New France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763 under the Treaty of Paris. At its peak in 1712, the territory of New France sometimes known as the French North American Empire or Royal New France, consisted of five colonies, each with its own administration: Canada, the most developed colony and divided into the districts of Québec, Trois-Rivières and Montréal. In the sixteenth century, the lands were used to draw from the wealth of natural resources such as furs through trade with the various indigenous peoples. In the seventeenth century, successful settlements began in Acadia, in Quebec by the efforts of Champlain. By 1765, the population of the new Province of Quebec reached 70,000 settlers; the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht resulted in France relinquishing its claims to mainland Acadia, the Hudson Bay and Newfoundland to England.
France established the colony of Île Royale, now called Cape Breton Island, where they built the Fortress of Louisbourg. Acadia had a difficult history, with the British causing the Great Upheaval with the forced expulsion of the Acadians in the period from 1755 to 1764; this has been remembered on July 28 each year since 2003. Their descendants are dispersed in the Maritime Provinces of Canada, in Maine and Louisiana in the United States, with small populations in Chéticamp, Nova Scotia and the Magdalen Islands; some went to France. In 1763, France had ceded the rest of New France, except the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, to Great Britain and Spain at the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years' War. Britain received Canada and the parts of French Louisiana which lay east of the Mississippi River – except for the Île d'Orléans, granted to Spain, along with the territory to the west – the larger portion of Louisiana. In 1800, Spain returned its portion of Louisiana to France under the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso.
However, French leader Napoleon Bonaparte in turn sold it to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, permanently ending French colonial efforts on the North American mainland. New France became absorbed within the United States and Canada, with the only vestige remaining under French rule being the tiny islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon. In the United States, the legacy of New France includes numerous placenames as well as small pockets of French-speaking communities. In Canada, institutional bilingualism and strong Francophone identities are arguably the most enduring legacy of New France. Around 1523, the Florentine navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano convinced King Francis I to commission an expedition to find a western route to Cathay. Late that year, Verrazzano set sail in Dieppe. After exploring the coast of the present-day Carolinas early the following year, he headed north along the coast anchoring in the Narrows of New York Bay; the first European to visit the site of present-day New York, Verrazzano named it Nouvelle-Angoulême in honour of the king, the former count of Angoulême.
Verrazzano's voyage convinced the king to seek to establish a colony in the newly discovered land. Verrazzano gave the names Francesca and Nova Gallia to that land between New Spain and English Newfoundland. In 1534, Jacques Cartier planted a cross in the Gaspé Peninsula and claimed the land in the name of King Francis I, it was the first province of New France. The first settlement of 400 people, Fort Charlesbourg-Royal, was attempted in 1541 but lasted only two years. French fishing fleets continued to sail to the Atlantic coast and into the St. Lawrence River, making alliances with Canadian First Nations that became important once France began to occupy the land. French merchants soon realized the St. Lawrence region was full of valuable fur-bearing animals the beaver, which were becoming rare in Europe; the French crown decided to colonize the territory to secure and expand its influence in America. Another early French attempt at settlement in North America took place in 1564 at Fort Caroline, now Jacksonville, Florida.
Intended as a haven for Huguenots, Caroline was founded under the leadership of René Goulaine de Laudonnière and Jean Ribault. It was sacked by the Spanish led by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés who established the settlement of St. Augustine on 20 September 1565. Acadia and Canada were inhabited by indigenous nomadic Algonquian peoples and sedentary Iroquoian peoples; these lands were full of valuable natural resources, which attracted all of Europe. By the 1580s, French trading companies had been set up, ships were contracted to bring back furs. Much of what transpired between the indigenous population and their European visitors around that time is not known, for lack of historical records. Other attempts at establishing permanent settlements were failures. In 1598, a French trading post was established on Sable Island, off the coast of Acadia, but was unsuccessful. In 1600, a trading post was established at Tadoussac. In 1604, a settlement w
History of the Canadian Army
The history of the Canadian Army, began when the title first came into official use in November 1940, during the Second World War, is still used today. Although the official titles, Mobile Command, Land Force Command, were used from February 1968 to August 2011, "Canadian Army" continued to be unofficially used to refer to the ground forces of the Canadian Armed Forces, much as it has been from Confederation in 1867 to the present; the term was even used in official military publications, for example in recruiting literature and the official newspaper of the Canadian Forces, The Maple Leaf. On August 16, 2011, the title, "Canadian Army", was restored, once again bringing the official designation in line with common and historical usage. Prior to Canadian Confederation in 1867, defence for the colonies that comprise present-day Canada was dependent on the armies of colonial powers; the military of New France was dependent on the French Royal Army. Conversely, the defence of the English/British colonies of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia was dependent on the English/British Army.
After the British conquest of New France in 1760, defence for the French colony of Canada, St. John's Island was reliant on the British Army. Both the British and French Armies were augmented by locally recruited regulars and the Canadian militia. Many of these units remained inactive in between. During the War of 1812, locally raised Canadian units, including fencibles, militia units from the Canadas, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia served alongside regular units of the British Army; these fencible and militia units played an instrumental role during the conflict. The history and heritage, as well as the War of 1812 battle honours awarded to many of these units, are perpetuated by current units within the Canadian Army. While Canada developed a volunteer militia force of trained and unpaid amateurs, defence of the country was dependent on a contingent of regular British soldiers, as well as naval defence through the Royal Navy; the Canadian Militia evolved from the various British garrison forces on the North American continent in the 19th century.
In 1854, with the outbreak of the Crimean War the entire British garrison was pulled out of British North America to fight against Russia, with many American politicians saying this was the opportune moment for the United State to realize its "manifest destiny" by annexing British North America, the government of the United Canadas, consisting of Canada West and Canada East passed the Militia Act of 1855 to create an active militia, a professional army, through not labelled as such. The "active militia" consisted of 5,000 men; the Canadian Army is a direct descendant of the "active duty militia" force created in 1855. Upon Canadian Confederation in 1867, the ground forces in Canada continued to be referred to as the Militia. Using the "active duty militia" of the United Canadas as its core, Parliament passed the Militia Act of 1868 merging the militias of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia into the militia of the United Canadas. In February 1869, the Defence minister, Sir George-Étienne Cartier, told the House of Commons that the Militia had 37,170 men under arms and 618, 896 in reserve.
The primary action that the newly formed militia saw was from the Fenians, a group of Irish radicals who made several attempts in the late 19th century to invade some parts of southern Canada from the United States. The period of the Fenian raids in the 1860s and early 1870s was the peak of the efficiency of the Canadian militia. In 1866, at the Battle of Ridgeway the Fenians defeated the Canada West militia owing to the inexperience of the militiamen, but in 1870 the Quebec militia drove back the Fenians at Trout River and Eccles Hill with little trouble. In 1869, Canada purchased for $1.5 million the vast proprietary colony of Rupert's Land run by the Hudson's Bay Company that comprised all of northern Quebec, northern Ontario, Saskatchewan, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut. The 10,000 people, many of them Métis in the Red River Colony in what is now southern Manitoba, were not consulted about the sale, under the leadership of Louis Riel rebelled, setting up a provisional government to negotiate their admission to Confederation.
Donald Smith of the Hudson's Bay Company had been appointed to negotiate with Riel by Ottawa and arranged a settlement under which Canada would create a new province called Manitoba in exchange for the Métis laying down their arms. However, the execution of Thomas Scott, an Orangeman from Ontario, by the Métis, created much fury in Ontario, a province where the Loyal Orange Order was a major political force. To placate voters in Ontario, an expedition was sent to down the Red River Rebellion. In 1870, an Anglo-Canadian force consisting of the 400 men from British King's Royal Rifle Corps with the rest being Ontario militiamen, consisting of 1,044 men in total under the command of General Garnet Wolseley made an gruelling march across northern Ontario to the Red River colony. Riel fled and the rebellion ended without any fighting, the terms agreed upon between Smith and Riel were implemented with Manitoba becoming the 5th provinceAfter the Treaty of Washington and the end of the Fenian raids, the British began to downsize their garrisons in Canada to move troops to other areas of the Empire, but due to friendlier relations with the United States, Canada's immediate neighbour, the only country capable of launching an armed invasion of the country.
In 1871, the British garrisons in Canada were completely pulled out with British garr
University of Toronto
The University of Toronto is a public research university in Toronto, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in the colony of Upper Canada. Controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed the present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution; as a collegiate university, it comprises eleven colleges, which differ in character and history, each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs. It has two satellite campuses in Mississauga; the university is ranked as the best Canadian university, according to various major publications. Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for influential movements and curricula in literary criticism and communication theory, known collectively as the Toronto School; the university was the birthplace of insulin and stem cell research, was the site of the first practical electron microscope, the development of deep learning, multi-touch technology, the identification of the first black hole Cygnus X-1, the development of the theory of NP-completeness.
By a significant margin, it receives the most annual scientific research funding of any Canadian university. It is one of two members of the Association of American Universities outside the United States, the other being McGill University in Montreal, Canada; the Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches, with long and storied ties to gridiron football and ice hockey. The earliest recorded college football game was played in the University of Toronto's University College in the 1860s; the university's Hart House is an early example of the North American student centre serving cultural and recreational interests within its large Gothic-revival complex. The University of Toronto has educated three Governors General of Canada, four Prime Ministers of Canada, four foreign leaders, fourteen Justices of the Supreme Court; as of March 2019, ten Nobel laureates, five Turing Award winners, 94 Rhodes Scholars, one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with the university.
The founding of a colonial college had long been the desire of John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada. As an Oxford-educated military commander who had fought in the American Revolutionary War, Simcoe believed a college was needed to counter the spread of republicanism from the United States; the Upper Canada Executive Committee recommended in 1798 that a college be established in York, the colonial capital. On March 15, 1827, a royal charter was formally issued by King George IV, proclaiming "from this time one College, with the style and privileges of a University... for the education of youth in the principles of the Christian Religion, for their instruction in the various branches of Science and Literature... to continue for to be called King's College." The granting of the charter was the result of intense lobbying by John Strachan, the influential Anglican Bishop of Toronto who took office as the college's first president. The original three-storey Greek Revival school building was built on the present site of Queen's Park.
Under Strachan's stewardship, King's College was a religious institution aligned with the Church of England and the British colonial elite, known as the Family Compact. Reformist politicians opposed the clergy's control over colonial institutions and fought to have the college secularized. In 1849, after a lengthy and heated debate, the newly elected responsible government of Upper Canada voted to rename King's College as the University of Toronto and severed the school's ties with the church. Having anticipated this decision, the enraged Strachan had resigned a year earlier to open Trinity College as a private Anglican seminary. University College was created as the nondenominational teaching branch of the University of Toronto. During the American Civil War, the threat of Union blockade on British North America prompted the creation of the University Rifle Corps, which saw battle in resisting the Fenian raids on the Niagara border in 1866; the Corps was part of the Reserve Militia lead by Professor Henry Croft.
Established in 1878, the School of Practical Science was precursor to the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, nicknamed Skule since its earliest days. While the Faculty of Medicine opened in 1843, medical teaching was conducted by proprietary schools from 1853 until 1887, when the faculty absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine. Meanwhile, the university continued to confer medical degrees; the university opened the Faculty of Law in 1887, followed by the Faculty of Dentistry in 1888, when the Royal College of Dental Surgeons became an affiliate. Women were first admitted to the university in 1884. A devastating fire in 1890 gutted the interior of University College and destroyed 33,000 volumes from the library, but the university restored the building and replenished its library within two years. Over the next two decades, a collegiate system took shape as the university arranged federation with several ecclesiastical colleges, including Strachan's Trinity College in 1904; the university operated the Royal Conservatory of Music from 1896 to 1991 and the Royal Ontario Museum from 1912 to 1968.
The University of Toronto Press was founded in 1901 as Canada's first academic publishing house. The Faculty of Forestry, founded in 1907 with Bernhard Fernow as dean, was Canada's first university faculty devoted to forest science. In 1910, the Faculty of Education opened its laboratory school, the University of Toro
The Canadian Militia is a traditional title given to militia units raised from local communities for the defence of Canada. The term has been used to describe colonial militias raised in Canada, as well as its regular army from 1855 to 1940; the earliest militia units in Canada dates back to the French regime in New France. In the French colony, a compulsory militia of settlers from every parish was raised in order to support the military of New France in the defence, expansion of the colony. Following the British conquest of New France in 1760, sedentary militia units continued to be raised, in support of British military units stationed in the Canadas. Enrolment in the sedentary militias occurred until 1873; the Canadian Militia referred to the regular army established by the Province of Canada under the Militia Act of 1855. The two organizations that originated from the Act, the Permanent Active Militia, the Non-Permanent Active Militia, served as Canada's regular army following Canadian Confederation in 1867.
In November 1940, both PAM and NPAM were reorganized into the Canadian Army, with PAM becoming the Army's Regular Force, NPAM becoming the Army Reserve. Local militias were raised and used by colonial authorities in Canada, including the French colony of New France, the subsequent British colonies in the Canadas. Prior to Canadian Confederation, the British colonies situated within Atlantic Canada maintained their own militias independent of the Canadian Militia. Use of militias date back to New France. In 1669, King Louis XIV, concerned about the colony's inability to defend itself adequately against raids, ordered the creation of a compulsory militia that would include every fit male between 16 and 60 years of age, they were organized into companies one per church parish, structured in the same way as a regular French infantry company. The men were noted as excellent shots, in better physical condition than regulars, because of their tough life, farming and hunting. Volunteer militiamen were used to support the regulars and their First Nation allies on lengthy raids, where they absorbed the skirmishing tactics of the latter.
However, little time was spent on conventional European drill. Following the British conquest of New France, local militia units continued to be raised, support British soldiers stationed in the Canadas. During the War of 1812, British authorities raised a number of Canadian military and militia units to support the British in defending the Canadas; as the British began to withdraw soldiers from British North America in the decades after the War of 1812, the Parliament of the Province of Canada passed the Militia Act of 1855, creating the Active Militia. The Active Militia split into the Permanent Active Militia, the Militia's regular army component, the Non-Permanent Active Militia, a force that would act as the Militia's military reserve force for the Canadian Militia; the traditional sedentary militias were re-styled as the Reserve Militia. Members of the militia were mobilized during the Fenian raids of 1866. Following Canadian Confederation in July 1867, both PAM, NPAM were managed by the Canadian Minister of Militia.
Enrolment for the sedentary reserve militias last occurred in 1873, although its theoretical practice was not abolished until 1950. The Militia was mobilized on a number of occasions in the latter half of the 19th century, including the Fenian raids of 1870–71, the Wolseley expedition, the North-West Rebellion, the Second Boer War; the Second Boer War saw more than 8,000 volunteers raised for service in South Africa, from 82 different militia units, including PAM. A number of administrative reforms were instituted after the war, with the establishment of the Canadian Army Service Corps in 1901, the Canadian Military Engineers, Canadian Army Medical Corps, Canadian Ordnance Corps, the Signalling Corps in 1903. From 1875 to 1904, the officer heading the Canadian Militia was the General Officer Commanding the Canadian Militia, a position required to be held by a officer of the British Army. However, serious differences in opinion over divisions of responsibilities between the civil and military branches of the Militia Department would see the post abolished under the Militia Act of 1904.
The office of the GOC was replaced by the Militia Council, with the Minister of Militia as its President, four military members, a civilian member, an accountant of the Department, a civilian secretary. Although modelled after the British Army Council, the Militia Council was purely an advisory body, with the Minister holding supreme authority over it. During World War I, the militia was not mobilized, with Canadians serving overseas enlisting with the Canadian Expeditionary Force, a separate military field force managed by the Ministry of Overseas Military Forces; as World War I drew to a close in 1918, the CEF expected to disband, plans to re-organize the Canadian militia were initiated, guided by the Otter Commission. The Commission proposed that PAM field a force of six infantry divisions, one cavalry division, supplemented by personnel from NPAM. Additionally, the Otter Commission saw links of perpetuation created, for battle honours earned from units of the CEF with units of the Canadian Militia.
Improvements to both PAM's and NPAM's officer corps were undertaken in the 1930s, with PAM officers directing officer cadets through co
Royal Flying Corps
The Royal Flying Corps was the air arm of the British Army before and during the First World War, until it merged with the Royal Naval Air Service on 1 April 1918 to form the Royal Air Force. During the early part of the war, the RFC supported the British Army by artillery co-operation and photographic reconnaissance; this work led RFC pilots into aerial battles with German pilots and in the war included the strafing of enemy infantry and emplacements, the bombing of German military airfields and the strategic bombing of German industrial and transport facilities. At the start of World War I the RFC, commanded by Brigadier-General Sir David Henderson, consisted of five squadrons – one observation balloon squadron and four aeroplane squadrons; these were first used for aerial spotting on 13 September 1914 but only became efficient when they perfected the use of wireless communication at Aubers Ridge on 9 May 1915. Aerial photography again only became effective the next year. By 1918, photographic images could be taken from 15,000 feet and were interpreted by over 3,000 personnel.
Parachutes were not available to pilots of heavier-than-air craft in the RFC – nor were they used by the RAF during the First World War – although the Calthrop Guardian Angel parachute was adopted just as the war ended. By this time parachutes had been used by balloonists for three years. On 17 August 1917, South African General Jan Smuts presented a report to the War Council on the future of air power; because of its potential for the'devastation of enemy lands and the destruction of industrial and populous centres on a vast scale', he recommended a new air service be formed that would be on a level with the Army and Royal Navy. The formation of the new service would make the under-used men and machines of the Royal Naval Air Service available for action on the Western Front and end the inter-service rivalries that at times had adversely affected aircraft procurement. On 1 April 1918, the RFC and the RNAS were amalgamated to form a new service, the Royal Air Force, under the control of the new Air Ministry.
After starting in 1914 with some 2,073 personnel, by the start of 1919 the RAF had 4,000 combat aircraft and 114,000 personnel in some 150 squadrons. With the growing recognition of the potential for aircraft as a cost-effective method of reconnaissance and artillery observation, the Committee of Imperial Defence established a sub-committee to examine the question of military aviation in November 1911. On 28 February 1912 the sub-committee reported its findings which recommended that a flying corps be formed and that it consist of a naval wing, a military wing, a central flying school and an aircraft factory; the recommendations of the committee were accepted and on 13 April 1912 King George V signed a royal warrant establishing the Royal Flying Corps. The Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers became the Military Wing of the Royal Flying Corps a month on 13 May; the Flying Corps' initial allowed strength was 133 officers, by the end of that year it had 12 manned balloons and 36 aeroplanes. The RFC came under the responsibility of Brigadier-General Henderson, the Director of Military Training, had separate branches for the Army and the Navy.
Major Sykes commanded the Military Commander C R Samson commanded the Naval Wing. The Royal Navy however, with different priorities to that of the Army and wishing to retain greater control over its aircraft, formally separated its branch and renamed it the Royal Naval Air Service on 1 July 1914, although a combined central flying school was retained; the RFC's motto was Per ardua ad astra. This remains the motto of other Commonwealth air forces; the RFC's first fatal crash was on 5 July 1912 near Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain. Killing Captain Eustace B. Loraine and his observer, Staff Sergeant R. H. V. Wilson, flying from Larkhill Aerodrome. An order was issued after the crash stating "Flying will continue this evening as usual", thus beginning a tradition. In August 1912 RFC Lieutenant Wilfred Parke RN became the first aviator to be observed to recover from an accidental spin when the Avro G cabin biplane, with which he had just broken a world endurance record, entered a spin at 700 feet above ground level at Larkhill.
Four months on 11 December 1912 Parke was killed when the Handley Page monoplane in which he was flying from Hendon to Oxford crashed. Aircraft used during the war by the RFC included: Airco DH 2, DH 4, DH 5, DH 6, DH 9 Armstrong-Whitworth F. K.8 Avro 504 Bristol's Bristol Scout single-seat fighter, F2A and F2B Fighter two-seaters Handley Page O/400 Martinsyde G.100 Morane-Saulnier Bullet Biplane Parasol Nieuport Scout 17, 24, 27 Royal Aircraft Factory B. E.2a, B. E.2b, B. E.2c, B. E.2e, B. E.12, F. E.2b, F. E.8, R. E.8, S. E5a Sopwith Aviation Company 1½ Strutter, Triplane, Dolphin SPAD S. VII Vickers FB5 On its inception in 1912 the Royal Flying Corps consisted of a Military and a Naval Wing, with the Military Wing consisting of three squadrons each commanded by a major; the Naval Wing, with fewer pilots and aircraft than the Military Wing, did not organise itself into squadrons until 1914. By November 1914 the Royal Flying Corps taking the loss of the Naval Wing into account, had expanded sufficiently to warrant the creation of wings consisting of two or more squadrons.
These wings were commanded by lieutenant-colonels. In October 1915 the Corps had undergone further expansion which justified the creation of brigades, each commanded by a brigadier-general. Further expansion led to the creation of divisions, with the Training Division being established in August 1917 and R
Compagnies Franches de la Marine
The Compagnies Franches de la Marine were an ensemble of autonomous infantry units attached to the French Royal Navy bound to serve both on land and sea. These troupes constituted the principal military force of France capable of intervening in actions and holding garrisons in outre-mer from 1690 to 1761. Independent companies of the navy and colonial regulars, were under the authority of the French Minister of Marine, responsible for the French navy, overseas trade, French colonies. In New France, these were the only regular soldiers stationed by the Crown from 1685 to 1755; the Naval Department of France began using the Compagnies to defend their control of the fur trade in North America with certain tribes and the safety of local civilians from raiding nations of the Iroquois Confederacy the powerful Mohawk and Seneca. In 1756, after the start of the Seven Years' War, the Compagnies were superseded in New France by the arrival of large units of the regular army commanded by Louis-Joseph de Montcalm.
After the fall of Montreal to British forces in 1760, the victors ordered the disbanding of the Compagnies in Canada. After the war ended in 1763, France ceded all of its North American territories east of the Mississippi River to the British. In 1992 the Canadian Forces Naval Reserve revived the Compagnies as a historical re-enactment unit, it has toured the country. The French colonial forces are believed to date to the establishment in 1622 by Cardinal Richelieu of the hundred Compagnies Ordinaires de la Mer; these units served as soldiers on board naval vessels of the Marine Royal. Desertions, lack of funds and governmental interest reduced their effectiveness. In 1626 Richelieu created the Régiment la Marine, of which he was honorary commandant; the regiment demonstrated its capability in limited battles along the provincial coast up to the Lérins Islands, near Cannes, in the Bay of Biscay. Richelieu created other regiments to sustain the effort of French colonization in New France; the first supported national efforts in the Antilles.
The period of service of the regiments varied: Régiment du Havre, Régiment des Îles, the régiment des Galères garrisoned at Toulon. Louis XIII created the Régiment des Vaisseaux; the latter was renamed as Régiment Vaisseau-Mazarin. The regiment was designated Régiment Vaisseau-Provence in 1658 Régiment Royal-Vaisseaux in 1669. In 1669, Jean-Baptiste Colbert State Secretary of the Navy and avid developer of the marine royal and colonial efforts, created two regiments: Régiment Royal–La Marine and the Régiment de l'Amiral. For the first time they wore the grey-white uniform with blue vest, which became traditional for them. In 1670 there were significant changes administered by Colbert and François-Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois the Naval State Secretary and the Secretary of State of War; the four regiments of la marine were transferred from the secretariat of La Marine to that of the secretariat of La Guerre. This change was required to meet the successive military war demands of the reign of Louis XIV, who wanted the Crown to control all French units.
The regiments were withdrawn from the French Navy. During the Revolution of the late 18th century, the La Marine, Royal-Marine, Royal-Vaisseux, the Régiment de l'Amiral were integrated into the French Army, becoming the 11e, 60e, 43e and 61e de Ligne in 1791; the Marine Royale attracted numerous recruits in 1671: France was able to staff 196 naval vessels. Colbert decided to create 100 companies of "guardian-soldiers" intended to defend the naval vessels. However, in 1673 Louvois has these men transferred to the French Army. Starting this date and marine officers were required to recruit their own crews. Owing to the presence of « levées » on the war or commercial sea ports, similar to the « marine press », the officers garrisoned their naval ships with defenders. However, the system found its limits quickly; the recruits were lacking discipline and experience...and were discharged or deserted following their first campaign, ruining months of training. The naval and marine officers sought other ways to recruit crew.
French naval and marine officers had limited access to experienced soldiers until 1682. In 1683, three companies of Troupes de la Marine were sent to Québec to contain the nations of the Iroquois Confederacy from south of the Great Lakes, who were raiding French settlements, they blocked commercial fur trading routes to the interior of the Canadian colony, as they wanted to keep a monopoly on the trade. By 1690, it became clear that the forces assigned to ships were not sufficient to defend the French colonies. Another force was created with that specific mission in mind; these troops were recruited from the French mainland from among males sixteen years and older who were
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h