Police Corps of Andorra
The Police Corps of Andorra is the national police of Andorra. In 2007, the force had 240 officers serving a population of 85,000; the police force consists of the Directorate of the Police, four divisions which carry out the various missions of the police, two "functional groups". The Directorate of the Police is composed of a Director, a Deputy Director who has the grade of police commissioner, a secretary, a planning and human resources officer and an administrative assistant, it directs police activities throughout the country. Its members are nominated by the Government of Andorra based on proposals from the Ministry of the Interior. There are four Divisions with the following responsibilities: The Division of Criminal Police is in charge of criminal investigations and divided into two investigation units; the first one, responsible for investigations aimed both at prevention and repression of crime, has sections dealing with drugs, domestic violence, organised crime, general affairs and money laundering.
The second investigates crimes brought to its attention and is responsible for cases of climate accidents. In this area is the National Central Office of Interpol; the Division of Public Security and Proximity comprises two uniformed units whose role is to ensure the overall safety and security of residents. The "Unit for Citizens' Security" is a proximity police intended to prevent offences and maintaining public order; the "Unit for Citizens' Awareness," a detachment of the central police, operates the Information Room, answers public queries, coordinates external services and supervises detention conditions. The Division of Police Support is responsible for operational support to the other divisions, as well as to the Directorate, it comprises six departments: analysis of criminal information. The Division of Transit and Borders comprises two uniformed units: the Traffic Unit and the Borders Unit that works in co-operation with the Department of Immigration. Six groups – for the protection of VIPs, bomb disposal, order maintenance, emergency situations, sniffer-dog training and mountain rescue – are formed by members of the four Divisions.
The Police Corps of Andorra is the more armed tactical team and they are referred as, Grup d'Intervencio Policia d'Andorra they are more armed than the average officer, these are some of the weapons they are issued: Beretta 92 Sig Sauer P226 SIG Sauer Pro series Heckler & Koch MP5 Benelli M4 Fiat Panda SEAT Altea SEAT León Škoda Superb Renault Laguna II Police Service of Andorra
Armed response vehicle
An armed response vehicle is a type of police car operated by British law enforcement. ARVs are crewed by Authorised Firearms Officers to respond to incidents believed to involve firearms or other high-risk situations. ARVs are specially modified to accommodate specialist equipment. Armed response vehicles were introduced to the British Police to provide them with a firearms response capability, as police in the United Kingdom do not carry firearms on patrol, with the exception of a minority of armed officers. Outside of London, ARVs are controlled and organised by the Force Firearms Unit, within the capital they are controlled by Specialist Firearms Command. ARVs are identifiable in London by a yellow dot sticker, visible from each angle, an asterisk on the roof to enable helicopters to identify the vehicle as being an ARV. Diplomatic Protection Group vehicles, identifiable by their red paintwork, utilise the same markings to denote the carrying of firearms officers. ARVs were deployed for the first time in London, during 1991.
An "unpublicised" ARV was deployed in the Brixton area after the riots and was operational in the 1980s, code name Lima Delta 53. This was on patrol at all times. Following their success, forces outside of the capital formed similar units during the early to mid-1990s; the concept of an ARV was influenced by West Yorkshire Police's instant response cars, as used in 1976. Early ARVs contained a secure safe between the seats containing a.38 Smith & Wesson Model 10 for each member, with two 9mm Heckler & Koch MP5 semi-automatic carbines secured in the boot. After ARVs became established and the practice was accepted for widespread use, the Model 10 revolvers were replaced by the semi-automatic Glock 17 handgun chambered in 9×19mm. In 2010, the Heckler & Koch G36C 5.56mm carbine was introduced in case of a Mumbai style terrorist attack. Revolvers and pistols could be removed from the secure safe by ARV members if, in a member's opinion, an immediate threat to life was posed. Authorisation for this from the control room was required, including contacting an officer of Association of Chief Police Officers rank.
If a high-ranking officer was not available, a Chief Inspector could give authorisation in an emergency. Following an increase in the size of the Firearms Unit, Commissioner Sir Paul Condon issued regulations, effective 23 May 1994, that gave ARV crews standing authority to wear their handguns overtly and to deploy their weapons. Several police forces followed suit; the Greater Manchester police became one of those whose ARVs carried firearms beginning 6 September 1994. In 2013, the inaugural Chief Constable of Police Scotland granted a standing authority for ARV crews to overtly wear handguns and to deploy their weapons when he introduced ARV patrols nationally; the usage of firearms by the police is covered by statute and common law. AFOs may only carry firearms when authorised by an "appropriate authorising officer"; the appropriate authorising officer must be of the rank of higher. When working at airports, nuclear sites, on protection duties, deployed in armed response vehicles in certain areas, standing authority is granted to carry personal side arms.
All members of the Police Service of Northern Ireland have authority to carry a personal issue handgun as a matter of routine, on and off duty. In all forces, usage of other weapons such as semi-automatic carbines requires further training and authorisation. Semi-automatic carbines are stored in a locked armoury inside an armed response vehicle. United Kingdom law allows the use of "reasonable force" in order to make an arrest or prevent a crime or to defend oneself. However, if the force used is fatal the European Convention of Human Rights only allows "the use of force, no more than necessary". Firearms officers may therefore only discharge their weapons "to stop an imminent threat to life". ACPO policy states that use of a firearm includes both discharging it; as with all use of force in England and Wales, the onus is on the individual officer to justify their actions in court. Metropolitan Police Specialist Firearms Command Avon and Somerset Police Armed Response Strathclyde police New fleet unveiled Lancashire Constabulary Association of Chief Police Officers guidelines, of firearm use
The European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation, better known under the name Europol the European Police Office and Europol Drugs Unit, is the law enforcement agency of the European Union formed in 1998 to handle criminal intelligence and combat serious international organised crime and terrorism through cooperation between competent authorities of EU member states. The Agency has no executive powers, its officials are not entitled to arrest suspects or act without prior approval from competent authorities in the member states. Seated in The Hague, South Holland, it comprised 1,065 staff in 2016. Europol has its origins in TREVI, a forum for security cooperation created amongst European Community interior and justice ministers in 1976. At first, TREVI focused on international terrorism, but soon started to cover other areas of cross-border crime within the Community. At the European Summit in Luxembourg on 28–29 June 1991, German Chancellor Helmut Kohl called for the creation of a European police agency similar to the Federal Bureau of Investigation —thus sowing the seeds of police co-operation across Europe.
At the Summit, the European Council agreed to establish "a Central European Criminal Investigations Office by 31 December 1993 the latest." The idea of the Luxembourg Summit was further elaborated at the European Council in Maastricht on 9–10 December 1991, a meeting to draft the Maastricht Treaty. The European Council agreed to create "a European police office the initial function of which would be to organize exchange of information on narcotic drugs"; the Council instructed TREVI ministers to take measures in setting up the office. On 7 February 1992, Europol was enshrined with more substance in Article K.1, section 9, as the Maastricht Treaty was signed: Member States shall regard the following areas as matters of common interest: police cooperation for the purposes of preventing and combatting terrorism, unlawful drug trafficking and other serious forms of international crime, including if necessary certain aspects of customs cooperation, in connection with the organization of a Union-wide system for exchanging information within a European Police Office.
Europol was first de facto organised provisionally in 1993 as the Europol Drugs Unit in Strasbourg at the same site as the Schengen Information System was hosted. The small initial group started operations there in January 1994 under the leadership of Jürgen Storbeck and with a mandate to assist national police forces in criminal investigations; the competition for the permanent site of Europol during the period was between The Hague and Strasbourg—the European Council decided on 29 October 1993 that Europol should be established in The Hague. A former Catholic boys school built in 1910 at Raamweg 47 was chosen as the precise location; the house was used in World War II by police and intelligence agencies and after the War manned by the Dutch State Intelligence Service until Europol relocated there in 1994. The Europol Convention was signed on 26 July 1995 in Brussels and came into force on 1 October 1998 after being ratified by all the Member States; the European Police Office commenced its full activities on 1 July 1999.
Europol was integrated into the European Union with Council Decision 2009/371/JHA of 6 April 2009. It replaced the Europol Convention and reformed Europol as an EU agency on 1 January 2010 due to different aspirations, such as enhanced support to Member States on countering serious and organised crime, budgetary control by the European Parliament, administrative simplification; the Agency's new 32 000 m2 headquarters building, designed by Frank Wintermans, was opened by Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands on 1 July 2011 in the international zone of The Hague next to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons at Eisenhowerlaan 73. On 11 January 2013, Director Rob Wainwright and European Commissioner for Home Affairs Cecilia Malmström launched the European Cybercrime Centre, a unit of Europol tasked with assisting Member States to dismantle and disrupt cybercrime committed by organised groups to generate large criminal profits, causing serious harm to victims or affecting critical infrastructure and systems in the EU.
The purpose of the Centre is to coordinate cross-border law enforcement activities against cybercrime and act as a centre of technological expertise, such as tool development and training. Commissioner Malmström stated that the need for a cybercrime centre in Europe was "to protect the open and free internet". On 25 January 2016, the European Counter Terrorism Centre was launched as a new strategic platform within Europol to share information among EU states in tracking movements of Europeans into and from Syria as well as to monitor terrorists' finances and militants' Internet usage; when the UK exercised its opt-out from the area of freedom and justice in 2014, its request to continue participating in Europol was approved. The European Parliament approved Europol's new legal framework, Regulation 2016/794, on 11 May 2016 after three years of negotiations and thus repealed the former Decisions of 2009; the new framework granted additional powers on counter-terrorism to Europol, but includes adding training and exchange programmes for staff, creating a solid data protection system, strengthening the Parliament's control over the Agency.
The Regulation took effect on 1 May 2017. Additionally, the full name was amended to European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation. Denmark was not permitted to
There is an Honorary Police force in each of the 12 parishes of Jersey. Members of the Honorary Police are elected by the voters of the parish in which they serve, are unpaid. Honorary Police officers have, for centuries, been elected by parishioners to assist the Connétable of the Parish to maintain law and order. Officers are elected as Centeniers, Vingteniers or Constable's Officers, each with various duties and responsibilities; until the 19th century the Honorary Police provided the only civilian law enforcement in Jersey. However, in the early part of the 19th century, crime was widespread among the urban population in Saint Helier and paid police officers for the Parish of Saint Helier were appointed in 1853 and their remit was extended to serve the whole Island as the States of Jersey Police; however today the SOJP cannot charge anyone with an offence – charges have to be brought by the Centenier of the parish in which the alleged offence was committed – and as such the Honorary Police continue to have a significant role in policing.
Each Parish elects a number of Centeniers and Constable's Officers who act in the name of the Connétable of the Parish in maintaining law and order. These officers take an oath in the Royal Court. All Honorary Police officers must live in the Parish at the time of their first election or, in the case of St Helier, be a ratepayer or mandataire of that Parish. If an officer moves out of the Parish during her/his term of office, s/he may continue her/his term of office with the approval of Her Majesty's Attorney General and the Connétable of the Parish and may stand for re-election provided there is no break in service. A person may be nominated for election as a member of the Honorary Police if, on the day of nomination, s/he is at least 20 years of age and less than 70 years of age. Honorary Police officers are on duty for one week at a time every 3 or 4 weeks depending upon the roster within the Parish, are on call 24 hours a day during that period. Honorary Police officers are elected to serve the Parish but in certain circumstances may assist or operate outside the Parish.
Anyone standing for election as a member of the Honorary Police will have to undergo a criminal record check. A Centenier is a senior member of the Honorary Police of Jersey. Centeniers are elected for a mandate of 3 years at a public election within the Parish. In addition to general policing matters, the Centenier remains the only officer entitled to charge and bail offenders; the Centenier presides at Parish Hall Enquiries and acts as Prosecuting Officer before the Magistrate's Court. The Constable of the Parish appoints one of the Centeniers as Chef de Police of the Parish. Under Jersey law, anyone charged at the States of Jersey Police Headquarters must be charged by a Centenier of the Honorary Police, he too will present the charges against an individual if the case is taken to the Magistrate. A Vingtenier is a member of the Honorary Police elected by a Parish Assembly of electors and ratepayers for a term of three years for a particular vingtaine in that Parish. Vingteniers, who occupy a rank below that of Centenier in the Honorary Police, carry out general community policing in the parish, fulfill administrative roles within their vingtaine in respect of tasks such as the Visite du Branchage.
The office of Vingtenier may date back to 1331, although the first recorded reference to the title of vingtenier dates to 1462. The political system of Sark, modelled after Jersey's in 1579 includes a Vingtenier. In Sark the sole Vingtenier is elected by Chief Pleas as junior to the Constable. Constable's Officers are the lowest rank of the elected police officers, collectively known as the Honorary Police who represent a Vingtaine in a Parish of Jersey. Constables Officers do not have to live within that Vingtaine but must live within the parish at the time of their election. If they move in the interim they are allowed to complete their term of office, they assist both the Vingteniers of the Parish with general policing matters. The tasks are varied and can include the following: provide foot and mobile patrols, perform speed and road checks, perform premises licence and curfew checks, assisting in searches for Missing Persons, assist policing major events, Centeniers perform Parish Hall Enquiries, assist and co-operate with the States of Jersey Police and with other Parishes’ Honorary Police in the policing of Island Events or as needed or requested.
Centeniers and Vingteniers assist their Parishes with the Visite du Branchage twice yearly and the Visite Royale which happens once every six years. Duty is performed for a week on a rota basis; the different Parishes differ in their specific arrangements, all parishes hold a monthly meeting that their Connétable must attend. Centeniers and Constables Officers are members of the Honorary Police Association. A Chef de Police is appointed in each Parish from the Centeniers of that Parish and is responsible to the Connétable for the operational policing of the Parish; the Chef de Police of every Parish is a member of the Comité des Chefs de Police and it is the role of the Comité to seek to strengthen and uphold the Honorary Police by fostering and maintaining the unity of its members.
States of Guernsey Police Service
The States of Guernsey Police Service, known as the Guernsey Police, is the police service for the Bailiwick of Guernsey, a jurisdictional sub-group of Crown Dependencies within the Channel Islands. The service's enforcement jurisdiction extends across the entire bailiwick and encompasses the Islands of Guernsey, Alderney and Sark. In common with many communities, a historical development of parish constables formed the system of law enforcement for many centuries. In the 19th century, the people of Guernsey complained that this system was inadequate for a growing population, a professional police force was demanded; the parish constables retained their historic role, but from 1853 uniformed assistant constables were appointed. There were four of them, with a uniform hat and belt worn over their civilian clothing, they provided full-time policing, under the authority of the elected parish constables. The current police force was formed following approval by the States of Deliberation in March 1915, consisting of an inspector, two sergeants, two corporals and eleven constables.
During the five year German occupation of the Channel Islands the police had a difficult time whilst working alongside the German military police and the Feldgendarmerie. In 1945 the force resumed its normal role and is now expanded, as of 2015 it had 147 officers; these are supported by 79 civilian staff, who work in roles where warranted officers are not required. From March 2015, emergency calls for all emergency services in Guernsey have been routed through the Joint Emergency Services Control Centre, linking police, fire and coastguard services. In late January 2019, Guernsey Police led the investigation into the high-profile disappearance of Argentinian footballer Emiliano Sala, whose aircraft had last made radar contact near Alderney; the force is headed by a chief officer, with a deputy chief officer as second in command and a superintendent as third in command. The current chief officer of the Guernsey Police is Ruari Hardy, the deputy chief officer is Nigel Taylor and the superintendent is Philip Breban.
Each of the four branches within the Guernsey Police is headed by a chief inspector. Significant units within these four divisions include the commercial fraud department, the explosive ordnance disposal unit and the police dog section. Guernsey Police has a system of special constables, with three distinct types of volunteer officer, known as'A','B', or'C' division of the special constabulary.'A' division special constables are full-time employees of third party agencies who are granted limited police powers within their workplace, to provide a first response whilst professional police officers are travelling to an incident. They are deployed in tandem with professional colleagues at large scale public events, during weekend periods.'C' division special constables carry out the duties of a traffic warden, but have certain police powers in respect of traffic control, for example around school areas at peak times. On 12 January 1940 Sergeant Charles Le Lievre was awarded the King's Police Medal for gallantry in relation to an assault on 9th June 1939.
On 11 December 1945, Mr A Lamy was awarded the British Empire Medal for services rendered during the Occupation. On 1 January 1957 the Queen's Police Medal was awarded to the Chief Officer Mr A Lamy The British Empire Medal was awarded to Sergeant Noel Trotter in connection with the rescue of a boy who fell over a cliff on 4 August 1956. Official website
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. It is bordered to the north by Spain; the landscape is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar at the foot of, a densely populated town area, home to over 30,000 people Gibraltarians. In 1704, Anglo-Dutch forces captured Gibraltar from Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of the Habsburg claim to the Spanish throne; the territory was ceded to Great Britain in perpetuity under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. During World War II it was an important base for the Royal Navy as it controlled the entrance and exit to the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar, only 8 miles wide at this naval choke point, it remains strategically important. Today Gibraltar's economy is based on tourism, online gambling, financial services and cargo ship refuelling; the sovereignty of Gibraltar is a point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations because Spain asserts a claim to the territory. Gibraltarians rejected proposals for Spanish sovereignty in a 1967 referendum and, in a 2002 referendum, the idea of shared sovereignty was rejected.
Evidence of Neanderthal habitation in Gibraltar from around 50,000 years ago has been discovered at Gorham's Cave. The caves of Gibraltar continued to be used by Homo sapiens after the final extinction of the Neanderthals. Stone tools, ancient hearths and animal bones dating from around 40,000 years ago to about 5,000 years ago have been found in deposits left in Gorham's Cave. Numerous potsherds dating from the Neolithic period have been found in Gibraltar's caves of types typical of the Almerian culture found elsewhere in Andalusia around the town of Almería, from which it takes its name. There is little evidence of habitation in the Bronze Age, when people had stopped living in caves. During ancient times, Gibraltar was regarded by the peoples of the Mediterranean as a place of religious and symbolic importance; the Phoenicians were present for several centuries since around 950 BC using Gorham's Cave as a shrine to the genius loci, as did the Carthaginians and Romans after them. Gibraltar was known as Mons Calpe, a name of Phoenician origin.
Mons Calpe was considered by the ancient Greeks and Romans as one of the Pillars of Hercules, after the Greek legend of the creation of the Strait of Gibraltar by Heracles. There is no known archaeological evidence of permanent settlements from the ancient period, they settled at the head of the bay in. The town of Carteia, near the location of the modern Spanish town of San Roque, was founded by the Phoenicians around 950 BC on the site of an early settlement of the native Turdetani people. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, Gibraltar came under the control of the Vandals, who crossed into Africa at the invitation of Boniface, the Count of the territory; the area formed part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania for 300 years, from 414 until 711 AD. Following a raid in 710, a predominantly Berber army under the command of Tariq ibn Ziyad crossed from North Africa in April 711 and landed somewhere in the vicinity of Gibraltar. Tariq's expedition led to the Islamic conquest of most of the Iberian peninsula.
Mons Calpe was renamed the Mount of Tariq, subsequently corrupted into Gibraltar. In 1160 the Almohad Sultan Abd al-Mu'min ordered that a permanent settlement, including a castle, be built, it received the name of Medinat al-Fath. The Tower of Homage of the Moorish Castle remains standing today. From 1274 onwards, the town was fought over and captured by the Nasrids of Granada, the Marinids of Morocco and the kings of Castile. In 1462 Gibraltar was captured by 1st Duke of Medina Sidonia. After the conquest, Henry IV of Castile assumed the additional title of King of Gibraltar, establishing it as part of the comarca of the Campo Llano de Gibraltar. Six years Gibraltar was restored to the Duke of Medina Sidonia, who sold it in 1474 to a group of 4350 conversos from Cordova and Seville and in exchange for maintaining the garrison of the town for two years, after which time they were expelled, returning to their home towns or moving on to other parts of Spain. In 1501 Gibraltar passed back to the Spanish Crown, Isabella I of Castile issued a Royal Warrant granting Gibraltar the coat of arms that it still uses.
In 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession, a combined Anglo-Dutch fleet, representing the Grand Alliance, captured the town of Gibraltar on behalf of the Archduke Charles of Austria in his campaign to become King of Spain. Subsequently most of the population left the town with many settling nearby; as the Alliance's campaign faltered, the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht was negotiated, which ceded control of Gibraltar to Britain to secure Britain's withdrawal from the war. Unsuccessful attempts by Spanish monarchs to regain Gibraltar were made with the siege of 1727 and again with the Great Siege of Gibraltar, during the American War of Independence. Gibraltar became a key base for the Royal Navy and played an important role prior to the Battle of Trafalgar and during the Crimean War of 1854–56, because of its strategic location. In the 18th century, the peacetime military garrison fluctuated in numbers from a minimum of 1,100 to a maximum of 5,000; the first half of the 19th century saw a significant increase of population to more t