Rostock, the State Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and the German federal government. 2.63 million people visited the exposition. The IGA 2003 met expectations as an attraction for holiday tourists. More than half of the visitors came from outside Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and one third stayed in Rostock overnight, resulting in 50 million euros extra sales in this region. Despite this result the exposition closed with a deficit of 20 million euros due to lack of supervision by the authorities. During the IGA 2003 a total of 17,000 visitors attended 275 different congresses. 32 countries were represented with their own national gardens and 20 of them got extra attention on the Nationentage. Visitors liked the national gardens, the aerial cable car, the floating garden and the 25 alternating displays in the trade fair. Several outdoor events, totalling 1361 on 171 days, were held in the park; the main contributors were the Rostocker Volkstheater with 50 events and the broadcaster NDR with their Open-Air-Veranstaltungen.
An architectural experiment was the Willow Church constructed during the preparations for the IGA 2003. It was the biggest living building of the world; the dome was 15 meters high and the church was 52 meters long. The building was designed by architect Marcel Kalberer, who led the construction. 650 volunteers from 13 countries started building in 2001. 50 volunteers at the same time lived at a camp to knot and bundle the willow branches and set up the self-supporting construction. During the IGA an average of 300 visitors attended the mass on Sundays. 250 services took 3 of them marriages and 6 baptisms. All park facilities and a part of the national gardens can still be visited. Access to the park however is restricted by a fence, its location outside the city and the entrance fares; the stage in the park and the Willow Church are still in use. The trade fair appears to be a financial burden for the city. IGA-Park Weidendom Official website of the BIE